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There are over one million businesses in India. They all have to arrange for the smooth flow of goods and services among other businesses and the Indian consumers, as well as among other businesses and consumers worldwide. While all businesses have logistics requirements, manufacturing, wholesaling and retailing are the most logistics-intensive sectors. Together they employ half of the work force, and they are the largest customers of firms that provide logistics services logistics The prospects for logistics are very strong, with demand being fueled by two leading trends: the increasing importance of logistics and supply chain management in overall business strategies, and the increasing acceptance of outsourcing as a business practice. Earlier reports pointed out that logistics continued to attract a low client in India. This industry has suffered from inadequate infrastructure problems, complex tax laws, and insufficient technological aids. Fragmented nature of the domestic industry could be reason for it as there are number of players offering only one or two services out of several products comprising transportation, warehousing, freight forwarding, shipping services. Weak transport infrastructure is holding back the development of the logistics industry, and thereby acts as a road block to the progress of this sector. The poor infrastructure facilities such as road, regulatory system, unorganized warehouses has always Hampered the growth and smooth functioning of the supply chain system. Also was the problem of congestion in Indian ports and airports of handling volumes higher than their full capacity. But now the Logistics industry is poised to grow as new companies are increasingly opting to out source their logistics requirement to specialize service providers.
India is already a heavy weight globally in the service sectors. Logistics industry makes up 10% to 20% of the GDP. India’s container trade has been growing at around 15% over past five year which means logistics service will be growing at a multiple rate, probably around 20% per year. Logistics industry is poised for a significant growth in coming years As new companies, especially in the automotive, pharmaceutical, manufacturing, and FMCG sectors are increasingly opting to out source their logistics requirements to specialized service providers. Now the logistics industry is expected to grow in high double digits rates for both outsourced and domestic logistics in India. Previously, the condition for logistics condition in India was not that great. India was a disorganized market and nothing can be predicted. Logistics industry predicts the double digit growth rates,with GDP growing at over 9% per year and the manufacturing sector enjoying good growth, The Indian logistics industry is an inflection point and is expected to reach a market size of over $125 bn in year 2010. With collective economic interaction of growing per capita disposable income, fast growing manufacturing and retailing sectors ,increasing merchandise trade, infrastructure investment by the government, both Indian Logistic and 3PL sector of this market is set to witness explosive growth. To avoid congestion at ports and airport terminal expansion of port and terminal is taking place to avoid congestion. India spends on logistics activities equivalent to 13% of its GDP which is higher than that of the developed nations. The key reason for this is the relatively higher level of inefficiencies in the system with lower average trucking speed , higher turn around time and high cost of administrative delays.
LOGISTICS IS DIVERSIFIED INTO DIFFERENT AREAS:
Transportation Warehousing Inventory mgt. Packing and unitisation Information and communication
A complete logistics take place when all these diversifications of logistics are worked upon with proper planning and management. Logistic companies are committed to fulfill the commitment made by their service user to fulfill the commitment made by them to their consumer/client. The logical starting point is to understand how logistical competency contribution to marketing performance. Firm guided by marketing opportunity view strategy, customer requirement as the motivational behind all activities. The objectives of market initiates is to penetrate specific market and generate profitability transaction. The marketing concept advocates the identification of specific customer needs and then responds to those specific needs by focusing available resource to uniquely satisfy those customer requirements. The impact of logistics on customer need not be passive. Alternative method of delivery is available to achieve significant different level of inventory availability and lead time is desired through the supply chain. Logistics competency is a tangible way to attract customer that place premium on time and place related performance.
WORKING OF INTERNATONAL FREIGHT FORWARDING
INTERNATIONAL FREIGHT FORWARDING can takes place through air and ocean.Understanding of both is necessary aspect to make your process efficient.
First we look at forwarding of cargo through Air:
IN CASE OF EXPORT:1. QUOTATIONS: - provided by the shipping company to the customer (exporter) to form clarity between customer/shipper/ exporter on the rates that will be charged by the shipping firm on the exporter on the export of goods. This is the
Packing list. AIRWAY BILL PREPARED: . MOVEMENT OF GOODS TO CUSTOMS: . General invoice b. DOCUMENT RECEIVING: .After the cargo being received the good is then booked with Airline 3. BOOKING WITH AIRLINE:. 2. The airway bill set is provided by the airline.first step taken by shipping company to attract a client. The Exporter will then bring the Goods and unload it in shipping company Warehouse e also brings in the Gate pass/delivery challan on which he takes the receipt from shipping company. CARGO RECEIVING: . nature of goods etc.After the cargo is booked in airline airway bill is prepared by the shipping agent. Some documents are required by the customs on the benefits claimed by the exporter. *These documents give a clear idea to the shipper on the quantity a) Total price. Document required by customs are :a.once the air way bill is prepared the goods is being forwarded to customs for clearance.On getting the conformation from the exporter the shipping company ask for documents from the exporter such as invoice. packing list*. 2.after the documents have been received from the Exporter then the Shipper asks the exporter to release the goods. 4. 4 . it differs from shipper to shipper. 1. The number of copies is different with different airline. Opening up of docket and issue job number. 3. If the customer (Exporter) finds the Offer reasonable by the shipper he confirms to do business.
(Excluding shipper and agents copy) b. If the buyer finds the rate reasonable he gives the shipper the approval to coordinate with his agent abroad and ship the goods. 6. QUOTATIONS -: Given to buyer on request presenting necessary charges and rates for getting the cargo cleared from custom and responsibility of obtaining the cargo from Airport Authority.a follow up process given to the agent at the receiving end. which continues till the consignment. *The shipper copy will go to the exporter and the agents copy will be retained by shipping company.getting the good cleared and handing over the Goods to the buyer on payment by him certain chargers. BILLING: .shipment charges charged to the shipper/exporter when the have been handed over to airline the charges are charged to shipper.(for airline and consignee) d. PRE ALERT: . is delivered.once the goods get cleared from customs the cargo is then handed over to airline with following documents:a. 5 . AS A CUSTOM CLEARING AGENT--: here in this condition the shipping company is sole responsible for getting the goods cleared for filing bill of entry.5. Commercial invoice and packing list. HAND OVER THE GOODS TO AIRLINE: . IN CASE OF IMPORT: In case of Import shipping company has 2 cases: 1. Security declaration signed and stamped by shipping company c. IN THIS CASE THE SHIPPER IS NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR FILING BILL OF ENTRY and get the goods custom cleared he just releases the document to the agent of consignee. Airway bill copy for the consignee. Completed air way bill set. 7. good IMPORT PRICES 1. 2.
3. COORDINATE with your agent abroad and ask him to coordinate with the supplier and send the consignment. it contains all the information about the shipment by agent such as container number. QUOTATIONS -: The first step under which the freight forwarding Firm prepare rates sends it to the exporters for there approval whether he wants to do the business or not. COLLECT DOCUMENT AND DELIVERY REPORT FROM AIRLINE OFFICE -: a. FOLLOW UP WITH AIRLINES -: Track and trace the consignment. 6 . PRE-ALERT -: if consignment booked pre alert given by the agent. When the consignment reaches the port of destination the shipping company collects the documents such as house airway bill etc and the delivery report to release the consignment from the airport.2. HABL No. 6. if the exporter is satisfied by the rates he ask the freight forwarding firm to open the job. ask the Air line when the consignment is going to reach. 4. 5. vessel number. 7. port of destination. EXPORT PROCESS OF CARGO THROUGH SEA 1. CARGO ARRIVAL NOTICE (CAN) TO THE CONSIGNEE –: When the cargo is received then arrival notice is sent to the buyer. MABL No etc. BILL OF ENTRY FILING FOR CUSTOM CLEARANCE -: if the buyer doesn’t have any other agent he asks the shipping agent to get the goods Clear from customs and file bill of entry and if the buyer has any other agent for custom clearance buyer just pays the charges of shipment and gets the shipment documents transferred to his agent.
