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A W E L D I N G R E V I E W P U B L I S H E D B Y E S A B V O L. 5 7 N O.

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World Wide Welding

A welding review published by ESAB AB, Sweden No. 1, 2002

Articles in Svetsaren may be reproduced without permission but with
an acknowledgement to ESAB.
Bertil Pekkari
Lennart Lundberg
Editorial committee
Klas Weman, Lars-Göran Eriksson, Johnny Sundin, Johan Elvander, Lars-Erik Stridh,
Owe Mayer, Stan Ferree, Ben Altemühl, Manfred Funccius, Dave Meyer, Donna Terry.
ESAB AB, Box 8004, SE-402 77 Göteborg, Sweden
Internet address
E-mail: Repair & Maintenance.
Printed in Sweden by Geson Skandiatryckeriet, Kungsbacka

Contents Vol. 57 No. 1 2002

Tank construction in Saudi Arabia Modern cutting machines and techniques in
3 Building tank farms - the logistics of process
change, productivity, fabrication techniques
22 the shipbuilding industry
In addition to cutting, marking plays an
and distortion control as well as climate important role at shipyards. This paper
conditions are discussed in this article from describes different methods for marking as well
Saudi Arabia. as processors for the surface cleaning of primed
material and new Windows-based controllers.

Welding penstocks and coiled boxes for a
South Korea is today’s leading shipbuilding
10 nation
South Korea is in the top of the world’s
27 hydropower plant using ESAB flux-cored
An aggressive environment with a high-
shipbuilding league after a spectacular growth
temperature, high-humidity equatorial climate
over the past 30 years.
in the Amazon region in Brazil makes the
choice of welding process very important

Welding components for the petrochemical ESAB Automation North America
13 industry at Sirz Montaggi srl
Italian company Sirz Montaggi srl is
31 A new business unit within ESAB Canada will
sell and service automation equipment and
fabricating components for the petrochemical products throughout the USA, Mexico and
industry in different parts of the world Canada.

Stubends & Spatter ESAB in the automotive industry
16 Short news
33 ESAB developments within welding processes,
consumables, power sources, automation
equipment and robot interfaces pave the way
for the automotive industry

ESAB/Capitol Steel case study
20 With installation of new technology as a key
part of its philosophy the US Capitol Steel
company cuts labour costs and stays

Tank construction in Saudi
by Howard J. Hatt, Sen. M. Weld. I

Building tank farms with automated welding processes is
certainly not new or innovative, but it was to the fabricator
involved in the contract discussed in this article. The logistics
of process change, productivity, fabrication techniques and
distortion control are discussed, as well as the influence of the
extreme climatic conditions.

Tank contract
KHI has built small tanks on site previously, although
nothing on the scale of the current contract, which
involves the construction of four tanks 90 metres in
diameter and 20 metres in height. The contract was
awarded by the Royal Commission and this organisation
is responsible for the provision and construction of all
the civil amenities within the eastern province of the
kingdom. The steel construction projects are managed
within the commission by the consultants Bechtel, who
also act as the QA authority for the client at the site.
The tanks are for the drinking water authority and
are being built to expand the capacity of an existing
facility adjacent to the site, which is located in the
Figure 1. A general view of the site during the early stages industrial city of Jubail. Desalinated water from the
of construction which adequately shows the size of the tanks
Gulf is treated, stored and pumped by this facility to
and the number of welded joints involved.
the capital Riyadh, which has minimal natural water
Background Western or S-E Asian contractors are no longer
The contractor, Al-Khadari Heavy Industries (KHI), able to compete with local companies for this type of
based in Dammam, is active in a variety of multi-million- work, so, in this case, TTN of Japan supplied the designs
dollar activities which are fairly diverse and include and all the steelwork. The roof supports, floor plates
highway construction and street cleaning, as well as steel and shell plates arrive virtually in kit form, having
fabrication. The company is owned and managed by the been cut to size and, where appropriate, pre-rolled
Al Khadari brothers and was founded during the early with machined weld preparations, all to a high standard
1950s by their late father. It has grown progressively of accuracy.
ever since and entered the steel fabrication industry in To date, KHI’s experience of tank building has
1985 with the erection of the main fabrication complex, focused on MMA stick electrodes, a process which is
also in Dammam. This division is managed by Mr Ali still predominant in the Middle East. As with most
Al-Khadari, an energetic US-educated engineer, who is contracts of this size, completion dates have to be
dedicated to improving the scope and technical ability complied with and the imposition of penal clauses
of the company. The company was recently audited by adds to the incentive. There is insufficient labour with
Aramco (Arabian American Oil Co), which demands the required skills available locally, so personnel are
very high standards from its suppliers and their employ- recruited from agencies, usually in India, Pakistan and
ees, but ultimate accreditation will provide access to the Philippines. So the use of MMA on a contract of
a massive new market. this kind would be extremely labour intensive with low
svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 3

MMA would still be extensively employed on joints unsuited to automation and as a back-up where necessary to maintain the production schedule.00 E7018 FCAW OK Tubrod 15. The minimal spatter also simplifies preparation for adapted for a wide range of alternative applications. KHI had to review the options for of these electrodes in site conditions is more critical. OK Tubrod 15. 4 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . allowing it to be 15.14A E71T1 Figure 2. Procurement Ultimately. this is backed up by ESAB Middle East in Dubai.00 E6013 OK 48.14A has exceptional running has knowledgeable aftersales personnel and service characteristics and produces minimal spatter with CO2 engineers.14A. The local ESAB agent Medco good control of the molten weld metal and produce a carries large stocks of consumables and spare parts and flat profile. horizontal and overhead positions and has a pre-programmable memory which simplifies on-site operation. No other welding house in the region could offer such comprehensive support. An A2 Circotech machine welding the horizontal SAW OK 12. The only disadvantage is the varying capability. it was decided that investment in fully FCAW automatic welding equipment to weld all the joints on When high productivity is required for large volumes of each tank was not justified.utilised after completion is the rutile E71T1 flux-cored wire. all the OK 48. The equipment is capable of welding in the vertical. view of the latter and the high humidity. The use of fully automatic MIG/MAG with gas- shielded. flux-cored wire was the preferred option for the vertical joints to be provided by the ESAB Railtrac FWR1000 machine. In the introduction of higher productivity processes. The submerged arc process was selected for all the tank floors and circumferential joints on the shells and this was provided by the ESAB A2 Minitrac deck welders and the ESAB A2 Circotech single-sided girth welders with ESAB LAF1000 DC power sources. It can also be used for cutting when fitted with a suitable burning torch. especially in July/August. Welding consumables The consumables for all the welding processes were selected from the ESAB range as follows: Process Consumable AWS MMA OK 46.32 / OK Flux 10. as the equipment is profile produced by the Railtrac machine and OK Tubrod more versatile and infinitely portable. It will only operate in ESAB was chosen as the manufacturer from whom the spray transfer mode.71 EH12K joint between the second and third courses. This package was considered to be more cost effective than the more Figure 3. especially if the machines vertical-up welding. MMA The use of an E7018 MMA electrode was specified for the shell because basic low-hydrogen types produce high productivity and aggravated by a higher incidence of purity weld metal with more dependable mechanical defects. higher degree of welder skills required and the storage In this situation. which ensures high deposition to seek advice due to the vast product range and rates and produces a rapidly freezing slag to maintain experience available. the most cost-effective consumable were under. together with the ESAB LAW400 power sources and MEK4 wire feeders.00 was supplied in Vacpacs. especially in site conditions with welders of properties than rutile types. The Railtrac FW1000 machine is driven by the 40V auxiliary power supply from a MIG power source and an electronic interface permits the remote control of welding parameters. Vertically welded joint showing the flat and smooth productive electrogas process. painting. In addition.

which then qualified them for use on the minimum thickness of 10.32 and OK Flux 10.41 kg/m Weight of root pass = 0.5 metres designed with open gaps to allow full penetration from wide.71 therefore allows for greater flexibility with regard to the scope of applications and combines excellent weldability. Other procedures involved and radiographic examination.62.5 m = 9 hr 45 min = 3 hr 24 min Total saving by FCAW = 6 hr 20 min/per joint svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 5 . which was API 650. so procedures were submitted using both MMA and flux- cored wire. OK Flux 10. which means that 50 metres of None of the procedures required full mechanical vertical welding have to be completed on each. Capping passes of horizontal joint welded by 2 Welding procedures Circotech with OK 12.20 kg/m Weight of fill and cap = 1. Figure 4. was to be carried Productivity out with MMA in all cases. which is commercially beneficial.4. apparent.5 mm. as Ar-rich gases are very expensive in the region. the welder qualification tests.32 is a copper-coated solid wire which.3 kg/hr FCAW OK 15.5 mm up to The acceptance criteria were therefore based on visual the maximum of 32. which is lower than the fully basic OK Flux 10. This was not considered necessary. which has a basicity index of 3. V joint. produces a nominal all-weld metal UTS of 550 N/mm2.00 2. The flux is a basic agglomerated slightly alloying silicon and manganese type with a basicity index of 1. The butt joint procedures were all carried out on 22 mm plate. are required per course. however.shielding gas.71. Flexibility was required for the vertical joints. as the tanks joints are subjected to the lowest productivity the were to be built with ASTM A36 and ASTM A283 low welding position. The excellent All the welding procedures had to be pre-qualified in weld appearance and blending of the three passes is readily accordance with ASME IX and the tank design code.5 metres long and 2.14 A 1.5 mm@ 90 Amps = 0. weld appearance and slag release.00 3. The root pass.2 mm@ 190 Amps = 2. due to the joints being All the shell plates are 14. 20 plates one side.21 kg/m (Note: Joint volume includes 3 mm reinforcement. With a tank circumference of 282 metres.8 kg/hr OK 48. These testing. when used in combination with OK Flux 10.) Arc times MMA FCAW Root pass 15 min/m 15 min/m (mma) Fill and cap 56 min/m 26 min/m Total arc time 71 min/m 41 min/m Actual time @30% duty cycle 234 min/m@50% Duty Cycle 82 min/m or 3 hr 54 min or 1hr 22mins Actual time per joint @ 2. so a productivity comparison will be to medium tensile steels and were for the storage of made between MMA and FCAW on a 15 mm single water at relatively high ambient temperatures.0 mm@ 120 Amps = 1. which also applied to fillet and lap joints. SAW OK12.8 kg/hr Theoretical joint volume @ 180 cm/3 = 1. Productivity comparison Deposition rates MMA OK 48.71.6.

