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Concept and foundation of motivation

In the past, employees were not given much of a thought, not more than just
another input into the production of goods and services. Employee motivation
was not the main concern of the managers.

However, as the time passed by the 'Hawthorne Experiment' a research
conducted by Elton Mayo in 1924, basically changed the way of thinking
about the employees. the study of Elton Mayo pointed out the fact that money
does not motivate employees to use their full potential, but instead it is the
employee attitudes that keeps them going and linked with behaviour. As a
result, this gave rise to what is known as the Human Relations approach to
management which lead the managers to focus mainly on the needs of
employees and thus finding ways to motivate them.

Even though the managers began to concentrate on motivating employees
thereafter, this was not an easy task to do, as understanding the employees
and motivating them needed careful consideration. If not so ever, then the
time and money spent on motivating employees may be of no use to the
organization or the employee, if the employees were motivated the wrong
way.As a result, to understand the whole concept of motivation and help the
managers carry out the strategy, it is important to look into the theories of
motivation, which developed soon after the study of the Hawthorne

The motivation theories developed, as a result of the researches carried out
by the theorists focusing understanding what motivated employees and how
they were motivated. Hence so, let us have a closer look at four of the good
motivational theories that explains what motivates employees, in order to
understand and do the best possible way to motivate them.

Define Motivation. Explain the need and importance of motivation in an

The word motivation is coined from the Latin word "movere", which means to
move. Motivation is defined as an internal drive that activates behavior and
gives it direction. The term motivation theory is concerned with the processes
that describe why and how human behavior is activated and directed. It is
regarded as one of the most important areas of study in the field of
organizational behavior. There are two different categories of motivation
theories such as content theories, and process theories. Even though there
are different motivation theories, none of them are universally accepted.

Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following
benefits it provides:-

friendly atmosphere in a concern. This can be done by keeping into mind and framing an incentive plan for the benefit of the employees. The employees will be adaptable to the changes and there will be no resistance to the change. m. This will result into- a. Increase in productivity. the above steps should be taken by a manager. j. e. Industrial dispute and unrest in employees will reduce. For getting best of his work performance. There is best possible utilization of resources. This could initiate the following things: h. financial and human resources to accomplish the goals. This will help in providing a smooth and sound concern in which individual interests will coincide with the organizational interests. b. Goals can be achieved if co-ordination and co-operation takes place simultaneously which can be effectively done through motivation. Builds friendly relationship Motivation is an important factor which brings employees satisfaction. Improves level of efficiency of employees The level of a subordinate or a employee does not only depend upon his qualifications and abilities. and c. This can be done by building willingness in employees to work. It is through motivation that the human resources can be utilized by making full use of it. l. Reducing cost of operations. g. This would help in: k. In order to build a cordial. Monetary and non-monetary incentives.Puts human resources into action Every concern requires physical. i. This will help the enterprise in securing best possible utilization of resources. Effective co-operation which brings stability. n. . Leads to achievement of organizational goals The goals of an enterprise can be achieved only when the following factors take place :- d. Promotion opportunities for employees. Disincentives for inefficient employees. There is a co-operative work environment. Improving overall efficiency. the gap between ability and willingness has to be filled which helps in improving the level of performance of subordinates. f. The employees are goal-directed and they act in a purposive manner.

3. 2. we can say that motivation is an internal feeling which can be understood only by manager since he is in close contact with the employees. . he will have job satisfaction. wants and desires are inter-related and they are the driving force to act. The process has to be continued throughout. Motivation will lead to an optimistic and challenging attitude at work place. motivation is important to a business as: 1. The skills and efficiency of employees will always be of advantage to employees as well as employees. If an individual is motivated. more the experience and their adjustment into a concern which can be of benefit to the enterprise. During period of amendments. Needs. 2. From the above discussion. there will be more adaptability and creativity. We can say that motivation therefore is a continuous process since motivation process is based on needs which are unlimited. the older the people. Similarly. o. “Old is gold” which suffices with the role of motivation here. An individual would always gain by working with a dynamic team. 4. We can summarize by saying that motivation is important both to an individual and a business. This will lead to a good public image in the market which will attract competent and qualified people into a concern. Motivation is important to an individual as: 1. the more empowered the team is. Motivation will help him achieve his personal goals. This will result in profit maximization through increased productivity. The employees can remain loyal to the enterprise only when they have a feeling of participation in the management. The more motivated the employees are. 3. Leads to stability of work force Stability of workforce is very important from the point of view of reputation and goodwill of a concern. The more is the team work and individual employee contribution. 4. These needs can be understood by the manager and he can frame motivation plans accordingly. Motivation will help in self-development of individual. more profitable and successful is the business. As it is said.