4. Packing list c. RECEIVE THE GOODS -: once we get shipping bill number from customs the forwarder asks the exporter to send the goods to ICD/PORT. In this condition the whole container belongs to the exporter. in this the condition the forwarding company hires the full container (either 20 feet or 40 feet) according to the quantity.when the goods exported by a exporter is not sufficient and the container is not fully loaded (less container load) then the freight forwarding company approaches other exporter to load the container. Invoice b. Checklist etc. RECEIVING THE DOCUMENTS -: once the forwarding firm opens the job He asks the exporter to send the documents. A CONTAINER BOOKING IS DONE IN TWO WAYS -: I) FCL -: full container load. there is single shipper and single consignee. FILING OF DOCUMENTS IN CUSTOMS -: after receiving the documents from Exporter. • Before receiving the goods it is made clear from the exporter what Quantity of goods they want to ship so as according to the quantity the Containers can be booked. Documents are-: a. Factory Stuffing -: Clients ask to send the rail to there factory so that they can ship the goods in their own factory for shipping known as factory stuffing. II) LCL -: less container load is just apposite to FCL in which there is multiple shipper and multiple consignee. 3. This work is generally carried on by co-loader who arranges different shipper for different consignee and helps to convert less than container load to full container load.2. Some time concor 7 . we file the documents in custom to earn shipping bill which is required at the time of customs clearance of goods.
Exporters copy iii. ii. the custom finds the goods and documents positive it provides custom Seal/line seal. Exchange control copy ii. Custom clearance -: under this customs examines the goods and documents. Certificate of origin If. TR 1 ii. Invoice.corporation also charges Money to the exporters for not returning the containers after a stipulated period of time. gives report on the examination of goods attested by the Custom office. SDF form iv. Documents presented to customs -: i. After receiving the goods it is then unloaded in Concor warehouse or Central warehousing corporation. Copy of any schemes if any (e. 5. TR 2 8 . Fumigation certificate (if hazardous or dangerous goods) v. Exporters promotion copy v.g. Then the customs releases the goods on receiving the billing charges of Custom clearance. DEPB cop) Stuffing of goods -: after getting the goods customs cleared the stuffing order is given to stuff the goods in container on the presentation of following document-: i. Packing list iii. Receiving /offloading the goods in Concor warehouse/Central Ware Housing Corporation. With the goods customs also releases some DOCUMENTS AS-: i. Checklist list iv.
ii.6. Billing done and pre alert given to the consignee/agent abroad.Pre alert in form of scan copy of MBL/HBL. Loaded on plant vessel -: goods are finally loaded on plant vessel for their final Shipment to the port of destination. container number etc. IMPORT PROCESS THROUGH SEA • QUOTATION -: Preparation of quotation given to buyer on Request presenting necessary Charges and rates for getting the cargo cleared from custom and responsibility of obtaining the cargo. 8. Railed out to port -: once the goods get stuffed in container it is then railed out to Sea port through railways. At times Local IGM Is also filed to release the shipment from dry port and to be handed over to the consignee. 7. Filing bill of entry -: bill of entry filed by the forwarder or by the agent or of the consignee and get the goods custom cleared 9 . If the buyer finds the rate reasonable he gives the shipper the approval to coordinate with his agent abroad and ship the goods. vessel number. i. Submit the document in gateway ports to file IGM Documents submitted are: o MBL o HBL IGM is filed in the gateway port to release the shipment from port and to be railed out to dry port or its destination. • PRE ALERT -: Pre alert received from the agent abroad about the Goods shipped .
3. Promotion of the of the product Keeping this is in mind the firm should charge the prices for these services According to the competition and market size. 10 .D. Make the delivery -: delivery of goods to consignee. 1.• DELIVERY ORDER FROM THE SHIPPING LINE -: after filing the bill of entry we take the D. 2. So for this the prices for the services should be well planned so that it attracts exporters/importers to do business. Below are the charges that a logistics firm charges exporters/importers for supplying goods from one point of origin to another point of discharge .O to the actual consignee on payment done by the consignee. ISSUE D. MAKING AND PREPARATION OF QUOTATIONS As it is said efficient running of the firm depends upon A.O from the shipping line by paying all his Ocean Freight Charges. Product quality and C. Once the payment received delivery of goods done to the consignee Payment in case of import always done and received through D. Price of the product B.
Agency Cost 2.CHARGES OF QUOTATION PRESENTED TO CUSTOMERS 1. Transportation charges 7. And in spite of ocean freight Air freight is charged. Ware House Charge. Ocean Freight Charges * In case of sending the consignment through Air same quotation is presented to the exporters/importers by only excluding the Inland haulage charges. Documentation Charges 3. Exporter’s Yellow pages: this book contains all the information about the exporters in the country. This database provides large coverage of exporters around the country who exports their product across the national boundary. This is the first step which a company follows before opening the job. 6. 8. Custom Charges 4. Free hand : in this kind customer are searched through a. Inland Haulage Charges to Sea port. 11 . This work of the marketing department acts a backbone support to the firm which hunts client and generate revenues. Measurement Charges 5. SEARCH FOR CUSTOMERS AND SALES An important aspect of every business is to attract customer and hit sales of the company so that it adds to the growth of the company. For a logistics firm point of view there are two ways of attracting clients: 1.
12 . c. Nomination: Another way of searching clients is through Nomination given by friends or relative about exporters. Through participating in trade shows: another important medium of attracting exporters directly and gaining his confidence. Trade directory: This is also same as yellow page which gives all information about the exporters. On the basis of reference received the freight forwarding Company approaches the exporters. In this kind of search logistic firm personally visit trade shows and attract the exporters directly by presenting there offers and service 2.b.
has dedicated and skilled employees which has helped PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. to establish itself as one of the leading freight forwarding and cargo handling agents in India. PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. in Market of freight handling and International commerce. Marine Consultancy. Since then the company has provided techno-commercial expertise to its clientele in the Shipping and allied industries. shipping is one of the very few All India based Freight Forwarding involved in all areas of supply chain management. COMPANY PROFILE PINKCITY LOGISTICS LIMITED was floated by a team of three people in 1994. Since.2. its beginning PINKCITY LOGISTICS Ltd. Sea or land for export of cargo to any worldwide destination and import cargo from anywhere around the globe. has also established a personal service providing team headed by its board of directors which has led to image building of PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. The main activities of the Company are:(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Dry Cargo and Tanker Chartering Brokers. Freight Forwarding The Company can provide services at all Indian ports through its following offices. Liner and Tramp Agency. known as a International freight forwarder for transport logistics by Air. transportation. Port Captaincy and Cargo Superintendence. with the view of providing comprehensive services under one banner. PINKCITY LOGISTICS Ltd. has grown into an International freight forwarding group encompassing numerous services with operational offices along with their partners along the world. PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. 13 .
The registered offices at Kanpur take care of the location at the western India and the Delhi office takes care of the Northern region. shipping transports bulk trade into and out of India. INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORTATION 14 . PINKCITY LOGISTICS Ltd.warehousing. Shortly both these firm are looking towards the joint entity to reckon with during the coming years to extend their global brand image BUSINESS OF PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. has close relationship with all major shipping lines and air lines so that they can offer best freight rates to their customers. customs agent. presently has 13 offices in India with their corporate offices at Bombay. TRANSPORTATION • • • • • Mode and service selection Carrier routing Vehicle scheduling By sea(export and import) By air(export and import) 2. IATA Agent and is also registered Multi model Transport operator. The main business of Pink City is freight forwarding and act as Custom House Agent by helping in custom clearance of export and import. with more reliable sources and efficient supply chain solutions offering real time visibility along the pipeline. PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. 1. The company after its starting its operations in the year 1994 has seen a steady growth over the last 16 years. The offices across India are strategically positioned to cover markets at the important port and ICDs. PINK CITY LOGISTICS Ltd. This forwarding company has good reliable network of overseas partners to support global logistics needs to customers with providing consolidation services through agency network. Key Business of Pink city logistics ltd.
PROTECTIVE PACKAGING DESIGNED FOR 6. CUSTOMER SERVICE COOPERATE WITH MARKETING IN • • • • • • Determining customer needs and wants for service Determining customer response to service Space determination Handling Storage Protection 4. CUSTOM CLEARANCE • • Export Import 7. MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL OF OPERATIONS 8. AIRPORT TO AIPORT AND DOOR TO DOOR SERVICE. WAREHOUSING 5.3. OFFICES OF PINK CITY IN INDIA 1) MUMBAI(CORPORATE OFFICE) 2) KANPUR(REGISTERED OFFICE) 3) AGRA 4) AURANGABAD 5) BHOPAL 6) GWALIOR 7) GHANDHIDHAM 8) INDOR 9) LUDHIANA 10) MUNDRA 11) NASIK 15 . EXPORT AND IMPORT CONSOLIDATIONS 9.