The result was a gap of 30 Annular ring mm between the two marks. Internal pressure from the tank contents is progressively The annular plate is 14. All the joints are of the lap type.5 mm thick. and the shell has been dimensionally checked for the accuracy of the circumference. the runs around the outside circumference of the concrete result would be catastrophic. the annular plate. The tank wall sections are 2. as the bottom course of the shell is 32.This ensures greater structural integrity where it is needed. A two-pass lap joint as applied to all floor joints and joints are not required. so the effect of even greater temperature activity involves putting in the concrete foundations. but dome up and recovery might involve the renewal of it is not welded to it until the third course is erected the entire floor. In this way. As an experiment.Tank construction which are more than adequate for the service conditions and require no expensive weld preparations. welded with OK Autrod 12. soil or. i. the initial the diameter. 6 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . in this and after the bottom shell plate has been welded to case.2 mm thick and the section reduced upwards as is the weight of the shell. clay. gradients can be readily appreciated. before Figure 5. As previously mentioned. which is only 9 mm. It is on this plate that the tank shell is built.e rock. any courses to complete the overall design height of 20 m.32 and OK Flux 10. The fully welded floor can also be seen. In fact. Floor area This is where welding commences in large volumes and the tanks in question require a large quantity of plates measuring 9 metres by 2. The affected area would base. A view of the annular plate segments on wich the the two had been welded. This was done at 1 pm shell is erected. At 6 pm. temperature was 80°C. This is to avoid distortion. In all. The inside the shell ultimately becomes an integral part of bottom course in this case is therefore thickest at 32. a check was made on the degree of expansion by placing a chalk mark at the junction of the annular plate and the tank floor. A method of this kind also simplifies production enormously as it allows greater tolerances with regard to fit-up. requiring eight the shell is still floating or free to move. the floor is only subjected to compressive loads and so through. is only under a compressive load from the tank contents as well as the roof and its supports. but is when the ambient temperature was 45°C and the plate not welded to the annular plate at this stage.5 m high.thickness butt Figure 6. as is the case with the majority of tank construction. The tank floor itself. It is for this reason The depth is specified in API 650 and will depend on that the welding of the annular ring to the floor is carried the dimensions and weight of the tank when full and out when the ambient temperature is at its highest on the type of ground. great reliance is placed on “dogs & wedges” for the positioning of plates.5 the tank floor. the weld lengths run into hundreds of metres. Steelwork commences with the laying and welding Should a large repair or the replacement of a of the steel segments that form the annular plate which complete floor plate be necessary for any reason. however. making a total of 60 mm on As with many similar construction projects. which can be exaggerated by the ambient temperatures that can exceed 45°C in July and 50°C in August. a second line was made at the same junction when the ambient temperature had gone down but only by 10°C. It is essential that welding of the tank floor is completed in a strict sequence from the middle outwards and even then every third longitudinal seam is left unwelded until completion of the others. Should any distortion Shell fabrication have occurred during the welding of the first two courses.71. sand. correction is more easily accomplished. as they are inexpensive to produce and can be re-used.5 metres to complete the floor area. hence the reduced plate thickness. which is why SAW was selected as the most productive and cost-effective alternative to MMA.

no problem. Since the tanks are 282 m in the caps. The control of distortion is also vital during shell fabrication. All the courses with 15 mm plate and below have single “V” preparations. A problem of this kind contravenes the design depth of back gouging on the inside. By in respect to the valley between the capping passes or attaching hand-winched steel guy ropes to the strong- excessive reinforcement. serving to reduce weld metal and the risk of distortion still further. This to bow out. In all cases. but a plate shipment delay put the project behind every day and the experience of the KHI personnel schedule.14A 1. Welding of the first circumferential joint with the At this point. It would have been most welding the circumferential seam above it. which is only 10 mm. FCAW was re-welding. which enables such management pressed to achieve this.0 mm OK 48. Figure 7. On subsequent code dimensionally and causes considerable difficulty filling passes. especially where MMA welding. but in the welding speed. so remedial beneficial to use automated FCAW on all the vertical action was essential. plus any arc air speed. especially with regard to the backs welded to the inside joints during the MMA subsequent painting. circumference. These complaints were principally welding. but additional precautions This had also resulted in complaints from the client were taken to avoid a repeat of the above problem. the included preparation angle is 45 degrees. KHI did not have a welding engineer ESAB A2 Circotech machines could now proceed. is rarely It was at this point that the author came into the picture the case. necessitating the use of MMA in order to solved the problem by removing the outside weld and rectify the situation.00 or with the Railtrac FWR1000 and OK Tubrod 15. The to assist them with the inevitable teething troubles operators had received training in Dammam and the associated with such an abrupt change of welding welding procedures were pre-qualified. With this in mind. welding head angle and to a lesser degree the gouging followed by more welding. it would take one machine eight hours So often an ESAB client has rejected a recom. was not without its problems. which was kept as low as practicable. with the automated OK Tubrod 15.5 mm plate was The use of MMA on the inside and FCAW on estimated at five passes but was completed in four by the outside. voltage control is vital to maintain each svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 7 . processes or to interpret the codes of welding practice. Weld deposit dimensions were controlled by welding The higher heat input from the MMA. The next stage was to weld all the vertical joints on because ASME rules dictate that maximum weaving the second course.14 A were extremely the welders had difficulty keeping the split beads flat and each successive course in made from thinner plate because it carries less weight than the previous one until the top. In all cases. however.00 is an E7018 type. for a change. still employing MMA on the inside should be three times the diameter of the electrode.00 and filling and capping were completed with either 3. however. and FCAW on the outside. however. all the lower and thicker plate courses have a double”V” weld preparation. Erection commences with the first two courses being tacked in position on the circumference and the vertical seams were clamped with dogs and wedges so as not to disturb the open gap. The joint was pulled back into line and was used on the outside seams due to the vastly superior a classic case of distortion being used to advantage weld appearance achievable with automatic oscillation. could cause the joint voltage. 48. a change to be made. excessive distortion was prevented. as welding in production brings difficulties that and the first change was to adopt full-width weaving of have not been foreseen. Experience has demonstrated that this. to complete one pass or four hours for two at average mendation because of a particular rule. Guy ropes attached to the strong backs which All the root passes were welded using 2. to the complete satisfaction of the client. thereby reducing the amount of weld metal to fill the joint and permitting a balanced welding technique to control the distortion. especially if a repair or two was required to the inside.5 mm OK serve to reduce distortion. and this did actually occur on one penetration into the 3 mm root face and reduce the occasion. Anything that could be done to reduce majority of cases a clause will eventually appear to the the number of passes would therefore be a bonus and effect “unless agreed by the client”. but how? You learn something joints. putting that section too far out of line with is especially important on the root pass to maximise the course above. The outside preparation in the 32. Initially. using the maximum amperage permitted by the PQR. as it is impractical to use double “V”. due to the restricted weave width.2 mm. Defects directed at the MMA – since OK48. the capping passes were split weaved.

a truly excellent surface appearance and of interest as they are also free to move to a certain flat profile can be achieved. red would be insufficient while yellow would probably A small weld deposit produced at high speed would be enough. The welding performance of a submerged are machine will only be as good as the preparation that Figure 8. The roof slopes up to the centre at an angle of 10 degrees and is supported Alternative equipment and processes by a systematic arrangement of RSJs. more weld metal would be required to fill that side with the risk of distortion. but these are welded on both sides. releasing slag. when they do electrode selected was OK46. but with sufficient space to permit maximum two-sided machine for single. due to the irregularities produced. This is aggravated by the fact Realistically.e. from the trailing head. if they were painted. are capable of higher productivity. including The bases of the tubular roof support columns are head angles. A 316L stainless steel plate is welded to the overlapping passes. the rubbing would remove the This again involves the welding in situ of a considerable paint and corrosion would set in.0 mm. tank floor to restrict movement to within restricted limits. following back gouging and grinding.5 mm thick plates.00 3. assuming the quantity The ambient temperature gradients on such a large of tanks to be built and the additional investment is area and the degree of thermal expansion that can be justified. MMA was chosen required and must be as uniform as possible. is the last major welded fabrication to be completed. The roof support bases clearly showing the stainless is presented to it. contraction. all with lap joints.pass in the desired position and prevent cold lapping and the attendant risk of fusion-related defects. especially as welding on The incidence of defects with the SAW A2 Circotech the inside of the tank is in the overhead position. The design code permits a maximum of 5 mm misalignment in the straightness of the shell sides.71 is employed. which allows the inside and outside circumferential Considering the thickness of the plates at only 4. but the converse applied on the inside. Stainless steel angle fences are welded to the rubbing Roof plate to restrict movement to only that required to accommodate roof expansion and contraction. experienced dictate that the roof is not welded to the shell. so gouging must be kept to the minimum vertical-down technique. The machine is also extremely rare and. An angle ring is welded to the outside edge of SAW the roof and this fits over the tank shell like a lid on The ESAB A2 Circotech machine can be supplied as a a tin. With welding. number of 4. The first welding mm. which is welded to the tank floor. which is an occur. larger rubbing plate. as opposed to maximum structural strength.or twin-wire operation. i.5 seams to be welded simultaneously. Welding the root pass on the outside rubbing plates. Ultimately. so that the speed and a small weld cross-section is preferred. Corner fences will ultimately be welded to the produced an excellent weld appearance and self. The preheating effect also aids penetration also serve to reduce distortion. Any gap between the straight edge and the shell at the weld junction must be less than 5 mm. only MMA and solid wire MIG/MAG that welding is in the HV position with no assistance using dip transfer could be considered using the semi- from gravity. 8 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . dull objective. the last capping pass was omitted from the outside until after the inside was completed. for portability and ease of use. regardless of the number of extent. a welding process which allows for rapid welding head precedes the other by about 50 mm. they are usually attributed to human error in the E6013 type and is capable of vertical-down and touch setting of welding parameters or a malfunction. A second operator can judge the penetration produced seal against the weather and airborne sand is the main by the lead head by observing the heat spot. This is especially true when such a bottom of each column and this rests on a slightly versatile flux as OK Flux 10. With this in mind. This was a precaution worth taking. as the small amount of distortion that did occur was rectified by the last capping pass on the outside. Following back gouging of the inside. the roof components have to be made of stainless steel because. combined with easy arc striking. A point is measured at one metre each side of the joint and a two-metre long straight edge placed between the two reference points. the judicial setting of all welding variables. which are in turn ESAB can supply welding equipment and processes that bolted to the tubular columns. These Apart from the ancillary pipework and so on.