Motivation in theory .Wages. Herzberg suggested a two-step approach to understanding employee motivation and satisfaction: Hygiene Factors Hygiene factors are based on the need to for a business to avoid unpleasantness at work. then they can cause dissatisfaction with work.Quality of supervision . Herzberg analysed the job attitudes of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked to recall when they had felt positive or negative at work and the reasons why. Hygiene factors include: . salaries and other financial remuneration . If these factors are considered inadequate by employees.Herzberg two factor theory Introduction Herzberg's Two Factor Theory is a "content theory" of motivation" (the other main one is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs). From this research.Company policy and administration .

Poor production or service quality .Complaints about pay and working conditions According to Herzberg.Sense of personal achievement & personal growth in a job There is some similarity between Herzberg's and Maslow's models. Herzberg argues that only the higher levels of the Maslow Hierarchy (e.Gaining recognition . Applying Hertzberg's model to de-motivated workers What might the evidence of de-motivated employees be in a business? . The remaining needs can only cause dissatisfaction if not addressed. However. management should focus on rearranging work so that motivator factors can take effect. motivator factors actively create job satisfaction. self-actualisation. then they can motivate an individual to achieve above-average performance and effort.Strikes / industrial disputes / breakdowns in employee communication and relationships . Motivator factors include: . If they are effective.Responsibility .Challenging / stimulating work .Quality of inter-personal relations . He suggested three ways in which this could be done: . When they exist.g.Feelings of job security Motivator Factors Motivator factors are based on an individual's need for personal growth. esteem needs) act as a motivator.Opportunity for advancement .Low productivity .. They both suggest that needs have to be satisfied for the employee to be motivated.Working conditions .Status .Job enlargement .

.Job enrichment .Job rotation .

) • Also. work conditions etc. however Herzberg said that fulfilling the hygiene stage only results in an employee being in neutral state and that satisfaction and motivation only comes from the 2nd stage (motivator). Safety and Belongingness needs i." (Bartol et al.. and therefore have different criteria or have criteria which are percieved as more important e. These influence an employees performance. Herzberg's motivators idea corresponds with Manslow's Esteem and Self-Actualisation needs i. growth. where as employees from Norway and Sweden saw belongingness needs as being more important.however. • Both theories are influenced by environmental conditions. . Differences: • Maslow says that each stage of the 5 must be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage. needs theory • They both specify the criteria as to what motivates people.e.). However.. • Maslow said that fulfilling each stage is a motivator. Greek and Japanese employees stated that safety and physiological needs are more important to them.Compare and contrast Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory with Herzberg's two factor theory? Similarities: • Both use a hierarchical scale. Herzberg suggested that there were only 2 stages (hygiene and motivators) instead of 5. • Both are based on the argument that "we behave as we do because we are attempting to fulfill internal needs.e.. they both have the same criteria (recognition. • Herzberg's hygiene idea corresponds with Manslow's Physiological. employee attitudes and as a result...e. 2005) i.. their motivation. this is controversial because entrepenuers and people from different cultures have different values and norms..where one stage must first be fully or largely completed before advancing to the next stage.g. they both have the same critieria (basic pay. achievement etc.

Self-Actualization Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs Self-Actualization Self-actualization is the summit of Maslow's motivation theory. It is about the quest of reaching one's full potential as a person. while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.Hierarchy of Needs In 1943. Satisfying needs is healthy. and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. As depicted in the following hierarchical diagram. only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self-actualization. as one grows psychologically there are always new opportunities to continue to grow. . there are general types of needs (physiological. love. which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. sometimes called 'Maslow's Needs Pyramid' or 'Maslow's Needs Triangle'. after a need is satisfied it stops acting as a motivator and the next need one rank higher starts to motivate. According to Maslow. safety.Maslow's Theory of Motivation . which were further expanded upon in his book: Toward a Psychology of Being The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs. Maslow's model indicates that fundamental. Unlike lower level needs." As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings. Abraham Maslow 's article "A Theory of Human Motivation " appeared in Psychological Review. Self-actualized people tend to have motivators such as: • Truth • Justice • Wisdom • Meaning Self-actualized persons have frequent occurrences of peak experiences. we are moving towards growth. survival. Dr. this need is never fully satisfied. and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. According to Maslow. lower-order needs like safety and physiological requirements have to be satisfied in order to pursue higher- level motivators along the lines of self-fulfillment. toward self-actualization. He called these needs "deficiency needs.