U.K 16 .12) NEW DELHI 13) NAGPUR OVERSEAS OFFICE HOUGTON REGIS.
MAJOR CLIENTS 17 .
FREIGHT SYSTEM 7. PANALPIA 6. UTI 9.MAJOR COMPANIES MAJOR INTERNATIONAL LOGISTICS FIRMS ARE: 1. TNT 5. SCHENKER INTERNATIONAL 8. JAMBUKSHI 4. WSA 5. DANZAS 3. LEMUIR 2. GEENA AND COMPANY 3. EXCEL 2. SEA SKIES 20 . BAX GLOBAL 4. EXPEDITORS 7. ALL CARGO 8. KUHNE & NAGEL MAJOR INDIAN LOGISTICS FIRMS ARE: 1. EMU 6.
trucks or railroads. His responsibilities included advice on all documentation and customs requirements in the country of destination. bill of lading and other documents required by the carrier or country of export. The latter are called Hafen(port) Spediteure (Port Forwarders). His 21 . Carrier types include waterborne vessels. airplanes. The FIATA short-hand description of the freight forwarder as the 'Architect of Transport' illustrates clearly the commercial position of the forwarder relative to his client.LITERATURE REVIEW FREIGHT FORWARDER A freight forwarder is a third party logistics provider. import. (see also Forwarding Agent). As a third party provider a forwarder dispatches shipments via asset-based carriers and books or otherwise arranges space for those shipments. they have the expertise that allows them to prepare and process the documentation and perform related activities pertaining to international shipments. was to arrange for the carriage of his customers' good by contracting with various carriers. or transshipment. or spediteur. The original function of the forwarder. In Europe there are forwarders that specialise in 'niche' areas such as Railfreight and collection and deliveries around a large port. Much of this information is now processed in a paperless environment. shipper's export declaration. Some of the typical information reviewed by a freight forwarder is the commercial invoice. A forwarder in some countries may sometimes deal only with domestic traffic and never handle international traffic. Freight forwarders typically arrange cargo movement to an international destination. Also referred to as international freight forwarders.
operate under a freight forwarder.K..S. Similarly. He still operates either with a corresponding agent overseas or with his own company branch-office. Some freight forwarders offer additional related services like export packing and case making. Freight forwarders in the UK consolidate various goods from different consignors into one full load for road transport to Europe. Australia In Australia most licensed Customs Clearance Agents (now more commonly referred to as Customs Brokers). the freight forwarder also acts as a carrier for part of a movement it can happen that in a single transaction the forwarder may be acting either as a carrier (principal) or as an agent for his customer. freight forwarders that handle air freight will frequently be accredited with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) as a cargo agent. a freight forwarder involved with international ocean shipping is licensed by the Federal Maritime Commission as an Ocean Transportation Intermediary. Ireland 22 .. In many instances. but many are members of the British International Freight Association (BIFA). FREIGHT FORWARDER ROLES IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES USA In the U. this is often known as groupage. UK In the U. freight forwarders are not licensed. The regulations regarding exporting untreated timber pallets and cases has got increasingly more strict and many for countries an exporter will be expected to provide a phytosanitary certificate or risk the expense of having their cargo fumigated. In modern times the forwarder still carries out those same responsibilities for his client.correspondent agent in far-away lands looked after his customers' interests and kept him informed about matters that would affect movement of goods.
the role of freight forwarders is strategically important. Nigeria Nigeria is a very large market dealing with import and export. Freight forwarding services guarantee that products will get to the proper destination by an agreed upon date. Freight forwarding services negotiate the best possible price to move the product along the most economical route by working out various bids and choosing the one that best balances speed.Even in smaller markets. such as Ireland. from air freighters and trucking companies. requirements and legalities. it acts as an intermediary between the client and various transportation services. though not initially as freight forwarding but as the means of transportation of both goods and services from one country to another. A freight forwarding service generally provides one or more estimates to the client along with advisement. Associations like the Irish International Freight Association and FIATA help maintain the professionalism of this industry through educational and representative roles. and in good condition. Following the methodology of their British forebears. The freight forwarding service utilizes established relationships with carriers of all kinds. Freight forwarding is a service used by companies that deal in international or multinational import and export. cost and reliability. 82% of manufactured products are exported. While the freight forwarder doesn't actually move the freight itself. International merchandise trade is worth €148 billion to the Irish economy. further highlighting the importance of the freight forwarders to a nations' economy. relieving what would otherwise be a formidable burden. agents were used to facilitate the transport of goods and services. to rail freighters and ocean liners. Considerations that effect price will range from origin 23 . Freight-forwarding in Nigeria has been in place since the exporting of groundnut as a cash crop since 1914. when necessary. A freight forwarding service handles the considerable logistics of this task for the client. Sending products from one international destination to another can involve a multitude of carriers. The FIATA Diploma in Freight Forwarding is an example of how this can be achieved.
Insurance and customs documentation and clearance are some examples. the freight is readied for shipping. FREIGHT FORWARDER An organization that collects shipments from a number of businesses and consolidates them into larger shipments for economies of scale. transport of potentially hazardous materials. A freight forwarder often also deals with route selection. Assuming the client accepts the forwarder's bid. risk assessment and management. such as refrigeration or. a freight forwarder can negotiate cheaper rates of transportation than the individual businesses and can pre book space to ensure a more rapid delivery schedule. price negotiation. and methods of international payment are also commonly provided to the client by the freight forwarding service. and is especially helpful when in-house resources are not versed in international shipping procedures. Warehousing. or bills of lading. The freight forwarding service then undertakes the responsibility of arranging the transport from point of origin to destination. A good freight forwarding service can save the client untold time and potential headaches while providing reliable transportation of products at competitive rates. As a consolidator. A freight forwarding service is an asset to almost any company dealing in international transportation of goods.and destination to special requirements. One of the many advantages of using freight forwarding is that it handles ancillary services that are a part of the international shipping business. for example. and documentation of distribution. and can act as a distribution agent for a business. 24 . By consolidating loads. a freight forwarding service might also provide Non-Vessel Operating Common Carrier (NVOCC) documentation.
Through our network of experienced professionals.L Consolidation. European Countries. Supply chain tracking systems. OUR SEA FREIGHT FORWARDING SERVICES INCLUDE: • • Door to Door delivery Custom brokerage L.L Consolidation. strong world shipping connections and extreme flexibility. 25 Sea Freight Forwarder • Warehousing Services. we leverage volumes smartly to deliver competitive sea transportation in every major trade lane between USA.With a complete range of Sea Freight Services. Order follow-up tracking systems.C.C. Distribution and delivery . We provide advice. Far East Countries and others. F. Our representatives stay close to your shipment from pick-up to delivery. Canada. Multi-Model Transport Operators. keeping you closely informed of its progress. we are able to specifically respond to whatever your shipping needs may be. Factory Stuffing. technical assistance and supervision in order to guarantee safe delivery of the cargo at the entire satisfaction of our clients.
Our services include : • • • • • • • Sea Freight Forwarding Air Freight Forwarding Cargo Warehousing Custom Clearance . We have the professionals and expertise knowledge to understand the dynamics of your business and the services to support your entire supply chain with integrated end-to-end solution from procurement and pick-up of raw materials to the delivery at your customers doorstep. OUR SERVICES We offer a comprehensive range of services that are customized to suit the needs and wants of our clients.Import/Export Cargo Consolidation Services Transportation Door to Door Delivery 26 . scope or complexity. MANAGEMENT PinkCity Logistics are being managed efficiently by a team of well experienced and professionally qualified personnel in their respective fields of activity. The understanding of our professionals of every aspect of logistics coupled with sophisticated technology work together to create a facility that provides innovative and unusual solutions. The company's management comprises of Directors and Managers who are having vast experience in shipping and allied activities. QUALITY We provide multidisciplinary and comprehensive professional services that enable our clients to succeed across a wide range of goals regardless of size. Infrastructure and Services Facilities at all sea ports and Dry Parts. cargo operations and general business management.
documentation and accounting matters and also who have gained experience working in prestigious shipping agency houses. We strive to meet each individual clients needs. The same people who contributed to our success will continue to dedicate themselves to ensure complete customer satisfaction. A state of the art computerized system and the flexibility of our knowledge staff. Through careful planning.• Multimodel Transport Services OUR TEAM We also have highly motivated and experience staff to handle the marketing Operations. Our staff is committed to giving our customers exceptional service standards. 27 .