unless. which progress up the joint with the molten weld pool to hold it in place until it has About the author solidified. so retirement in 1999 Howard Hatt was involved that travel speeds can be measured in metres per hour. Oxidation of the weld pool is prevented by the Howard J. Senior M. Contol gement positions both in the UK and export of weaving amplitude. Railtrac and the LAW 520 W semi-automatic MIG/MAG machines. Murex. as well as Mr Ali Al-Khadari for giving his permission to publish it. The process is similar to continuous casting as the weld is produced between two water-cooled copper shoes. Schematic view of the electrogas process. resulting in surface or underbead porosity. this has ensured a full return on the investment within the life Mobile water-cooled of the contract. In combination with the reduced Molten weld pool manpower and individual skills required. The principal benefit. Wire guide nozzle ment may therefore face long periods of inactivity. Until he took early Deposition rates exceeding 12 kg/hr are possible. Technical & Commercial Manager. they are involved in other more general fabrication activities. In addition. and Mr C. then BOC and ultimately the Esab Group When the plate thickness exceeds 20 mm. Hatt. If the two heads were adjacent to each other. Construction Engineer. speed and dwell times can all be markets. Figure 9. like KHI. The offset between the two heads also allows any gas produced by the lead head from the welding process to escape easily. Construction Manager. initially with provided by specially developed flux-cored wires. at only 450 amps. but moved into marketing on joining pre-set before welding commences. in market development for cored wires and The 15 mm butt joint in the productivity example could technical support to the group companies. is in productivity. as labour-intensive and time-consuming back gouging is totally eliminated. although is still available to ESAB Summary when required. Agilan. copper shoes Completed weld Acknowledgements The author would like to thank the following people for their assistance in compiling this article. It is only the A2 Circotec machines that are restricted as far as alternative Cored wire applications are concerned in comparison with the A2 electrode Minitrac. Mr C. Rasool. which are completely flexible. oscillation in the UK. be completed in 25 minutes. however. there is the dramatic increase in productivity. He now spends his free time gardening as well as building and flying radiocontrolled scale model aircraft. The initial investment strategy CO2 or Arc 20% CO2 of maximising productivity for the smallest capital gas shield expenditure while maintaining flexibility for the future was certainly vindicated. Welding together with the minimal incidence of defects and arc subsequent repairs. The Esab Group in 1984. Weld. the gas could be trapped between the two weld pools. Mr S. is required to ensure full side-wall fusion and the Since 1973 he held sales and technical mana- machine has a motorised slide for this purpose. Tank contracts of this size are not awarded frequently.V. Fabricating companies with the experience and equip- svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 9 . Electrogas welding The ESAB Vertotech electrogas welding machine per- mits the welding of all vertical joints in one pass up to a plate thickness of 35 mm. Chamberlain. I was in the Argon-rich or CO2 shielding gas and the weld metal is welding industry for 40 years.

fillet welds. enables the yard to build Table 1.1 DAEWOO operates the world’s largest dry dock SAW 11 measuring 530 x 131 x 14.5 m and equipped with a 900t SMAW 1. tankers and containerships. This growth has taken South Korea to the top of the world’s shipbuilding league. Storage and Offloading). robot. installed the first welding robot. SAMSUNG such as gas carriers. Korean shipyards have primarily focused on building and it manufactures flux-cored wire. mostly in Zinc The current order book contains around 120 vessels. which is registered in the Gravity 1. Korean euvre than conventional robots and provides greater shipyards are today able to comply with and built to accuracy of operation. As can be seen in Table 2.3 smaller 300.000 dwt Very Large Ore Carriers (VLOC). Its shipbuilders currently have 43% of new ship capacity on order.8 Guinness Book of Records. primed plate. where it is very close to the recently shown that they can also build complex vessels major shipbuilders such as DAEWOO.2 lifting capacity gantry crane. south-eastern Korean peninsula. FPSOs and mechanised 10. large vessels such as VLCCs. plus 10 warships. account for around 90% of welding in including 14 large LNG carriers. Using state-ofñthe-art consumables. Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering (DSME) had built 180 oil tankers by September 2001. Thanks to the higher productivity of cored wires in Since the company was established in 1978.6mm for the Danny. DAEWOO has developed an automatic welding By concentrating on qualified technological know. and effort towards mechanisation in order to save time ESAB SeAH Corporation (ESC) was set up in 1985 and to reduce the risk of inhaling the fumes generated as a joint venture by The ESAB Group and SeAH Steel by welding over Zn primer-coated plate. Consumable Per cent (%) DAEWOO also has the capability to construct high. submarines Samsung Shipyard between July and September 2001. Record of welding consumables used at the about 40 vessels a year. Fig 1-3 show the 10 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . covering a (FCW) is much larger compared to other welding wide variety of types and designs. DAEWOO is regarded as one of SAMSUNG S/Y where the percentage of FCW welding the most efficient and competitive producers of ultra is around 94%. FCAW Welder 71. GMAW 0. in Changwon. This dock.7 deep-sea drilling rigs. offshore rigs and FPSOs (Floating and HYUNDAI. off the and dangerous working conditions. which corresponds to about 13% of the world’s 111RB & 111 Ultra VLCCs. including 70 VLCCs since Application information for Core Weld 1988.000 dwt dry dock measuring 350 x 81 x 14. which is more compact and easy to mano- how and with their highly trained engineers. Corporation This new welding robot for shipbuilding is a promising substitute for workers who often have to endure harsh Located in Okpo Bay on the island of Goje. and a number of onshore and offshore platforms and structures. ESAB DAEWOO shipyard with ESAB SeAH (ESC) supplies Core Weld Ultra 1. ULCCs and a number of 320.South Korea is today’s leading shipbuilding nation The rise of South Korea’s shipbuilding industry has been one of the most spectacular industrial phenomena of the past 30 years in global terms. and stainless steel bulk carriers. The following table shows one example at production facilities.3 robot 3. This will keep the yard shipbuilding. some 14 units have been installed on the large block assembly line. together with a EGW 0. The shipyard has devoted great attention fully occupied well into 2004.6 tech vessels such as LNG and LPG carriers.5 m and three floating docks. when DAEWOO almost any ship owner’s design requirements. but they have electrodes. Production. Danny. the consumption of flux-cored wire delivered more than 400 commercial vessels. it has fillet joint welding. Since 1996.

offshore rigs and for the 2Y steel grade and CW111 Ultra for the 3Y FPSOs.6 mm diameter ship owners all over the world have come to regard Korea as being synonymous with high-quality ships at reasonable prices (see table 4). Mechanised system at shipyard (left: gantry type – single torch. The first domestically-produced LNG carrier steel grade was delivered in June 1994. much younger than its Japanese counterpart. Weld length of fillet and butt joints in shipbuilding.4 number of passenger ferries have been launched. 1. of their competitive strength in the future. Figure 1. While Japan is experiencing difficulties in recruiting skilled staff to the shipyards. BC (73K) 220 (90) 24 (10) 244 97K 303 (88) 40 (12) 343 COT 64K 396 (91) 42 (9) 438 CONT' Table 2. more recently. Ship grade Weld length – km (%) Fillet Butt Total VLCC 588 (88) 81 (12) 669 (single) PAX. Bead shape of C/W 111 Ultra. South Korean Figure 3. Nevertheless. right: TAMA type – twin tandem with 24 torches). The work force currently has an average age of 39 years. What’s next? most famous mechanised system for fillet welding and The nation’s yards are now focusing increasingly on ESAB (ESC) is supplying DAEWOO with CW111RB complex vessels such as gas carriers. while. so mm and 1. driven by increasing labour costs in Korea and by the growing presence of China in the shipbuilding market. Figure 2. The growth potential of the Korean shipbuilding industry is largely due to much-improved productivity and efficiency. a Supply is in 300 kg Marathon Pac bulk package. Micro and shipyards are currently increasing their R&D efforts to penetration figure of improve efficiency and productivity to avoid weakening C/W 111Ultra. Korea does not currently have these problems. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 11 .

70M F/C (big) LNG (membrane. such as the state of the world on securing a larger percentage of orders for high economy. Number of poles: Six poles (24 torches) 4. Welding materials FCW – Core Weld 111 Ultra Leg Torch Welding condition Travel speed Stick-out Angle ( O ) Length between Angle length (Cm/min) (mm) L & T (mm) adjustment (mm) A V 5~6 L 430 36 *5 mm leg length: 130 25 50 25 Forwards & T 350 34 *6 mm leg length: 110–120 backwards: 7O 8 L 420 35 80 T 340 34 7° 25mm 50° 50° 50° 50° 1-2mm 7° 1.05M Rig LNG (Moss) DAEWOO VLCC 38 3. Market analysis of shipbuilding (as of September 2001). Welding parameters What does the future hold? However. company from Japan 2.4kJ/cm) *TLP.20M F/C LPG TOTAL 165 9. Project name: SHELL BRUTUS TLP 2.) SAMSUNG FSO 25 2.30M 0.84M 68 1. margins. Crack Tip Opening Displacement Table 3.85M 1.12M F/C SAMHO BULK 16 0. Floating Production.27M 169 956M Table 4.I=1.68M 494 31. Korea will prove hard Since 1999.35M 113 8.Unique welding equipment 1. Welding condition See below 5. Applied welding consumable: D/S 81-K2 3. Storage and Offloading. How Korean shipbuilders are looking to transform long will this situation continue? This will depend on quantitative growth into qualitative growth by focusing a number of factors.34M 91 7. *CTOD.86M 0.47M 42 2. South Korea has held the top position in to beat! the world’s shipbuilding league. *FPSO. thereby acheiving higher profit technological development within related industries. Requirements: CTOD (ASTM E1290): min 0.25 ab 0° (H.95M 46 3. ahead of Japan. Wire consumption: 380 tonnes (Jan-Aug 2002) 4.65M F/C (big) LNG (membrane.70M 0. on its current form. Shipyards Project Amount ordered Amount left Amount dried Steel consumed Vessel G/T Vessel G/T Vessel G/T MT/Y HYUNDAI LPG 22 1. Tension Leg Platform. Welding equipment: TAMA.08M 30 1.72M 14 0. the strength of the Korean won and the value-added ships. 12 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . Welding process: TOP (twin tandem one pool) method 3.70M 22 1.) HYUNDAI MIPO BULK 32 0.75M 35 2.07M 0.19M 89 7.