you can count on us to get your freight where it's going . When your time-definite or hazardous goods demand extra care. anytime. we not only provide control on a worldwide basis but also allow customers to supplement and redistribute cargo. an Air Freight Forwarding company we can meet all your global transportation needs around the world by our best Air Freight Services.on time and intact.. we have the talented people backed by powerful information visibility tools to optimize carrier schedules and see your most important shipments move door-to-door almost anywhere in the world . Distribution and delivery. OUR AIR FREIGHT FORWARDING SERVICES INCLUDE: • • • • • • Door to door delivery to most world-wide locations Warehousing Services.on time. This approach reduces cycle time while assuring constant availability of product. refrigerated and hazardous materials. Through our integrated inventory management system.. We offer special warehousing facilities for containerized. World-wide Consolidation Qualified personnel for handling dangerous goods Option of carriers based on your cargo needs Project work & flight chartering We as a Cargo Warehousing Agents providing high level professional warehousing services and care that is the assurance of the safe arrival of your product anywhere.At. Whether you're flying a television to Tokyo or medical equipment to USA or Handicrafts supplies to Canada. PinkCity Logistics. 28 .
fostered by many years' experience. but also various processes such as custom clearance. We provide our clients with fine-tuned service in transportation. increase efficiency. cargo tracing and etc. Thus. We possess much knowledge in trading. We place our experts in trading procedures. The distribution related to trading is not only transportation and storage of commodities. import-export cargo forwarding is carried out utilizing land. warehousing. Warehouse space at the ICD's for storage of goods carted direct at these centres. Safe storage of goods. and offer optimum distribution to international businesses. sea and air as well as quick custom clearance work. CUSTOM CLEARANCE SERVICES INCLUDE: • • • • Custom Documentation Carting /Receiving goods Examination of shipment Handling of stuffing and de-stuffing at ports 29 . documentation. cut down valuable management time and offer great efficiency CUSTOM CLEARANCE . Control checks on entry & exit of goods. Helps our clients to reduce fixed overheads. authority procedures and banking.Cargo Warehousing Services Include : • • • • • Adequate insured private warehousing space. and custom clearance at company-owned import-export cargo handling facilities in major ports and airports in India. We save time and energy through integrated services that match user needs.IMPORT/EXPORT We can gather many types of intelligence not only in India but also among foreign countries. international transportation.
30 . dispatch & pick up. The array of our services comprises of : • • • Cargo marking facility round the clock.CARGO CONSOLIDATION SERVICES We also facilitate cargo consolidation (By Air/Sea) for our customers which includes the transportation of cargo to the stuffing point. Door to Door delivery of cargo. Cargo Consolidation Services Include: • • • • Transportation of cargo to the stuffing point Stuffing of cargo in container Custom process of shipping documents Use of Premium Air/Shipping Lines TRANSPORTATION We provide our customers the comfort of cargo transportation for delivery. stuffing of cargo in container. use of Premium Air / Shipping lines and we make sure that the cargo will reach at the respective destination well before the time given by our reputed customer. custom process of shipping documents. Transport of goods from port of discharge to hinterland destinations. We follow very carefully all the important shipping instructions given and take care of cargo by warehousing it until the shipment is physically effected.
• • • Engaged in multi-modal transport using various modes of transportation. we have been meeting our customers' air freight needs ever since our establishment with fast. efficient 31 . • Movement of Export & Import Containers by own trucking. At Cargo. Mumbai & licensed to carry out such activities. we handle all airfreight shipments in the most professional.DOOR TO DOOR DELIVERY • • • • • • Domestic cargo movement (Rail / Air) Cargo Pickup & Delivery round the clock Time bound guaranteed door delivery Warehousing & Distribution of cargo Priority booking with rail authorities & Air lines Domestic & International Air ticketing MULTIMODEL TRANSPORT SERVICES We can plan and execute multi modal service for all types of cargo especially complying with specific statutory requirement of the respective country. seamless and cost effective manner possible. AIR FREIGHT SERVICES From automobile components to electronic equipment to printed material. The company has its own multi-modal transport document (MTD). Registered as a multi-modal transport operator with the Director General of shipping. The Cargo with network of offices and agents throughout the world allow you the opportunity. which is used as a negotiable document and acceptable all over. timely. to coordinate airfreight shipments worldwide for the most safe. reliable and expeditious means possible. with one phone call. authorized by the concerned Ministry.
taking into account the variations in summer and winter timetables and the impact of size and weight restrictions will help you avoid unnecessary costs and delays in shipping your freight around the world. our most important tool is our personalized service. Our customer commitment is as strong as ever. We can meet all your global transportation needs around the world. just reckon on us. and give it the attention it deserves SERVICES FOR YOU: • • • • • Air Freight . Warehousing & Distribution. 32 . as it reaches your » freights to the designated place at the earliest. Automated Shipment Status Tracking. We provide Air Freight services based on your needs and your schedule. We will take great care in the proper transport of your product. We select the most appropriate carrier for your shipment that we gives you a head start over other air freight India companies. Our airportto-airport service is ideally suited to customers with a high volume of business requiring time-critical delivery.service and an on-time performance record that is second to none. Whether you're flying smallest to largest consignments to any part of the world. whatever it may be. We take a personal interest in every shipment we handle. For example.Direct & Consolidation Services. Multi-Modal Transport Operators. Custom Clearance & Forwarding. We provide expedited Air Freight Service to destinations around the world. Although we have a wide variety of services to offer.
» Dry or liquid bulk shipments » Refrigerated Services for living animals and perishable products. 33 . » Less-than-container-load (LCL) Consolidation. we are engaged with more than a dozen ocean carriers for trans-Pacific and trans-Atlantic service.door to door. » On-The-Spot/Factory Stuffing of Containers. We can ship FCL (full container load) or LCL (less than container load) shipments anywhere in the world . » Infrastructure & Services Facilities at all sea Ports and Dry Ports. Pink City customizes cargo management service programs that provide most costeffective usage of ocean container space are: » Custom Clearance & Forwarding. » Full-container-load (FCL) Consolidation. whether it is automobile or motorcycle shipping for individuals or shows.OCEAN FREIGHT SERVICES Our ocean carriers are available to meet the challenges and deadlines of your overseas shipping itinerary. » Multi-Modal Transport Operators. and you can choose from a large pool of weekly sailing options. You enjoy significant savings on landed costs. » Insurance and packing options » Customs warehousing » Automated documentation » Cargo tracking system » Communication facilities As an ocean transportation provider and ocean freight services India.
This has also helped us in providing more easy and prompt services. This helps us to ensure you the quality of services and Door to Door delivery around the World. while building a strong base overseas. allowing your purchasing and procurement department’s total control over inbound international freight. OVERSEAS AGENTS We have a wide network of Our Branches/ Associates Worldwide. And to make it possible. We are proud of our excellent reputation for handling time sensitive cargoes. Time & Delivery schedule is our main motto to keep our clients satisfy on every stage. Most of the suppliers & overseas clients know Shine Cargo because we specialize in handling all kinds of shipment including flat packing. (GOH) Garment on hangers. EXPERTISE We have gained immense expertise in numerous freight forwarding activities. we have commissioned some well trained and aggressive sales team in our company. To provide our customer a hassle free service. Expert Logistics provides coast-to-coast coverage.We offer a comprehensive import & export program. We keep our all clients updated with best prices. With partners strategically located throughout the world. We organize and manage sea freight shipments worldwide. We give proper attention to what our customers tell us. SALES & CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Customer satisfaction is our foremost aim. To make our customers happy we listen to their 34 . so that our clients can have all the information from one place. Backed by the latest computer technology and staffed by dedicated specialist staff. We give a lot of thought to the marketing programs aimed at customers. we have set up a separate department to handle the visa & quota related information.
better and faster to use. which handles the problems of the customers very smoothly. We try to resolve their problem within a given period. listening to customers has helped us to shape our services so they're easier. Over the years.complaints very carefully. 35 . To offer more & more good quality service. we have set up a customer care unit.