Grade Alloy type P1 C–0. chromium and molybdenum are added to improve creep and corrosion resistance. on the consumables are very high. it is necessary to use stainless steel These are only some examples of components that grades 321 (18Cr8NiTi) or 347 (18Cr8NiNb) for cladding are welded. which involves treatment to separate it from unwanted components such as sand.Welding components for the petrochemical industry at Sirz Montaggi srl by Bo Magnusson. Firstly. carbon steels are frequently used. carbon dioxide and hydrosulphide.5 Mo P11 1. ESAB AB.25Cr–0. TIG welding of Inconel pipes.25Cr–1Mo Figure 1. the acidic sulphide environment already imposes heavy demands on the components that will come in contact with the raw material and this has led to the use of highly corrosion-resistant materials such as stainless steel of different grades. in terms of consumable selection and use. Before final use as a consumer product. For temperatures below 250°C. the raw materials are treated in a number of physical and chemical processes. the raw material is cleaned. which are more viable on the market. The next treatment can involve the fractionating of naphtha into groups of hydrocarbons of different chain lengths. Some interesting Since piping is a frequent structure in these cons. This is done in hydrocarbon crackers at high temperature and pressure. Sweden The increasing use of products derived from the hydrocarbons referred to as oil and gas means that the industry working with these products is experiencing steady growth.5Mo P9 9Cr–1Mo P91 9Cr–1MoNbNiV high and the normal welding processes are TIG for welding the root and SMAW for filling layers. water. The pipe steel grades used for petrochemical components are normally those described in the ASTM material specifications for refinery service. components will now be examined in greater detail tructions.5 Mo P22 2. If H2S is present. the quality requirements are very components have been constructed at Sirz Montaggio svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 13 . where the requirements that are imposed reactors or for piping in high-temperature service. it is possible to split the hydrocarbons into shorter chains. higher Ni- containing alloys and titanium. P5 5Cr–0. During this first step. These As mentioned earlier. If the composition of the naphtha is dominated by the heavier hydrocarbons. the welding of pipes is an important activity. For higher temperatures.

an ammonia/urea plant in Egypt. Figure 4. srl in Porto Marghera outside Venice. The Inconel pipes were welded with OK Tigrod 19. Mounting of waste train water heater. This company’s production includes components for a methanol plant in Central Africa. Italy. For the methanol plant. Simplified flow chart of the production of urea. UREA UREAU CO2 H2O very Figure 3.Figure 2. The pipes are produced by centrifugation and are welded to an Inconel 800HT manifold at one end and a P11 manifold at the other end.85 and the P11 pipes with OK Tigrod 13. the welding engineer at Sirz. 14 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . Each heater has 21 catalyst pipes in Inconel 600. Mounting of the start-up heater. Sirz has built 40 module heaters for ethylene. Mr Gianni Pistore. petrochemical heaters for Pakistan and a fertiliser complex in Venezuela.12. was kind enough to show the components under construction. Bi-product Waste gas salt or recovery Recycle Removal of REACTOR carbamate Urea NH3 reco.

304H and 321H.Welding the manifolds Another important product is urea. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 15 .38 in the root. As mentioned above. T22 with Filarc KV3L and OK Tigrod 13.22. Figure 5. and were welded with Siderofil TIG 347 in the root and SMAW Filarc BS 347 for the filling. 26. The carbon steel was welded with Filarc 35S with Siderfil Argon in the root.000 inches of welding were performed. P11. in the case of the pipes. He has studied at the Chalmers Technical University in Gothenburg and after a degree in Inorganic Chemistry he started in the develop- ment department at ESAB and has for the last ten years worked with product marketing. Another component for this plant is seven coil banks for waste heat trains. twelve heaters weighing up to 260 tonnes were assembled by welding a large number of pipes of different qualities in bog ovens. The materials were of the types A106. Some of the welders in action. ranging from carbon steel to T1. temperature is important and once again one step in the process is to heat the reactants and Sirz has built a ”start-up heater” for a NH3/urea plant. P22.98 and OK Tigrod 13. T22 and T91. requirements imposed on the welding properties for the SMAW consumables are very high. About the author Bo Magnusson is the Group Product Manager for mild steel and low-alloyed electrodes at ESAB Europe headquarters in Gothenburg. The full assortment and good deivery are important factors for Sirz Montaggi srl when a supplier is chosen and ESAB can fulfil those requirements. that can be synthesised from ammonia. ASTM TP 347H. which is a nitrogen- containing fertiliser. The demand from a company like Sirz Montaggi srl on a wide range of consumables emphasises the need to have a complete supplier like ESAB. The pictures show the welders in action. The pipes have the following composition. Many of the welds were performed in difficult positions. They are constructed from a number of different grades of heat-resistant materials. The amount of welding is measured by the length of the welds and. This is constructed from four pipes. Pipe welding in difficult positions. formed to produce a helicoil. T1 with Filarc KV2 and OK Tigrod 13. each 200 m long. which explains why the Figure 6.09 for the root. T91 with OK 76. For another fertiliser project.

under the The lectures were as follows: ractors Association).carucci@esab. even more interest next year. V. known world wide. The universal LUA stainless steels. mill and welding methods. the MED the offshore industry. Norms and standards. Germany. now and in the future. Pipe Line & Offshore Cont- at the Misovay Station. In 16 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . the repair The participants were very inte- For further information. on 6 and 7 November. Carucci Phone: +39 02 97968295 Fax: +39 02 97289300 E-mail:vittorio. The surfacing FCW welding overhead. railway sidings. ESAB was granted tions. the Nordic Welding Days were organi- sed by the ESAB Segment Support Department. a newly appointed this event attracted some 75 people. Synergic cold wire in ESAB’s application was appro- rials from ESAB. of reference from ESAB’s pipeline The surfacing tip and rail wings of The practical demos at the pro- customers also contributed positively worn crossings made of manganese cess centre were: Robot welding to the decision. Welding deve- supply of welding equipment. please of about 100 crossings by surfacing rested and many questions were contact: and other forms of build-up was asked after each lecture. New steel types in ved by IPLOCA for its extensive 400 inverter power source. ESAB. Compli- line and offshore construction which cing of worn crossings. Despite the fact that it took place shortly after the Schweissen & Schneiden Fair in Essen. Surfacing crossings on Nordic Welding Days East-Siberian Railway Last year. power plant. the PSF 400 wel. From the demo of mechanised welding of an SMO pipe. A modern pipe communications network for pipe- work began on the automatic surfa. at a new shop the inclusion of practical welding tional for a rail -welding train (RWT-32) demonstrations as well. mechani- in the official IPLOCA directory of these crossings takes place on a sed welding in an SMO pipe. Letters RAILTRAC BV – are all applied. steel are repaired using OK Tubrodur with MCW in thin plate.65 self-cored wire. Syner- and ESAB consumables will display special milling machine and they are gic cold wire welding and multi- the IPLOCA symbol. the service and guidance of RPF “Plazmoprotek”. The surfacing cated welding repairs at a nuclear is operational in 125 countries. and control of welding processes. Robot stations experience and reliability in the 304 wire feeder. A new feature this year was membership of IPLOCA (Interna- In the summer of 2000. which is well then stowed on reception-despatch electrode SAW welding. The seminars were full of interes- IPLOCA member ting lectures with different applica- On 13 June 2001. The seminars were held in Gothenburg at the Quality Hotel 11 and the ESAB Process Centre. We hope ESAB scheduled on the East–Siberian that we will see the same and perhaps Marketing Manager Pipelines Railway. Mr. con- ding torch and the mechanism for lopment at the Volvo Aero Corp and sumables and technology to pipeline automatically moving the torch – Wind tower production – simulation engineering and construction. mechanised All ESAB units will be included 15. is done using equipment and mate.

was com- missioned at DanStir’s building complex in Brøndby near Copenha- gen. in the For more information on DanStir. built as part of a project led by Polish After assembly and welding. soars above a temple. a cross ded butt. reinforcement of the cross on the The horizontal and vertical crossbars towers took the form of six beams of the cross consisted of six tubes made of stainless material. and weld it to two towers. to complete. tek”. 23 April 2000. Welding Auto- mation in Laxå.Friction Stir Welding in Denmark D anish Stir Welding Technology.5 metres. On 8 September 8 ment from ESAB – the Caddy 200 2000. it looks as though the cross hexagon. the truck to the cathedral and lifted by please contact production of the cross and its instal. Irkutsk took place.5 (W) x 15 (L) x 1.danstir. PRF “Plazmoprotek” welders had shortest possible time. The cross was connected so the which it was going to be stand. was established in the summer of 2001. The metres and a width of 3. The Sylve Antonsson. Sweden. are collabo. industry building”. During the autumn of 2001. Installing a cross on a catholic cathedral DanStir ApS and ESAB AB. The welders please see: had to weld tubes with a diameter from PRF “Plazmoprotek” managed of 63 mm and a wall thickness of 0. a company dedicated to offering services to industry in the field of R&D and the production development of FSW technology. as well as for production trials and production for customers. the architects and entitled “Irkutsk 100-kg cross was transported on a For more information. With a welding envelope of 3. DanStir ApS.30 The actual cross had a height of 6 welding electrodes from ESAB. it is able to weld large-scale components in a variety of alumi- nium alloys with a thickness of up to 25 mm. Father Peter The cross was welded together was delighted with the quality of by PRF “Plazmoprotek” using MIG the project and the time it took (metal-arc argon-gas) welding been entrusted to PRF “Plazmopro. an ESAB SuperStir™ welding installa- tion from ESAB AB. The cathedral had been were annular. svetsaren 17 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 nr 1-2002 • 17 . the solemn consecration of Professional and the LHN 200 with the new Catholic Cathedral of the the Heliarc HW 24 torch. crane to a height of 27 metres. Welding at TWI in Cambridge. between Fax: +46 584 411721.5 (H) metres and a down-force capacity of more than 100 kN. Professional LHN 140 and OK 61.6 to do the work in the allocated period mm made from polished Chinese and they did it using the Caddy stainless steel to make the cross. rators in the EUREKA EuroStir® was installed on the Cathedral of the Almost all of the more than 100 project and are co-sponsors of Group Immaculate Heart God’s Mother welds in the construction of the cross Sponsored Projects on Friction Stir in Irkutsk. The filler Immaculate Heart God’s Mother in was 18-8 wire and the welding inclu. UK. On Easter Day. fillet and overlap joints. The ESAB SuperStir™ machine will be used for R&D on tool and process technology. As a welded together to form an exact result. Welding Automation. lation at a height of 27 metres had welders now had to fix it in place e-mail: sylve. However.