WE ARE PROUD MEMBERS / ASSOCIATES OF International Air Transportation Association International Federation of Freight Forwarders Association Air Cargo Agents Association of India The International Air Cargo Association International Freight Association 36 .
we are working on various aspects like process techniques. We understand that your freight needs to be shipped through a cargo company or freight brokerage that you can trust and we truly believe that is that company. we also aim to be an employer of choice in the industry. Experienced and well-trained staff are the foundation of our company. etc. but also foresees an even larger future growth. we also realise that "time is money". To achieve our main goal that is "customer satisfaction". We consider ourselves as the freight forwarding facilities in India. We feel that a quicker and more economical national shipping service is vital for the logistics business into the new millennium. quality circles. time management. therefore not only the quality. We also know what it takes to move your freight to your customer in a timely and efficient manner. We are committed to customer satisfaction.QUALITY INSPECTION Here at you will find all that makes your logistics business successful. Dedication to providing the best quality of shipping service available in our industry is our number one objective. Apart from this. This along with a high degree of satisfaction from our customers. Our employees have overwhelming desire to service our valued customers. We are totally committed to quality services with customer satisfaction. We have set-up a well defined quality control system to ensure reliable and trustworthy service. but the punctuality of the shipping service is also be provided in our industry. To improve on quality. we constantly scrutinize our available services and add on more services to make our customers completely satisfied. 37 . not only explains our current phenomenal growth. However. We emphasis on providing constant training to our employees on regular intervals. further enhancing the company's logistics expertise to meet customers' challenges. attracting and retaining high quality skilled people. process capability.
Our consolidation service offers the advantages of competitive freight rates. We have expertise in handling in hazardous. We make all arrangements for combining of goods at origin. We also offer volume shipment discounts. we can consolidate your vendor’s cargo into a full container for maximum container utilization. IMPORT CONSOLIDATION In addition to our LCL & FCL inbound services. We keep Track of constantly changing rules & regulations of the Customs. we have focused heavily on quality service to our customers. dangerous and odd dimensional cargo with very competitive rates. and we have never looked back. We are recognized and adopted widely in the shipping business for our quality management principles. charter and part charter rates for air movement of your cargo. We attribute our longstanding commitment to quality primarily to our dedicated employees. We Endeavour to offer value added Consolidation Services to our clients & are the major force to reckon within the industry. reduced risk of pilferage and reduced packing costs. We provide exceptional levels of customer service to clients all over the world. This also allows for pre-sorting. Also provides for logistics consultations.We owe our success to the dedicated and outstanding staff that we employ across the nation. Since our formation back in 1985. and separation of cargo at destination. according to destination and possible distribution options through our de-consolidation program. competitive insurance premiums. Rather than small shipments. 38 . Bank & Other Government department for our customers benefit. LCL shipments. who believed in providing customer service above and beyond that which could be reasonably expected. we also provide an import consolidation program for those consignees with multiple suppliers.
COMMUNICATION/TRACKING SYSTEM To offer value added service to you and your customers. and then load the freight on trucks to be sent to destinations in the India and abroad. which enables do our work in more fast and convenient manner. we have equipped our offices with high quality Communication/Tracking system. We offers end to end logistic solution irrespective of the place. as per the defined and agreed upon shipping guidelines. we will work closely with both you and your shipper to ensure that we maximize the container utilization.This means that you can enjoy the economic benefits of consolidated shipment. We consolidate multiple pieces of freight destined for the same locations at our cross-dock facility. We can save your time and money while systematizing your transportation and logistics program in the process. without the concerns of separating your goods at destination. This will help to effectively minimize your transportation costs. In coordination with our vendor management efforts. COMMUNICATION/TRACKING SYSTEM • • • • • • IFA Logitrack Traxon Traxon-mail Email Concor India Tel/Fax TOTAL LOGISTIC SOLUTION PROVIDER Whether it is residential shifting or commercial consignment. which 39 . We offer tailor made logistic services.
Our customer's trust in our capabilities prominently places us in the industry. For bulk manufacturers. we ensure total safety of consignments. safe and secured as well. Using superior methodologies. This also enables us to stand ahead in the industry from our industry competitors. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION For us customers are the most valuable. WAREHOUSING AND DISTRIBUTIONS We are one of the leading companies providing reliable distribution services to our clients that cover almost all destinations. To ensure effective services to our clients. buyers. while there is battery of trained staff to look after the client's needs. we offer competent warehousing facility. Our warehouse is having the latest inventory management and security system. More over. we follow following set of actions: • Entire clearance processes of pre-shipment • Consultation for most effective air and sea shipment • Timely action on client's business inquiries • Offering complete documentation • Timely delivery • Constant tracking of cargo during motion EXPORT FREIGHT BOOKING 40 . we guarantee complete satisfaction. exporters and traders. therefore we strive to exceed the customer's expectations.are not only cost effective but also.
We offer Export Freight Booking by sea through LCL/FCL/OPEN TOP / Flat Rack (ODC) / ISO TANK booking for entire sectors at competitive freight rates. we offer air cargo & courier booking of DGR Goods through FedEx / UPS / DHL under contract rates. Professional equipment. exhibitions and the like. shows. • Project Imports • Clearance under EPCG Scheme • Clearance for Bonded Warehousing & Ex-bonding • Clearance of New / Second Hand Machinery • ATA Carnet Cover (for import of Commercial samples. • Re-import for Repair/Reprocessing under Bond / BG (without paying Duty) INDUSTRIES WE SERVE 41 . We assist clearance of products in various Schemes such as: • Clearance under Advance License (Authorization) • Clearance under Merit / Duty Payment • Clearance under 100% EOU Scheme • Goods for presentation or use at trade fairs. In addition. We undertake clearance of products in various Schemes like: • Clearance under DBK S/Bill • Clarance under Free S/Bill • Clearance under 100% EOU Scheme • Clearance under Advance License • Clearance under DEPB Scheme • Clearance under EPCG Scheme • Re-Export Shipments • Clearance of Samples / Gift Items • Clearance of Un-accompanied Baggage IMPORT FREIGHT BOOKING We offer works shipment services from any destination under FOB term at most competitive cost.
Using our industry expertise. In this way. we offer complete logistic solutions that include importexport clearance & freight booking of any product. we are offering catering to the requirements of various industries. We are specialized in following products: EXPORT ITEMS: • Ready made Garments • Handicrafts • Carpets • Chemicals • Engineering Goods • Leather Goods • Sports Goods • Agro Commodities IMPORT ITEMS: • Yarns • Chemicals • Machineries • Tiles & Marbles • New & Second Hand Machinery • Light Fittings • Other Consumer Goods 42 .
43 . TRANSPORTATION We have developed associations with various transportation agencies for arranging Truck & Tempos Trailers for factory stuffing & de-stuffing. For providing effective training. For effective operations. we implement various training modules to train our personnel. Our vast facilities enable us to undertake any business order from the clients. We always move forward with changing times by incorporating the entire modern trends.INFRASTRUCTURE We have turned into a prominent logistic solutions provider. This is possible because of our state-of-the-art infrastructure. to accomplish the entire production targets well on time. TEAM We have employed dexterous professionals that assist us in each step of import & export procedures & government policies. we have our associate offices at prominent locations in India provided with a team of experts. Our workforce is focused towards the particular requirements of the organization.
gypsum. • Project cargo and heavy lift cargo may include items such as manufacturing equipment. factory components. A safe and secure way to secure Break bulk and freight in containers is by using Dunnage Bags. Break bulk cargo is typically material stacked on wooden pallets and lifted into and out of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The primary types are these: • • Automobiles are handled at many ports. and frozen meat and seafood. and which are not handled as individual pieces. are bulk cargoes. power equipment such as generators and wind 44 . such as salt. are usually defined as commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers. and Scrap metal. Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts and machinery components to shoes. oil. logs and wood chips. Alumina. grain. toys. Finland. There is a wide range of marine cargoes at seaport terminals operated. • Containers are the largest and fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide. tallow. • Bulk Cargoes.CARGO TYPES MARINE CARGO TYPES Container ship at Helsinki Port. for instance. the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. The volume of break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown.