Equipment Ope. ESAB published a completely new technical section for students. has produ. 18 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . The MIG process package is ESAB Denmark has installed the ced a range of particularly successful based entirely on standard compo. due within the next two weeks. together with the The prospects are excellent and a process package of universal type. of the guiding software and sales through this very interesting part For information on the ESAB know- literature available from ESAB. welders and welding engineers. an interface unit second delivery from ESAB Laxå is suitable for use with robots and for connecting external equipment. A mechanisation processes of all kinds. in Laxå. Also we included all recent issues of our technical magazine Svetsaren-The ESAB welding & cutting journal. In addition. have already been sold. now been supplemented with a MIG power source). altemuhl@esab. and maybe you ledge centre contact: be ordered or freely downloadable. Danish interest rations. come across exactly that piece of ben. ESAB After Sales. Sweden. The ESAB Knowledge Centre.esab. first MIG process packet at Hadi robot welding packages based on the nents: the Aristo 450 power source International. This ensures that installation is fast and straightforward. PUA1 control unit. so that you will have access to the latest technical information in the earliest possible stage. such as the robot or mecha- nisation equipment.The ESAB Knowledge Centre on Internet With the launch of the new ESAB Europe internet site (http:// during Schweissen & Schneiden 2001. The PUA1 control unit can store 96 sets of welding data. Here you will find a wealth of detailed information on welding & cutting processes and case studies of industrial applications from prac- tically any industrial branch. and new issues will be published on the internet even before the paper copy is being distributed. Reliable communication All communication with external units. 186 synergic lines are already preloaded and the user can create additional custom lines if required. and the Mech/MEK wire feed Simple mechanisation with new process package other using a CAN bus communica- tion system. They have (ESAB’s most advanced inverter manufactures agricultural machinery. is channelled through the interface unit. further eight sets are due for delivery More than twenty of these packages These components are linked to each over the next two months. to of the ESAB site. a company which Aristo 450 power source. you’ll find an overview Dedicate some time to browse information you were looking for.

it was found that the simplest narrow gap equipment were the: would be replaced. The order is divided into two parts.5 m long machining and fitting of an attach- • Automated joint tracking and posi. ALSTOM is involved in the pro- duction of generator and turbine axles. Lloyd’s Register in accordance with a quality system 9000 quality system registration of Shipping and Det Norske Veritas. the vertical boom the existing gantry. The narrow gap welds are per- formed by two welding gantries with roller beds and head and tail stocks. optimising the posi. • Carriage with linear slide support 2002. AlcoTec Wire will complement AlcoTec’s other AlcoTec Wire Corporation is located Corporation was recently awarded international certifications including in Traverse City. it was decided During the technical negotia- that attracted attention to ESAB’s that only the welding equipment tions. way of changing the welding system Also included in the scope of would be to replace the whole upper • Pivoting torch. As the replacement time for the and rack & pinion drive AlcoTec Wire Corporation Receive ISO 9000 Registration After many years of producing pre. The primary objective of the new welding equipment had to be mini. Korean mium quality aluminum welding wire Canadian Welding Bureau. tioning of the wire when welding ning the welding system over the The reason for this was that extensive deep down in narrow gap joints workpiece.Alstom increases production using ESAB’s welding equipment ESAB has received an order for fully automatic narrow gap welding equipment from ALSTOM Power AG Switzerland. This ISO Register of Shipping. have to be of the heavy-duty type. svetsaren 19 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 nr 1-2002 • 19 . the axle sections are welded in a vertical position on a turntable. the welding station for the welding equipment would The laboratory unit will be deli- has comprised old Hulftegger wel. • Vertical boom with motor and purchase of welding equipment is mised and the reorganisation of screw gear to increase the level of production ALSTOM’s workshop was to be • S4/S5 slide cross and automation. vered during the autumn of 2001 and ding equipment with a local Swiss. the first order involves a fully automatic narrow gap laboratory machine and the second comprises the replacement of the welding sys- tems on ALSTOM’s two existing welding gantries. registration by QUASAR. the quality The American Bureau of Shipping. modeled on ISO 9000. The main features kept to a minimum. roller beds. At this welding station. As ALSTOM ment would be needed in order to fit • Data recording of the compete uses two 300-kg wire drums and an the equipment on the upper part of welding procedure 80-litre flux tank. equipment comprises the following: place during the second quarter of head & tail stock. vertical boom that holds the wire ment plate to hold the welding equip- tioning of the wire and flux equipment. system registration division of the Canadian Welding Bureau. Until now. Michigan USA. The equipment for welding consists of a TIG narrow gap welding station where the root passes are welded. supply is the equipment for positio. including a 2. part of the existing welding gantries. The positioning of the welding the second part of the order will take manufactured gantry.

“We were looking to replace some old equip- ment and do some upgrades in the shop. Like all shop managers in his position.ESAB/Capitol Steel Case Study Capitol Steel finds mobile welding machine propels production – cuts labour costs by 25%. To make a fillet weld of this been the installation of new technology that increases size with its previous system. 20 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . building plate girders that range in weight from 15. is constantly looking for a means to speed his pre-fabrication process. operations manager at Capitol. The power supplies selected to complete the system were an LAF 1250 DC and a TAF 1000 AC. During the middle of the last century. which it performs in its 300. Capitol Steel & Iron the A6 guide bars were extended by bolting two guide Company of Oklahoma City has relied on strategic bars together.” says McCarty. Capitol began as a fabricator of construction rebar and eventually evolved into a global fabricator of steel beams used in erecting cotton gins and military hangars. A key part of Capitol’s philosophy has horizontal fillet welds. meet tight construction schedules and provide consistent quality weldments. It was during the last decade that the company focused on welding flange webs on plate girders for highway and railroad construction. the company found success working on structural steel buildings. Mark McCarty is concerned with cutting labour time and costs. flat position. To supply the needs of this partner company and other prime contractors. Capitol Steel uses the A6 Tandem Mastertrac Capitol now employs 120 workers who do all the to make horizontal fillet welds up to 7/16” (11 mm). with a concentration on fossil fuel power plants.000 square foot facility.000 pounds up to 100 tonnes and extend from 50 to 130 feet in length. Capitol Steel was purchased in 2000 by the Iowa- based Rasmussen Group. a prominent bridge construc- tion firm. standard A6 contact jaw assemblies were replaced with bent A2 contact tubes (part number 413511001) and Throughout its long history. “We checked around with industry leaders and found that a mobile system was a reliable. Mark McCarty. He decided to investigate the potential offered by an improved tractor-mounted submerged arc welding machine. To permit horizontal fillet welding with two wires. the A6 Tandem Mastertrac was modified slightly.” To replace his outdated tandem sub-arc tractor. pre-fabrication work in house. The OPC flux recovery system was also added. the company had to production rates and helps to keep the company position the beam to allow the weld to be made in the competitive through changing times. The Figure 2. Established in 1910. Figure 1. moves – on and off the shop floor – to reach new markets Capitol Steel uses this system to make 7/16” and prosper. the unit he chose was a four-wheel drive A6 Tandem Mastertrac from ESAB. A finished beam leaves Capitol Steel’s shop. fast technology.

automatic welding machine. “Our old units ran in a trough position so of efficiency.” This is of particular benefit to a company such as Capitol Steel that works with such massive plate girders.0 0. We are now able to move the machine to the work and According to McCarty.” says McCarty. provides high precision and the digital display twin or tandem version. Amp Wire diameter.2-4. McCarty “This tractor welds flanges vertically and the web is attributes this dramatic growth to a new management horizontal. However. kg 110 100 110 158 svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 21 .1-2. mm 3. we can do more welding and the part of his operators. Figure 3.000 tonnes of fabricating steel last year and already re-positions per girder.0-3.6 0.0 2x3.0-6. The A6 Mastertrac is easly to use and can be The advancded electronic control equipment supplied for submerged arc welding( SAW) in single. Each time you wanted to weld. you had to position the connection into that 45-degree position.0-6.1-2.” says McCarty. the tractor offers PEH processor introduction of the A6 Tandem Mastertac. It is also available for gas enables all the welding parameters to be preset metal arc welding (GMAW).” says McCarty. Another benefit of welding the girders in the horizontal position is that less tacking is required.” The company began to use the ESAB tractor when the Rasmussen Group assumed ownership over a year ago.0 1. too. Since then. With his previous system.0 0.2-4. accurately – either beforehand or during welding.” mobile welding technology involves a learning curve on “With this new tractor. Now I can complete two girders a day.1-2.” A6 Mastertrac The A6 Mastertrac is a strongly-dimensioned self. “Labour saving is the key to helping us down at the very bottom. (6 mm) wire with 1. propelled.0 Weight.0 0. In the past.0-3. AC power source. McCarty says his operation has realised savings of approximately 25% in labour costs. “It saves on tacking the plates together. for reasonably quickly in terms of controlled.0 Wire feed.0 Travel speed m/min 0.2-4.” positive. consistent “I can set the beam down flat and that way I can quality welds and higher production.1-2. the company had fabricated a total of 5. Labor savings of 25% have been realized by the Along with flexibility. high deposition rate welding.” team and their willingness to explore new avenues says McCarty. for each fillet weld the Capitol Steel and Iron processed approximately girder had to be rolled into position – for a total of four 4. The new tractor enables welding has close to 7. Prior of the entire girder with only one re-position. tonnes in the previous four years combined.500 amps DC and/or turning.0 0. that the corner where the two flanges met was located As he says. so both flanges are in an identical position.2-16. turn around and weld down the the new system among his floor operators has been other side without having to move the girder. Reaction to weld down one side. “I don’t have to do as much of that. thereby to 2000. m/min 0. control for automated.0 0.2 2x2. get jobs and stay competitive. Single Single Twin Tandem SAW GMAW SAW Max load at 100% 1500 600 1500 2x1500 duty cycly.” says McCarty. The “I was not familiar with this type of mobile system tractor can store ten presettable welding parameters before. 4-wheel drive.000 eliminating three of the moves. “What drew me to this technology and offers capacity for heavy production welding using was its capability to weld in a flat position with no up to 1/4 in. That saves considerably on material handling. “This eliminates human error. this is compensated less re-positioning. Capitol purchased two of the units – one each in May and August of 2000.000 tonnes on the books for 2001. it took an entire shift or shift and a half to weld a girder together. the implementation of cut labour time. This new system offers greater manoeuvrability with far less work.

Water injection cutting The cut parts should also be within the geometrical describe different methods for marking. net connectivity. 22 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . mainly designed for the shipbuilding industry.Modern cutting machines and techniques in the shipbuilding industry by Klaus Decker. which enable the programs and follow up cutting sequences. Introduction normal bevel created from the actual plasma process. which will report messages to the operator or to the work preparation department. the meters. For 2. the controller must have its centre. Breakdowns on cutting machines should be New CNC Windows-based controllers are described. cut angle. Germany Cutting machines should provide constant cut quality. To obtain constant cut quality. own checking system. These minimum. the bevel head is also used to compensate the 1. repaired quickly so that production losses are kept to a they do more than simply guide the machine. ESAB CUTTING SYSTEMS GmbH. as well as tolerances. via computer links and Inter- cutting parameters must be set with very high accuracy. Furthermore. customer to perform straight cuts or bevel cuts. CNC control also plays a very cutting process. This paper focuses on the cutting machines that are The torches are equipped with anti-collision devices. you not only require new controllers are able to control the entire a high-quality machine. Figure 1. Managing Director. checked from the cutting machine supplier’s service To minimise breakdowns. automatically setting the correct para- important role. together with the correct cut surface and processes for the surface cleaning of primed material. At some yards. It will which protect them from crashes. giving the user the confidence to enable secondary processes to be started without correction processes such as the grinding of dross and so on. Cutting machine configurations fast checking. To realise these goals. the CNC and the machine can be every parameter must quite simply be programmable. the service department must have remote Modern cutting machines are typically equipped with access to examine the controller and check cutting one or two plasma bevel heads.

for logistical purposes. were not available before the introduction of ink-jet marking. it could be argued that marking operations should be improved in terms of readability. marking plays an important fabricators also have to face certain production problems role at shipyards. the manufacture of vessels from plates and strip cutting. The improved cutting installation provides immediate operational advantages. For both systems. 3. In particular. from an immediate technological viewpoint. In spite of good upkeep. it permits line speeds of up to 20 m/min. These machines are operated all over the world for They also have to mark the positions at which the steel production at the yards. a feature which is not always regarded as desirable. such as systems which Figure 3. Other types of marking. for example. fact that the hours used for marking operations equal these problems are associated with the use of zinc-based the hours used for cutting. shop primed material is a must. but mainly for weld edge preparation. as well as major benefits in the production stages following cutting. be used. Ink-jet marking To cut welded plates (16–20 m) for further production of exact measurement. the line thickness tends to vary unintentionally One recent development is the so-called plasma marking. The readability is very good and the potential ink-jet marking can add to an IPS (Integrated Planning System) in terms of improving logistics and the on-site availability of production directions is obviously a major step forward. A system of long standing is powder marking. but. Arc marking also create an opportunity for production directions by using different line characteristics or by marking with letters and signs. Powder marking Depending on the circumstances. as different to powder marking. it can be disputed. using a special powder through an oxy-fuel burner. While this is understandable. as marking. other steel In addition to cutting. When examining the comprehensive production layout. Figure 2. it is characteristic that in principle they produce only lines and only in one line thickness. it breaks the paint coating and penetrates slightly into the plate surface. it is a from today’s protective paint systems. logistics and production directions. paints and the like and the difficulties associated with svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 23 . referred to as Arc Marker. Its drawback is that the powder is hygroscopic and that the system is demanding in terms of maintenance and upkeep. Surface cleaning Figure 4. is regarded as a process secondary to cutting. Oxy–fuel cutting can also stiffeners should be placed. there are panel line machines which have a span of up to 25 m. Users often express a wish to have a higher marking line speed. for both line drawing and lettering. This system produces what could be described as an etched line. These machines are not only used for cutting the edges for weld preparation. what we have is a case for development both quantitatively and qualitatively and thereby good reasons for looking at the systems available and new opportunities. However. Ink-jet marking permits marking speeds of up to 20 m/min. in order to speed up operations in the following stages of production. For many cutting installations. thicker For shipbuilders. Obviously.

necessitating a repair routine. it will produce unwanted porosity. If the paint is not removed. One way has been to integrate shot-blasting equipment in the cutting installation and thereby obtain more or less clean metal surfaces. where webs and stiffeners are to be welded at a later stage.a. Marking Arc.a. in some cases. Ink Jet Surface Cleaning Fine-beam Marker line line or letter Grinding shot blasting Speed mm/min 20 20 20 15 10 4 6 Table 1: Test results for various Residue % n. it can result in fillet welds with excessive throat sizes (or leg lengths). 8 5 2 15 40 machining processes involving marking and surface cleaning. Grinding device for surface cleaning. n. Figure 6. the Zn content will result in a reduction in the welding speed and. There are various schools and viewpoints when it comes to the solutions to these problems. Figure 5. 24 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . subsequent welding. which results in costly consequences in the form of unwanted and unpredictable deformations and inaccuracies at subsequent erection stages. Grinding device installation on panel machine for a shipyard in France. In other cases.

this Programmable cutting parameters allow process times is a low moving speed and it does not fit in well with and parameters. before running a part. the operator can adjust the kerf offset after cutting the first part of a nest in order to continue cutting without restarting the entire nest. production scheduling or remote moni. process with a very high level of accuracy. 5). The transmission takes operating system that the customer can use to run any place using pre-selectable and prioritised telephone Windows or DOS programs. Controls using kerf on the fly calculate the running path during run time. programmable cutting parameters. All the necessary process parameters can introduction of special grinding tools integrated in a be programmed and are repeated during the cutting cutting installation (Fig. New controller generation for cutting The machines must also be equipped with control machines functions such as proportional solenoid valves. This is important as it is common be recorded in a file that can be recalled later. Programmable cutting parameters In the general production layouts of today. The Vision CNC calculates the entire kerf offset path. The operator can manually select a parameter file or Table 1 shows the figures that can be obtained with the files can be called from within a part program. This powerful control features a Pentium-based 7. productivity. open architecture be sent to the user of the machine. Connected telephone links to the controller permit toring software can be run straight on the control. Vision NT include a familiar Windows graphical user interface. post processors. less wasted time a target for surface cleanliness of 15% (i. to the marking speeds. the two. depending on modern microprocessor technology.e. status reports for the machine or the cutting process to Windows NT provides a stable. 6) • Pierce Time • Gas Flow • Preheat Time • Master up Time 4. 6. user-definable macro keys and enhanced shape library features. flow controls. provides a higher level of process automation and quality The latest development in this field has been the improvement. there have been two ways to calculate the kerf offset for a programmed path. The grinding tool permits a dramatic speed impro. Some key figures of the numbers. pressure sensors. max. The operator can scale the kerf offset between 50 and 150 per cent of the original Using fine-beam shot blasting. 15% and material and more accurate parts. along with feed rate and kerf values. Cutting machines with the latest open CNC controllers This means that nesting programs. This means that Figure 7. is can store them. surface cleaning and it will be noted that very high The operator can also correct these files himself and productivity. critical task of an obvious need to match the processing speeds of adjusting timers and parameters can be automated. • Cutting Speed • Arc Voltage vement and the surface cleanliness is also much • Kerf Offset • Initial Height improved (Fig. compared with previous techniques. network and Internet connectivity. This results in easier operation. it has been shown that value. but enables the operator to adjust the offset during program execution. kerf- on-the fly with kerf override. such as paint inclusions) can be obtained with a feed speed limited to 4 m/min (Table 1). The Windows NT-based cutting machine controller is the only “Open CNC” available in the cutting machine market. but require faster. Controls using pre-kerf take a long time to calculate the running path before executing the program. so that the repetitive. can be run without or with very limited personnel. Operator calling system PS running Windows NT work station. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 25 . now possible when operating at marking and surface The newly developed “Adaptive Process Control” cleaning speeds of up to 20 m/min. Kerf on the fly Traditionally. more expensive processors. speed measurements and so on. 5. Windows-based CNC controller. A cutting practice to run the surface cleaning operation in parallel parameter file can be created for each type of material with the marking operation and there is therefore a customer cuts. today’s most advanced equipment for marking and thus automatically setting the same values every time. foreign particles.

Figure 8. the software department can trace with panel machines all the functions of the specific machine on line 2) Ivan Polacek. The cutting torches are fed with operator without any problem. Outlook At the present time. which can set the process and control all the associated parameters. 3/1996. HANSA • cutting programs can be downloaded from the cutting Schiffart-Schiffbau-Hafen 1997 No. pp. The operator should also receive (even over long distances) to be directly monitored from a message when the consumables have to be changed. ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH: Laser- software Schneiden von grossformatigen Blechen. 9 machine and checked at the factory 5) Klaus Decker. intermittent errors. ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH: Grinding • in case of problems. which occur at only one time of the day or week. repeatable quality. drive system operation and so on. the service department can check all the functions that were executed at that particular time to diagnose the cause of the error. The service centre can write (store) all the activities of the selected machine. can be detected with Internet connectivity. the right parameters to guarantee the best. including push-button pressing. Svetsaren No. 9. ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH: Robotized • there is also the chance to correct NC programs and cutting. If an error occurs. SPD files A number of machines can be supervised by one plasma consumables. there are methods available. ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH: Deve- service centre lopment of Profile Cutting (internal report) • all machine parameters can be checked via specific 4) Rainer Schäfer. 23–27 send them back In particular. What is still missing and what we are working on is the control of 26 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . The next step is to monitor the consumables because wear will affect the cutting This feature enables the operation of the entire machine quality and tolerances. cutting program. as described in the paper. ESAB-HANCOCK GmbH: CNC • scope function can be transferred to the service centre Profile Cutting with Robotic Plasma Head (unpublished (drive problems) internal report) • software updates can be directly installed from the 3) Guenther Reiss. Application References • direct access to the machine from the service centre 1) Rainer Schäfer. the cutting machine supplier’s service centre. The operators can run more than one machine 8. Internet connectivity (ghost shifts are possible).

which belongs to the but also the productivity and cost requirements. see Figure 1. Type of Joint.1 E7018 and/or E7018-1 will result in an increase in power-generation capacity covered electrodes have been used in Brazil to weld from 4. 33°C. in One of the challenges of this job is the welding wind and excessive moisture. F. about 90% of the power generated in this country comes from hydropower plants. ASME SFA-5. This job Traditionally. O. França. at the moment.12 Max. it mentioned. 0. as a porosity-free weld metal C Si Mn P S Nb+ Si Ceq. 0.44 Min. The vertical Francis turbines.370 MW in 2006. high-humidity equatorial climate (average 100% CO2 as the shielding gas. the ODEBRECHT–INEPAR/FEM Figure 1. 0.55 Max. Impact (MPa) (MPa) (%) 0°C (J) Max. For this process in the Amazon region (State of Pará. On this site. the most appropriate consumable was the OK Tubrod temperature (max. a high. technical assistant at ESAB Brazil ESAB is supplying the ODEBRECHT–INEPAR/FEM Consortium with OK Tubrod 71 Ultra rutile flux-cored wire for welding penstocks and coiled boxes for a hydropower plant.030 Max. So In this case. 81. average max. several investments are being made to increase the hydropower-generation capacity of existing plants and bring about the construction of new ones.50 Max. Brazilian company Eletronorte. 85%). For this reason. and the high quality of the weld metal.Welding penstocks and coiled boxes for a hydropower plant using ESAB flux-cored wire by Antônio J. as this has to be done process that requires a shielding gas could be discussed. In this context. Elong. the aim of this job is to increase productivity comprises eleven new units with synchronic three-phase by cutting costs. 0. selected welding process was FCAW – flux cored arc The hydropower plant of Tucuruí – the fourth welding – because of its high deposition rate. Fortes. However.8 kV. as previously new power-generation system is under construction. U. Brazil is facing a significant deficit in power generation. 40°C. consumable technical manager at ESAB Brazil. a the penstocks and coiled boxes. quality manager of the consortium. Base Metal – USI SAR 50.8 rpm.T. However.20 0.S. As all the welds were to be performed on site. Each turbine has a penstock. the selection of a welding of penstocks and coiled boxes. the feasibility of semi- generators of 390 MVA.S. a self-shielded cored wire could have the selection of the welding process was especially been recommended.20 E71T-1(M) / 9(M)) with min. in the very aggressive environment of the region.030 Max. As a result. José Roberto Domingues.000 MW to 8. average 71 Ultra (ASME SFA-5.10–0.330 500–620 22 34 Table 1. Brazil). operated by automatic welding processes has been evaluated. Y. S. and Cleber J. low cost largest in the world – is located on the River Tocantins. Introduction Due to the abundant water resources in Brazil. 13. 0. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 27 . 23°C). 1. Consortium as been assembling the second stage step of important in order to comply with not only the quality the hydropower plant of Tucuruí.