The 45 . AIR CARGO Cargolux Boeing 747-400F with the nose loading door open Air cargo is commonly known as air freight. especially when carried in bulk or over long distances. but eventually manufacturers started designing aircraft for freight as well. Aircraft were first used for carrying mail as cargo in 1911. Under the right circumstances. wood and coal. Such very large aircraft also employ quick loading containers known as ULDs much like containerized cargo ships.It is located in front mismo of the aircraft the triangular shaped in front. freight transport by rail is more economic and energy efficient than by road. which were purpose built to be easily converted to a cargo aircraft. for airlift logistics needs of such operations. There are many firms which collect freight from a shipper and deliver it to the customer such as Nightfreight or UPS. military equipment or almost any other over sized or overweight cargo too big or too heavy to fit into a container. Trains are used as they can pull a large amount and generally have a direct route to the destination. Trains are also used for the transportation of steel. There are many commercial aircraft suitable for carrying cargo such as the Boeing 747 and the bigger An-124. FREIGHT TRAIN Trains are capable of transporting large numbers of containers which have come off the shipping ports.turbines. Most nations own and utilize large numbers of cargo aircraft such as the C-17 Globemaster III.
because of the environmental benefits that it would bring. rail transport is very energy efficient. and almost always travel in the carrier’s own packaging. express. How large the shipment is. be they full size semi trucks or smaller delivery vans. ranging from letters to houses to cargo containers. Service levels are variable. Rail freight is often subject to transshipment costs since it must be transferred from one mode to another in the chain. rail has lost much of the freight business to road transport. Retailers of all kinds rely upon delivery trucks. or similar items are usually classified as “household goods” (HHG). For this reason. Very small business or personal items like envelopes are considered “overnight express” or “express letter” shipments. Furniture. Items are usually organized into various shipment categories before they are transported. These shipments are rarely over a few kilos/pounds. How long the item for delivery will be in transit. Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. VAN OR TRUCK CARGO There are many firms which transport all types of cargo. Many governments are now trying to encourage more freight onto trains. 46 . art. • • Shipments are typically categorized as household goods.main disadvantage of rail freight is its lack of flexibility. both in terms of item size and quantity. these costs may dominate and practices such as containerization aim at minimizing these. i.e. as these require deliveries every day to keep the shelves stacked with goods for sale. a kettle could fit into the category 'household goods'. parcel. This is dependent on several factors: • The type of item being carried. A good example of road cargo is supermarket stock. These firms like Parcelforce or FedEx which deliver fast and sometimes same day deliverly services. and freight shipments.
Service levels are again variable.5 m (8 ft 2. LTL shipments are also often referred to as "motor freight" and the carriers involved are referred to as "motor carriers". Parcel shipments are always boxed. with no single piece of the shipment weighing more than about 70 kg (154 lb).4 in to 27 ft 10.5 to 8. The shipments are usually palletized. Unlike express or parcel. LTL shipments range from 50 to 7. air freight shipments typically need to move at 47 . and represents the majority of “freight” shipments and the majority of business-to-business (B2B) shipments.53 m) trailer is used the most. Larger items like small boxes are considered “parcel” or “ground” shipments. However. Beyond HHG.” LESS-THAN-TRUCKLOAD (LTL) FREIGHT “Less than truckload” (LTL) cargo is the first category of freight shipment. depending on the service options and prices chosen. sometimes in the shipper’s packaging and sometimes in carrier-provided packaging. as LTL carriers do not provide any packaging supplies or assistance.400 lb). The standard for city deliveries is usually 48 ft (14. Parcels represent the majority of business-to-consumer (B2C) shipments. crating or other substantial packaging may be required for LTL shipments in circumstances that require this criterion. and parcel shipments. express.15 m). and typically move via road and rail. going coast to coast in about four days depending on origin. but most “ground” shipments will move about 800 to 1. LTL shippers must provide their own packaging. Parcel shipments rarely travel by air.depending on the shipper’s choice. Long freight and/or large freight are subject to "extreme length" and "cubic capacity" surcharges. An envelope may go USA coast to USA coast overnight or it may take several days.53 to 16. The average single piece of LTL freight is 600 kg (1. Trailers used in LTL can range from 28 to 53 ft (8.100 kilometres (497 to 684 mi) per day.000 kg (110 to 15. and the majority of times they will be less than 2. movements are termed “freight shipments. “Air cargo” or “air freight” shipments are very similar to LTL shipments in terms of size and packaging requirements.323 lb) and the size of a standard pallet. However.6 in). In tight and residential environments the 28 ft (8. Express shipments almost always travel some distance by air. These shipments are rarely over 50 kg (110 lb). shrink-wrapped and packaged for a mixed-freight environment.63 m).
shipments larger than about 7.6 m (102. an LTL shipper may realize savings by utilizing a freight "broker." online marketplace.000 kg (33. “air” shipments don’t always actually move by air. TL shipments usually travel as the only shipment on a trailer and TL shipments usually deliver on exactly the same trailer as they are picked up on.S.000 kg (15.much faster speeds than 800 km or 497 mi per day. or other intermediary instead of contracting directly with a trucking company.15 m) long and 2.092 lb) of freight capacity. TL shipments usually receive a variety of surcharges very similar to those described for LTL shipments above. intermediaries typically receive 50% to 80% discounts from published rates. normally 48 ft (14. In ordinary circumstances. leaving about 20.63 m) or 53 ft (16. Often. items being shipped. given that it is more efficient and economical for a large shipment to have exclusive use of one larger trailer rather than share space on a smaller LTL trailer. and LTL shipments are always intermingled with other shipments on a single piece of equipment and are typically reloaded across multiple pieces of equipment during their transport. equipment type required. While shipments move faster than standard LTL. Truckload (TL) carriers usually charge a rate per kilometer or mile.000 kg (79.3 in) high (13 ft 6 in/4. The total weight of a loaded truck (tractor and trailer. While express. Brokers can shop the marketplace and obtain lower rates than most smaller shippers can directly. The rate varies depending on the distance.366 lb) in the U.7 m (8 ft 10. Similarly a load is limited to the space available in the trailer.4 in) wide and 2. Intermediaries are licensed by the DOT and have requirements to provide proof of insurance. where a small shipper may only be offered a 5% to 30% discount by the carrier.000 kg (44. long-haul equipment will weigh about 15.432 lb) are typically classified as “truckload” (TL). In the Less-than-Truckload (LTL) marketplace. 5-axle rig) cannot exceed 36. In the TL 48 . and service times required.11 m high over all). TRUCKLOAD (TL) FREIGHT In the United States of America.069 lb). geographic location of the delivery. parcel. Air shipments may be booked directly with the carriers or through brokers or online marketplace services.
market, there are thousands more small carriers than in the LTL market; so the use of transportation intermediaries or “brokers” is extremely common. Another cost-saving method is facilitating pickups or deliveries at the carrier’s terminals. By doing this, shippers avoid any accessorial fees that might normally be charged for liftgate, residential pickup/delivery, inside pickup/delivery or notifications/appointments. Carriers or intermediaries can provide shippers with the address and phone number for the closest shipping terminal to the origin and/or destination. Shipping experts optimize their service and costs by sampling rates from several carriers, brokers, and online marketplaces. When obtaining rates from different providers, shippers may find quite a wide range in the pricing offered. If a shipper uses a broker, freight forwarder, or other transportation intermediary, it is common for the shipper to receive a copy of the carrier's Federal Operating Authority. Freight brokers and intermediaries are also required by Federal Law to be licensed by the Federal Highway Administration. Experienced shippers avoid unlicensed brokers and forwarders; because if brokers are working outside the law by not having a Federal Operating License, the shipper has no protection in the event of a problem. Also shippers normally ask for a copy of the broker's insurance certificate and any specific insurance that applies to the shipment.
3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
“Methodology concerns the philosophical evaluation of investigative techniques and strategies employed within a discipline to manipulate data and acquire knowledge. The design of a methodology is a matter of strategy whereby the methods employed by a study are more or less effective and appropriate given the objectives, goals and circumstances of the research.” (…Romans 1949).
In other words it can be the method through which the research is to be done and what are reasons for choosing a particular method. It also includes the method of analysing the data and the sources of data collection. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: RESEARCH DESIGN “A research design is simply a framework or a plan for a study, used as a guide in collecting and analysing data” (….Churchill, 1995). A research design is an overall sketch or plan of the area of study. It is used in analysing and collecting data. It is like a plan to be followed in order to complete the study. A research design ensures that the study undertaken is relevant to the problem and will use economical actions. On the basis of the research objective the research can be divided into two categories that are: 1) Exploratory Research. 2) Conclusive Research. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH The exploratory research is undertaken generally when the problem is not clear. It helps the researcher to familiarise with the problem and generate the hypothesis to be tested. Exploratory research sometimes helps to decide the best research design, data collection method and selection of subjects, and sometimes it even concludes that the problem does not exist.