This has made feasible the use of a gas-shielded. wet environment. independent of the welding process.60 40 0. shown in Table 1. Table 2 shows Welding process % Cost – based on Deposition rate Net deposition rate Duty cycle Productivity covered electrode (kg/h) (kg/h) (%) (m/h) Covered electrode 100% 1. flux-cored wire. Welding procedure – pen stocks and coiled box.40 0.Figure 2. the selection of the welding process is discussed and the welding procedure qualification and its results are shown. it is necessary to use a protection tent to obtain a sound weld metal in a windy. resulting in a sound weld metal. the practical application has demonstrated that.08 40 0.50 0. greater productivity and lower cost. as well as the feasibility of use on site in Tucuruí.10 Solid wire 95% 1. Welding processes 28 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 .32 Self-shielded cored wire 140% 1.70 1.64 40 0. Details of protection tent – pre-assembling.60 0. was required. was based on an analysis of the cost and mechanical properties of the base metal.18 Table 2.19 Gas shielded flux cored wire 74% 2. Selection of welding process and consumable The selection of the welding process and consumable Figure 3. In this article.35 25 0. However.

the quality gases and maintenance cost. a rutile. the gas-shielded. Based on the above analysis and the versatility in Table 8 shows that the repair rate is 1. all the joints were preheated to guarantee welding on moisture-free weld joints. deposition rate. horizontal has been supported by ESAB Brazil. The selected generally associated with shielding. so Table 3 shows the chemical analysis and mechanical it can be said that the process itself is versatile and properties of the weld metal. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 29 . consumables. i. Even in aggressive environmental conditions.S Elong. overheads.2 mm / 100% CO2 Welding procedures Figure 3 shows the approved welding procedure. the tensile strength is greater than 580 MPa.16 38. Taking the covered electrode as the are inspected in accordance with an inspection plan. Details of protection tent – assembling of a spiral. efficiency of the weld metal has shown good results.050 0.2 mm.20. Although one of the tensile tests shows a fracture of the weld metal. This protection has been used for tack welding.T. as shown in Figures 3 and 4. flux-cored is regarded as a low value. it could be said that shielding gas was 100% CO2. Several that these good results are also due to the welders’ test coupons have been produced to cover the complete good qualifications and the fine training offered by requirements for all the welds. with rate report.05%. Impact Table 3.50 1. Quality control issues a weekly welder’s repair strated the best result for cost/productivity/quality. experience of FCAW for many of these welders. penstocks and coiled boxes in this job is about 100 CP Dimensions Area Load Stress Fracture region No. welding positions vertical up. the minimum required by the project. which up to 41 mm. vertical up. The testing procedures easy to learn.002 0. Training Centre. the gas-shielded.50 745. All the welds and duty cycle. reference level. 5 and 6 show the mechanical properties of the welded joint presented in Figure 1.e. If the repair rate is above the maximum a cost that was about 26% lower and productivity that specified. as well as for welding the result of the cost analysis applied to covered on site.447 577 Base metal Table 4. Results of Tensile Tests on the Welded Joint – Vertical Up. electrodes. The consumable is accounted for by slag inclusion and 2% by porosity. a b (mm) (mm) mm2 (Kgf) (MPa) T1 19. selected was the OK Tubrod 71 Ultra 1. followed ASME II Part C SFA-5.706 588 Weld metal T2 19.37 38. Tables 4. From this repair rate. This analysis took account Quality of weld metal of the following areas: labour.34 0. the welder must be sent back to the Welders’ was 220% higher. The diffusible hydrogen content complied with the H8 class of ASME SFA-5. 98% wire was the selected welding process. gas-shielded. This is the first and overhead and geometry as shown in Figure 2. shielding gas 100% CO 2 .20 E71T-1(M) / 9(M). these figures show that the welding process has been Initially. Although preheating is not required for plates with a thickness of less than 25 mm. thickness from 19 mm the ODEBRECHT–INEPAR/FEM Consortium. flux-cored wire demon- Table 7. It is important to note were carried out in accordance with ASME IX.53 738. the welding procedure qualification tests effectively adapted to this job. It is important to mention that protection tents – made of an easy-to-move tubular structure covered by canvas – to prevent wind and rain have been strictly Figure 4. flux-cored wire.01 579 620 26 70 OK Tubrod 71 Ultra 1. Taking account of the fact that slag inclusions are not flux-cored wire of class E71T-1(M) / 9(M). Chemical Analysis (MPa) (MPa) (%) –29°C (J) and Mechanical Properties – 0. C Si Mn P S Y.75 44. self-shielded cored wire and solid wire.23 43. Final comment which means less than 8 mL/100 g of deposited weld The estimated consumption of cored wire for welding metal. used. which out-of-position welding.S U.

30 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . Welding Inspection We would like to thank the ODEBRECHT–INEPAR/ FEM Consortium for allowing us to visit the site and for providing us with the information on which this Defect % Slag Inclusion 98 article is based.108 29. with a reduction in cost and assistance. As this is a successful project. 3 and 4 : Requirement class – welded joint Table 7.O. Cleber Fortes has been involved in an increase in productivity. of the hydropower plant of Tucuruí. Hardness Tests CP Result DL 01 No cracks DL 02 No cracks DL 03 No cracks DL 04 No cracks DL 05 No cracks Table 6. By the end of 2001. F. 6 and 7 show the assembly of the coiled José Roberto Domingues is technical manager box to be leak tested. Defects About the authors tonnes. independent of the aggressive He is responsible for consumable technical environmental conditions. cations. suitable for this job. wire OK Tubrod 71 Ultra has been shown to be Cleber J. 2. They also indicate the large – consumables for ESAB Brazil. Figure 7 shows the for the research & development and quality assembly of the penstocks. Assembling of a flow tubes Fillet 100 – 20 – spiral (*) The ultrasonic examination can be optional to radiographic examination. França is the quality manager of consumables had been used. Guided Bend Tests Figure 5. Hardness line Result – HV 10 1 2 3 4 5 A 159 230 212 225 161 B 167 224 183 207 165 C 160 240 203 227 158 Table 5. José Roberto Domingues joined ESAB As mentioned above. similar applications will be re-evaluated to define the potential for using this process in the future. the ODEBRECHT–INEPAR/FEM Consortium. 31 tonnes of welding Antônio José S. which will be concreted control of welding consumables and their appli- after welding. welding for 20 years and joined ESAB in 2001. The job should be completed lity assurance of the electromechanical assembly by the end of 2006. About 30% of the welding of penstocks and coiled He is responsible for the quality control and qua- boxes has been finished.794. (**) Liquid penetrant examination Class 1.05 Acknowledgement Table 8.355 1. He is responsible size of this hydropower plant. flux-cored in 1988. Requirements for Non Destructive Examinations Figure 7 – Upper part of a Weld Length Repair Length Rejected Welds penstock (mm) (mm) (%) 2. Figures 5. Positioning of a part for assembling of a spiral Part Weld Non-destructive examination (%) Visual US LP (**) RX Turbine Class 1 (*) – 100 – 100 Coiled Box Class 2 (*) – 10 – 10 Class 3 100 – – – Class 4 100 – – – Forced water Top (*) 100 100 20 100 Figure 6. the gas-shielded. Fortes is a technical assistant. Porosity 2 Table 9.

Training is the key to success: business now. General Manager. with attended training in Sweden and. built in Sweden. ESAB hosted a press conference and open house at the Canadian head office in Missis- sauga. ESAB’s automation product line of course. of supplying the customer with a finished weld. and formal key factor in growing all of ESAB’s business segments. automation can be a has been given sales training. which makes European products very cost attractive. we will be able to build our structure in with the distance and time zone delay between Sweden a more controlled fashion and this will position ESAB and North America. In attendance were press from Canada and the USA. The US dollar is still flying high against all other currencies. Next. Each region accept the line. By starting our automation been trained in Canada. One key reason for why now is a good time is the exchange rate. Mexico and Canada. ability locally to support the projects. This group of approximately 80 simple – we see the market as needing a solution and welding experts possess a wealth of knowledge and. Mechtrac. competition out of the market. Well-trained sales team World class product line The main channel to the US market is through the The main reason for setting up the automation unit is American sales team. This business unit is a part of ESAB Canada and will use several experienced and knowledgeable specialists to sell and service automation equipment and products throughout the USA.ESAB Automation North America by Richard Hadley. which it most certainly will. they know most of the key customers. ESAB has the unique advantage for the engineering services and key account people. others have ESAB as a prime contender. as well as PEMA material handling equipment. technical training has been held at the Mississauga plant especially filler metals. Our automation team has force customers to search out alternative suppliers. These individuals are most enthusiastic about offering automation to their distributors and end users. ESAB Automation North America In May 2001. the green light was given to start ESAB Automation North America (NA). There were live displays of MKR 4x4. as well as many local clients and distributors. The product line consists predominantly of ESAB welding automation. On 25 September. with plenty of encouraging feedback from visitors. we need the business. This will foundations of this business. when the economy is so bad. The event was a resounding success. as we have seen with the It has been a very busy summer and autumn laying the demise of Ransome (Texas) and Bode (UK). well proven and affordable. as a group. from Finland. Now is the right time Many people question the logic of starting a new venture in North America. More importantly. Live display of welding automation equipment. as well as smaller automation products such as Miggytrac and A2 tractors. in turn. we must have the knowledge and to capture market share when the economy improves. the poor economy will drive some Figure 1. the AHMA 7000 positioner and turning rolls. Each is world class. at the AWS welding show in Cleveland. There is no sales representative has been supplied with a complete reason why the North-American market would not sales manual of automation equipment. from svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 31 .

which requires extensive air travel. drastically improved its production rate with the purchase of an MKR column and boom. The United States is a huge country. features and reliability of the products. and potential of the business. Cleveland. PEMA AHMA7000 positioner. The customer will value the long-term commitment and ESAB will be rewarded with both machinery and filler metals business. Oh. American Tank. Our goal North America will succeed! is to provide the total solution. this approach is nothing new: ESAB Europe built its successful automation business by providing a total solution for the customer. the largest automotive frame manufacturing plant worldwide. We currently stock equipment such as mani- pulators. ESAB is here to stay We will survive this recession. the orders will follow quickly. In September. As we begin to book orders. which is essential to success. The new equipment reduced the welding time by 40% in one particular task: welding the baffle rings inside the tanks. This inventory will allow for delivery in a reasonable length of time. If ESAB supplies the filler metals. which demonstrate the great strength Figure 2. we will stress our ability to handle the volume. Alberta. manufactures extremely thick-wall pressure vessels. based on the performance. is a division of Magna. long after the initial capital goods sale has been made. ESAB Mechtrac welding tractor. The customer reports virtually defect-free welding performance with its ESAB installations. we will be highly motivated to service the customer. too! ESAB is gradually building inventory in North America. warehouse in Alberta – Canada’s large oil patch region. In the coming months. Of course. positioners and turning rolls. Figure 3. Formet Industries. ESAB delivered another large CaB 460 with tandem welding heads. It will work in North America. This lowers the customer’s risk in a project. we need to be realistic in a recession economy. equipped with a PEH microprocessor weld controller. Once customers recognise the quality and performance of the products. a distinguished tank manufacturer operating out of Spruce Grove. Ontario. Jasper Tank. Alt- hough we may have the best product line in the industry. we have to continue to explore the US market and to follow up the many leads we have received. Demo machines will be set up in the Mississauga plant and in the new 32 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . Notable installations ESAB Automation NA has already had some notable installations. a huge market. both in Sweden production and in North America. we will emerge on the other side as a stronger company and ESAB Automation filler metals to welding machines to positioners. The events of 11 September have made flying more time consuming and have reduced the number of options available. This company purchased a large quantity of ESAB Aristo MIG machines. Our challenges are not over. not just an equipment package.

including welding various ESAB process centres. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 33 . shielding gas. In this case. in order the consumable in order to match the characteristics of to guarantee more stable quality. Change of process thereby cutting the cost of each part that was welded The following example shows how a change of by 22%. The problem of the impurity on the weld joints and problem-free welding on hardness in the HAZ still remained. power sources. the customer welded this joint using focusing on many different applications within the a solid wire (1. sharp transitions to the parent material à which resulted in poor fatigue strength and far too much Consumables hardness in the HAZ. the world’s largest welding company. 12 mm/sec to 20 mm/sec. Some of this As the work of finding a process that improved work focuses on optimising the chemical composition of the quality and was also more “forgiving”. One of the problems associated with using this “matching” consumable is that the The consumable that dominates the automotive indu- parameter range that is needed to produce a satisfactory stry is solid wire. We invest substantial resources in developing welding processes. The result of this test was a significant reduction used in a car body. converter outlet pipe is made of a ferritic stainless wire-feed units. The catalytic This combination involves consumables. also in improved productivity. This naturally undesirable microstructures. to improve their welding characteristics. imposes the same demands on the consumables. automotive segment is currently taking place and they In an attempt to control the hardness and retain the will be described at a later stage in this article. it was still a little zinc-coated or aluminised sheet metal. progressed. material and it is welded to a flange made of normal interfaces and productivity. spatter. weld and the parent material. obviously has an important presence in the automotive industry. This wire has a diameter of 1. In addition to solving have to provide high-temperature characteristics. in this case. E 307(18/8/6). cor- the aforementioned problems. in order to control ferritic stainless steel and the C/Mn steel contained no emissions as effectively as possible. together with materials that withstand exceeded 225 HV10 and the transition between the increasingly high temperatures. It was also of the E 409 a wide range of different grades of parent material is grade. no individual hardness value systems possible. and its outlet pipe connection to a flange. ESAB. too.ESAB in the automotive industry by Lars-Erik Stridh. the tolerance range requirements are are the subject of ongoing development work designed extremely rigorous. This then meant that the cycle time for the welding operation was reduced. automotive industry are constantly in progress at the A number of problems occurred. the introduction of this rosion resistance and good fatigue strength properties. Different customer projects C/Mn steel. made of different material grades. low or non-existent levels of surface improving the fatigue strength.2 mm. automation equipment and interfaces with robots. consumables. result is very small. metal-cored wires are making an entrance. system and the catalytic converter system. the world’s largest welding company. which There was also an extra bonus. The research is being conducted to develop the most durable hardness now declined. temperature resistance and corrosion resistance at the When it comes to the welding of the exhaust same time. EWE Segment Support Manager ESAB AB Göteborg ESAB. together with robot suppliers. There are other requirements that in spatter and more uniform transitions between the are also important and they include feed reliability. extensive was tested. These consumables is involved. metal-cored wire increased the welding speed from Here. but it is nonetheless a very active partner. The introduction too high and it was difficult to control it using the of metal-cored wires in special applications in the welding parameters. obviously has an important presence in the automotive industry. where a “mixed joint” depending on the parent material. when it comes to finding The object of this example is a catalytic converter the optimal solution in combination in every situation. Nowadays.0 mm) of an Nb-stabiliserad 409 grade. Initially. metal-cored wire was tested. power sources. ESAB does not supply robots to the automotive consumable/process resulted in enhanced quality and. a the parent material as effectively as possible. another metal-cored wire. welding procedures. industry. thereby substantially low spatter levels.

positive impact on the margin. when a new and more efficient consumable is When it comes to welding thin materials. the solid wire that had been used for welding was replaced with OK Tubrod 14. with suppliers to the automotive industry and with The potential for trimming the cycle times for the automotive industry directly has resulted in a robotic welding in thin plate is enormous. There are very few companies productivity is then lost. A typcial thin-plate application from a supplier to risk of welding defects and the number of rejects is the automotive industry. the quality levels are enhanced. The results using the metal-cored wire. the New approach to welding thin sheet metal quality improves and the spatter levels are also reduced ESAB’s enormous process know-how and collaboration considerably. This is new concept when it comes to welding thinner plate something that is especially applicable to the automotive thicknesses.11. In this specific case. however. when the plate thickness account so that no bottlenecks are created elsewhere is reduced. PZ 6470 much as a kilogram of solid wire. Using the more expensive consumable of spatter. As can be seen in Figure 1. the production cost of each brake pedal is the parent material. The arc is extremely stable and therefore produces a minimum of spatter. This is. The reason why using the relatively expensive metal-cored wire. as feed stoppages are unacceptable. It therefore has excellent feed properties. Note the smooth transitions between the welds and increases. the clean weld surface and the absence reduced by 11%. it is not that difficult to The product is called OK Tubrod 14. What is more. without any deterioration in arc stability. the diameter of the solid wire that is used in the production flow. direct. As a “side-effect” of this change of consumable. see where action should be taken to reduce the cost of cored wire that has been developed as the ideal match production in a robot cell. By planning the welding opera- if any that have adopted the opposite approach and tion carefully and adapting the rest of the production instead increased the diameter and also changed to chain. the whole production chain is taken into “normal” approach is that. One very important characteristic is that this wire can be welded with high current in combination with low arc voltage. As most people know. It is a flux.2 mm.11. as the productivity 1. How cost effective is it to spend many hours negotiating the price of consumables in order perhaps to obtain a reduction of 5%? Not especially smart when it comes to cutting production costs. The result of this change was that the cycle time in the robot was reduced by 31%. This reduces the Figure 2. The bead geometry produces extremely uniform transitions to the parent material. for robotic welding. It goes without saying that the cost of the robot and operator is part of the 94% sector. OK Tubrod 14. making the welding more tolerant of variations in gap. a metal-cored wire. Welded with the new metal-cored significantly reduced.4 mm. very important the automotive industry. In addition. however. These are savings that have a wire. The above photograph shows a brake pedal from a supplier to the automotive industry. leads to a significant reduction in the production cost. the direction Measures designed to make savings should be developments have taken – namely. When the above figure is studied.11. It is. the following question is justified. a kilogram of flux-cored wire costs about four times as Figure 1. but. as the benefit of the increase in should also be reduced. that. significant sums of money can be saved. has been given such a good reception is naturally due to the fact that it enables a reduction in the production cost and an increase in productivity. the 34 • svetsaren nr 1-2002 . the introduced. a robotic wire of the implemented where they are most effective. All this has been made possible by highly target-oriented development work. metal-cored type with a diameter of 1. This concept is being used successfully by industry and its suppliers who demand high productivity a number of companies which supply welded parts to with reproducible quality. The penetra- tion profile is wider and more stable.

which is associated with spatter. Lars-Erik Stridh been introduced. He worked three years effect on cycle times. svetsaren nr 1-2002 • 35 . is About the authors that the number of stoppages to allow the robot to visit the cleaning station to have the gas hood cleaned can Lars-Erik Stridh. spatter levels are substantially reduced and the number of stoppages for cleaning the fixtures also decreases. When it comes to solid wire. How the costs can be distributed for a robot cell. graduated from be reduced by at least 50%. is based in Göteborg interesting to consider Endless Marathon for solid wire. but works on ESAB’s total market. as it makes it possible continuously to join a new drum and eliminate stoppages completely. Yet another factor with an Bergsskolan in 1982. Another advantage. as a welding engineer at a repair and mainte- It is also important to choose the most optimal nance company in Göteborg and after that 13 wire packaging. Jumbo Pac has also at a competitive company. It is also joined ESAB in 1999. Wire 4% 2% Gas Robot + operator 94% Figure 3. EWE. Marathon years as product manager for flux cored wires Pac is the most logical choice. It contains 475 kg of wire.

com . S-402 77 Göteborg.ESAB AB. Box 8004. +46 31 50 93 90 Internet: http://www.esab. +46 31 50 90 00. Sweden Tel. Fax.

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