Exploratory research is quite informal relying on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and data, or qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, case studies, etc. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES Once the research problem has been identified and the objective of the research has been defined the next step in the process is the collection of the relevant data for the research purpose (Churchill). The data used in the research process could either be Primary Data & Secondary Data. PRIMARY DATA In this kind of research the data is collected directly by techniques such as Observation and Interview. The Observation technique includes Human techniques and Mechanical techniques. The interview method includes Mail interview, phone interview and the personal interview.
(Ghauri, Gronhaug, and Kristianslund, 1995, Research Methods in Business Studies, Pg 57, Prentice Hall)
SECONDARY DATA “Secondary data can provide a useful source from which to answer, or begin to answer, your research question.”
(Saunders et al, 2000, pg. 188)
The study at hand was mainly done with the help of the secondary data. The important sources of the data which contributed valuably to the study were the TEXTBOOK, ONLINE JOURNALS, EXPORT RELATED ARTICLES, INTERNET (WEB SITES) AND THE ELECTRONIC RESOURCES available. The data was collected for the purpose of showing the overview of the Indian exports and the changes in its pattern, the effect government policy implications and influence of trade liberalisation. The data was obtained from sources like Export Promotion Council, DGCIS, Government of India, Department of Commerce, COMTRADE, United Nations Statistics Division, etc.
Over and above this. SEA EXPORT CUSTOM CLEARANCE PROCEDURE Receipt Shipping Documents Scrutiny of Shipping Documents 52 Preparation of Shipping Bill Annexure . there is difference between the qualitative and the quantitative data in terms of secondary data.The secondary source of data played a vital role in providing the data for this dissertation.
Submission of Shipping Bill with custom for checklist For EDI shipments -receipt of Check list from Customs on the basis of information provided in Annexure Re-submit the checklist after scrutiny Carting of cargo at the CFS Day 2 Custom Examination by Custom Examiner Day 2 Let Export Order (LEO) by the Appraiser Day 2 Printout of S/Bill Hand over to Carrier for stuffing Confirm Container onboard O B/L release 53 .
Printout of Bill of Entry for payment of duty Duty to be paid 54 .AIR EXPORT CUSTOM CLEARANCE PROCEDURE Receipt Shipping Documents Scrutiny of Shipping Documents Preparation of Bill of Entry Submission of Bill of Entry with custom For EDI shipments -receipt of Check list from customs Re-submit the checklist after scrutiny Carting of cargo at the Airport W/H Audit of the value by the Customs Auditor Day 2 Audit done by the Asst. Commissioner Group asst. Commissioner License debiting incase of restricted item For EDI shipments .
Checks the draft requirements on a daily basis. Ensures maximum cargo is load ready on trailers.CARGO LOADING-UNLOADING PRIOR ARRIVAL OF THE VESSEL (LOADING): • • • • Checks on cargo readiness on a regular basis and informs the principal Works out a tentative stowage plan based on information received from the vessel. ON ARRIVAL OF VESSEL: • • • • • Liaises with the ships staff Discusses the stowage plan with the master / mate and finalises the same. Liaises with the shipper to expedite cargo and documentation readiness Liaises with the local agent / port on availability of an appropriate berth to ensure fast cargo operations. trailer loading at the yard Meets with the stevedores to ensure sufficient trailers etc are available At least once a day has a joint meeting with the shipper. 55 . forklifts (if required / available) and dunnage is alongside. and stevedores. DURING LOADING • • • • • Ensures cargo is being loaded according to finalised stowage plan. Reports on a regular basis to the principal. surveyors to discuss the precious and next days loading and make any changes to the stowage plan if necessary. • • • Constantly monitors the cargo operations and make any emergency changes in consultation with the ships staff if necessary. Inspects hatches for load readiness in consultation with the appointed surveyors. ships staff. Ensures enough loading gear. Constantly speeds up cargo feeding. viz slings. Constantly supervises stowage of cargo.
effective flow and storage of goods. Draws up a stowage plan. DISCHARGING: A similar operation as above but in the reverse.AFTER COMPLETION OF LOADING: • • • Ensures that the lashing is as per the vessels / surveyors requirements. services and related information from the point of origin to point of consumption in order to meet their requirements.It is an industry that provides total distribution solution to exporters/importers/distributors around the globe. If required advises the master / principal in remarking the mates receipts. 56 . Logistics is a supply chain process that plans. Apart from the above we also place our own on board supervisors to monitor the operations. implements and controls the efficient.
4. In crore) 14 20 24 22.GRAPHICAL DATA ANALYSIS GROWTH CHART ANNUAL TURNOVER OF PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. FROM FY 2003-2009: Years 2003 – 2004 2004 – 2005 2005 – 2006 2006 – 2007 2007 – 2008 2008 – 2009 (Rs.6 28 32 57 .
6000000. for six months was Rs. from April to September The sea export in the year 2007 for a period of six months was Rs. for the same period the export was Rs.Sea Export 3500000 3000000 2500000 2000000 1500000 1000000 500000 0 Apr07-Sep07 Apr08-Sep08 1228516 2320581 X CC 3267968 Sea Export Apr09-Sep09 • • • • • • • The above graph shows the sea export for the past three years for the period of six month. 58 . Using the trend analysis. 1220516 In the year 2008. The sea export has increased nearly at a rate of 90% and 50% for the year 2008 and 2009 respectively. 3267690 It shows a increasing trend in the sea export for the last three years. with a growth rate of more than 50% from the year 2009. 2320501 The sea export in the year 2009. the sea export for the year 2010 can be predicted to be more than Rs.
1472027 The sea export in the year 2009. Using the trend analysis. the sea export for the year 2010 can be predicted to be more than Rs. from April to September The Air export in the year 2007 for a period of six months was Rs. for six months was Rs. 3000000. 59 . for the same period the export was Rs. 1909465 It shows a increasing trend in the air export for the last three years. The Air export has increased at a rate of 300% and 25% for the year 2008 and 2009 respectively. 441210 In the year 2008. with a growth rate of more than 50% from the year 2009.Air Export 1909465 2000000 1800000 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 1472027 Air 441210 Export Apr07-Sep07 Apr08-Sep08 Apr09-Sep09 • • • • • • • The above graph shows the air export for the past three years for the period of six month.
for six months was Rs. the sea export for the year 2010 can be predicted to be more than Rs. 346083 The air import in the year 2009. Using the trend analysis.Air Import 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Apr07-Sep07 Apr08-Sep08 Apr09-Sep09 Air Import • • • • • • • The above graph shows the air import for the past three years for the period of six month. The Air import has increased nearly at a rate of 90% and 50% for the year 2008 and 2009 respectively. 121481 In the year 2008. 60 . 262458 It shows a increasing trend in the air import for the last three years. with a growth rate of more than 50% from the year 2009. from April of September The air import in the year 2007 for a period of six months was Rs. 6000000. for the same period the import was Rs.
300000. 87730 In the year 2008. The sea import has decreased nearly at a rate of 15% and has increased at a rate of 130% for the year 2008 and 2009 respectively. 178802 It shows a increasing trend in the sea import for the last three years. 76518 The sea import in the year 2009. from April to September The sea import in the year 2007 for a period of six months was Rs. for six months was Rs. the sea import for the year 2010 can be predicted to be more than Rs. 61 . with a growth rate of more than 75% from the year 2009.Sea Import 178802 180000 160000 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 0 Apr07-Sep07 Apr08-Sep08 Apr09-Sep09 87739 76518 Sea Import • • • • • • • The above graph shows the sea import for the past three years for the period of six month. for the same period the sea import was Rs. Using the trend analysis.
but handles 40% of the national road freight traffic by putting enormous pressure on highway infrastructure. 8. ports. The another key challenge for the logistics industry in India is that it is currently Hampered due to poor infrastructure facilities such as roads. 6. 9.it is expected that freight industry will grow at a CAGR of 9.34m km by the end of 2008. Establishments of new airports. 62 . Significant money being pumped into new and improved infrastructure. 5. Another strength for the Indian logistics firm are that strong growth enablers exist in India today in the form of over $ 300 bn worth of infrastructure investments . 2. Untidy warehouses and complex regulatory structures.5.5 tones of cargo in 2006-2007. India has the second largest road network. 7. 12. the aggregate lengths of roads in India increased from 0. The Indian economy is expected to grow at an average of 9% per annum during the period from 2007-2008 to 2011-12. An Indian rail network is one of the largest railway networks in the world with total 63.4m km in 1950 to 3.9% from 2008 to 2012 11. Dominance by disorganized market is one of the major weaknesses of this sector. retail and telecom will lead to increase market opportunities for providers of 3PL. capital goods. electronics. The Strength for the logistics firm in India is strong foreign (FDI) in automotive. 10. The average speed of commercials vehicles in India is around 20 miles per hour compared to 60 miles per hour in mature logistics market of Europe and USA. 3. introduction of VAT and development of organized retail and agri-processing industry. Infrastructure congestion in Indian ports handling volumes higher than their full capacity which results in delays of timely shipments of cargo. National highway form only 2% of the entire road network in India.FINDINGS 1.465 route km at the end of 2007-2008. Indian rail can handle total of 666. 4. terminal expansion are a great opportunity for India to enhance is supply chain management.
Terrorism and geographical terms can any time hamper and become a matter of concern for the logistics industry. 18. increase in merchandise trade will surely witness explosive growth in years to come. bharti airtel etc. Setting up of “investment commission” by India will cut barriers and create favorable investment climate. 15. surge in world oil prices. Introduction of VALUE ADDED TAXES is a supply chain boon. Another great opportunity for the Indian logistics firm is entrance of Retail giants such as wall mart.13. Implementation of vat will reduce transit time and associated paper works and will prove efficient for 3PL provider and their customers. 17. Developments of new technologies standardized data processing formats and new supply chain tools will open up new ways for management and storage of goods. With Implementation of VAT has removed number of state and central Government taxes which will likely enhance the efficiency of logistics industry in India. fast growing manufacturing sector. India soon to expand its national highway network supplemented by by an efficient rail cargo network.. 63 . 19. Weakening of US dollar. 16. lack of consumer confidence in west.. 14.
active in clearance of cargo to be economical in terms of Time. Lack of understanding business promotion requirements. Gateway ports. e. custom. Provides own transport facilities for import/export of cargo with their own trailers and delivery vans. c. One of the freight forwarding companies to provide consolidation services through agency networks. licensing authorities and shipping lines WEAKNESS Pink city logistics ltd. Own warehousing facility and licensed multi model operator to issues HBL for shipments world wide. Own licensed CHA to clear inbound and outbound consignments. d. but lacks in building special Airfreight agreements with airlines. Maintains good rapport and relation with all ports. b.6. The company has the IATA license. also has some weakness that the company should take care off so as to remove hindrances in their smooth functioning. c. b. SOME OF THEM ARE -: a. f. Has network in all major port. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTH: a. d. 64 . Equipped with latest communication techniques for fast and timely flow of information. h. Is a member of IATA to service air consignments. ICDs. now the era is of fierce competition and being just active will not work the firm has to be pro. Though the company has the warehousing facility but does not have any warehouse for Perishable Cargo. Though the company has CHA license it is not very pro-active in Clearance. g.
Significant money being pumped into new and improved infrastructure which creates lot of opportunities for logistics service provider. Company not very pro active in clearance due to which delays occur in Timely clearance and shipment of goods. Another great opportunity for the Indian logistics firm is entrance of Retail giants such as wall mart. b. THREAT: a. While my internship for two months in this organization I could see some issues and challenges faced by the organization MAIN ISSUES a. The Indian transport industry is unorganized and inefficient because of which the company faces the problem of timely availability of cargo for Shipment and timely delivery to there customers. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FACED BY ORGANIZATION No company is perfect or no company is there that does not have any issues. So in order to capture the market and increase the customer base they should charge the possible rates. b..OPPURTUNITY: a.. RATES – As the era now is filled up with competition and there are number of forwarding company offering best to there customers. b. Terrorism and geographical terms can any time hamper and become a matter of concern for the logistics industry. 65 . c. fast growing manufacturing sector. d. The another major issue faced is company doesn’t have any warehouse for perishable goods because of which it loses it customer who wants to supply perishable cargo. bharti airtel etc. increase in merchandise trade will surely witness explosive growth in years to come. One of the biggest threat to freight forwarding company’s is airline company contacting directly there customer booking of shipments.
The tax rate keeps on changing which is also a major issue for any company. f. but lacks in building special air freight agreements with airlines. 66 .e. Another major issue for the firm is that company has the IATA license.
they should identify their resources and then plan what they can do to keep themselves satisfied as well as there customers. after studying all the necessary aspects about logistics industry and after doing my summers internship in PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. So they are required to establish or attract more Business connectivity to untapped countries where PinkCity doesn’t have any partner. RECOMMENDATIONS According to my study it was found that India container trade is growing. so to satisfy the customers and maintain a long lasting Business relationship with the company in this fierce competition and keep on satisfying there customers in maintaining and sustaining Competition. to make it presence felt and to optimize performance it must operate in coordinated manner.7. 3. 67 . huge amount is being pumped in Indian manufacturing. automotive and retail sector which means the logistics service will be growing at a multiple rate. 2. and will demand significant opportunities for the logistics industry and will play a important role in world economic trade. 4. Logistics is the department where the company is in direct contact with the customers hence the forwarding agent is the representative of the Company. A logistics provider should have the expertise and global connectivity to manage cargo from the time it leaves to delivery destination to customer location. for two months in operations and I have drawn some recommendation for the organization -: 1. So. Another important aspect PinkCity should keep in line is that it should match the service with there capabilities. Pinkcity logistics ltd.
to make it presence felt and to optimize performance it must operate in coordinated manner. automotive and retail sector which means the logistics service will be growing at a multiple rate. The business partner of Pinkcity also has dedicated customs clearing personnel in nearly in all 120 countries where it operates to assist with customer shipments. freight forwarding system used in an organization.. The main objective is to ensure that consignments are delivered safely with proper custom clearance and remain economical to its customers. India Container Trade is growing. It has all over the world from Australia.e. huge amount is being pumped in Indian manufacturing. warehouse and terminals which allows for rapid and efficient movement of shipments resulting in fast reliable and cost effective service to thousands of customer world wide. UK. A logistics provider should have the expertise and global connectivity to manage cargo from the time it leaves to delivery destination to customer location. custom clearance.8. Middle East. These advantages help in faster transit times. in operations and marketing and export and import procedure of cargo i. USA etc. gateways. 68 . Europe. effective tracking of shipments and simplified billing to customer. Far East. and will demand significant opportunities for the logistics industry and will play a important role in world economic trade. So they are required to establish or attract more Business connectivity to untapped countries where Pinkcity doesn’t have any partner. India is one of the fastest growing logistics market in the world and so is the PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. Pinkcity shipping also got associated with their global partner which was a great achievement on their part. It is also fast emerging freight forwarders in the country. CONCLUSIONS According to PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. This association provides uniform standard of services from and to these areas while executing jobs of varied nature keeping in mind the flexibility required due to ever changing demands. Pinkcity logistics ltd. Africa. The necessary aspects about logistics industry and in PINKCITY LOGISTICS LTD. Pinkcity now with its global partner operates in various hubs.
com 69 .com www.in www.nic.shipping. Tata Mc Graw Publication Khurana P.in www. Export management Cargo Talk Journal Times Shipping line journal WEBSITES • • • • • • www.googlesearchengine.export911.11. Logistical Management.logisticsworld.etshipping www.com www. K. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS / JOURNALS • • • • J Donald and J David Closs.cargotalk.
Shipping Bill Check List 5.ANNEXURE . ANNEXURE DOCUMENTS REQUIRED AT THE TIME OF FREIGHT FORWARDING AND CUSTOM CLEARANCE 1. Certificate of Origin 4. Airway Bill / Bill of Lading 6. Packing List 3. Delivery Order (At the time of import when good is being handed over to the actual importer) 7. Invoice 2.I 12. Factory De-stuffing Bond 70 .
FCL 8.O 11. LCL 9.II ABBREVEATIONS 1. CWC 13. RAILWAY RECEIPT INLAND WAY BILL INLAND HAULAGE CHARGE 4.ANNEXURE . RR 14. D. FDS 12. HABL 5. MBL 6. IWB 15. IHC -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------INDIAN CONTAINER DEPOT CONTAINER FREIGHT SYSTEMS HOUSE AIR WAY BILL MASTER AIRWAY BILL MASTER BILL OF LADING HOUSE BILL OF LADING FULL CONTAINER LOAD LESS CONTAINER LOAD IMPORT GENERAL MANIFESTATION DELIVERY ORDER FACTORY DE-STUFFING CENTRAL WARE HOUSING CORP. ICD 2. HBL 7. MABL -------------------- 71 . IGM 10. CFS 3.
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