Physiological Needs Physiological needs are those required to sustain life. needs further up the pyramid will not receive attention until that need has been resolved. Internally motivating esteem needs are those such as self-esteem. Social Needs Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs. The first level of higher level needs are social needs. higher level motivators awaken. one's attention turns to safety and security in order to be free from the threat of physical and emotional harm. accomplishment.Esteem Needs After a person feels that they "belong". and self respect. External esteem needs are those such as reputation and recognition. if a person feels threatened. Esteem needs can be categorized as external motivators and internal motivators. such as: • Air • Water • Food • Sleep . Some examples of esteem needs are: • Recognition (external motivator) • Attention (external motivator) • Social Status (external motivator) • Accomplishment (internal motivator) • Self-respect (internal motivator) Maslow later improved his model to add a layer in between self-actualization and esteem needs: the need for aesthetics and knowledge. Social needs are those related to interaction with others and may include: • Friendship • Belonging to a group • Giving and receiving love Safety Needs Once physiological needs are met. the urge to attain a degree of importance emerges. Such needs might be fulfilled by: • Living in a safe area • Medical insurance • Job security • Financial reserves According to the Maslow hierarchy.

the needs for esteem. Let’s face it.6 or near to it). Quite a collection! 2. to rest. in that order. protein. to get rid of wastes (CO2. the needs for love and belonging. Likewise. to sleep. Also. Beyond the details of air. food. For example. but someone has put a choke hold on you and you can’t breath. and the need to actualize the self. sweat. water. you can do without food for weeks. and to have sex. you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first.According to this theory. there’s the needs to be active. of course. and feces). The safety and security needs. sugar. 1. but you can only do without water for a couple of days! Thirst is a “stronger” need than hunger. After all. if you are hungry and thirsty. calcium. to avoid pain. and sex. These include the needs we have for oxygen. On the other hand. and other minerals and vitamins. urine. the needs for safety and security. sex is less powerful than any of these. he laid out five broader layers: the physiological needs. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not recognized until one satisfies the needs basic to existence. When the physiological needs are largely taken care of. salt. this second layer of needs comes into play. water. was that some needs take precedence over others. You will become . They also include the need to maintain a pH balance (getting too acidic or base will kill you) and temperature (98. if you are very very thirsty. if these fundamental needs are not satisfied then one will surely be motivated to satisfy them. which is more important? The need to breathe. OR ABRAHAM MASLOW Theory One of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career. The physiological needs. you won’t die if you don’t get it! Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs.

be a part of a community. they are likely to become stronger as we “feed” them! They involve the continuous desire to fulfill potentials. self-actualization. achievement. The esteem needs. You begin to feel the need for friends. and freedom. a third layer starts to show up. affectionate relationships in general. they continue to be felt. this set of needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighborhood. Once engaged. It is also a part of what we look for in a career. have a family. and self-actualization.” They are a matter of becoming the most complete. The lower one is the need for the respect of others. recognition. by and large. mastery. Looking at it negatively. and so on. for order.Limitations and Criticism Though Maslow's hierarchy makes sense intuitively. a little job security and a nest egg. Maslow has used a variety of terms to refer to this level: He has called it growth motivation (in contrast to deficit motivation). Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs. appreciation. Actually. not with needs like hunger and thirst. it’s a lot harder to lose! Self-actualization The last level is a bit different. the fullest. but with your fears and anxieties. Note that this is the “higher” form because. once you have self-respect. independence. Next. These are needs that do not involve balance or homeostasis. glory. 3. a part of a gang or a bowling club. a lower one and a higher one. As an example. children. you become increasing susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties. a good retirement plan and a bit of insurance. you become concerned. even dominance. Maslow's Theory . reputation. some limits. we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry. a member of a church. When physiological needs and safety needs are. recent research challenges the order that the needs are imposed by Maslow's pyramid. even a sense of community. unlike the respect of others. competence. dignity. the need for status. Looked at negatively. being needs (or B-needs. “you” -. In our day-to-day life. 4.hence the term. In the ordinary American adult. In fact. fame. You might develop a need for structure. including such feelings as confidence. Maslow's hierarchy fails to explain the "starving artist" scenario. a sweetheart. in which the aesthetic neglects their physical needs to pursuit of aesthetic or spiritual . The higher form involves the need for self-respect. a brother in the fraternity. attention. social needs are placed more fundamentally than any others. in some cultures. to “be all that you can be. protection.increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances. Further. The love and belonging needs. taken care of. stability. we begin to look for a little self-esteem. little evidence supports its strict hierarchy. in contrast to D-needs).

other than situations where needs conflict. little evidence suggests that people satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time. ERG Theory of Motivation .Clayton P. Alderfer . Additionally.goals.

peers or superiors). OR To bring Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation in synchronization with empirical research. His rework is called as ERG theory of motivation. Growth needs.These include need for basic material necessities. Clayton Alderfer's revision of Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Clayton Alderfer redefined it in his own terms. Maslow’s self-actualization needs and intrinsic component of esteem needs fall under this category of need. and was created to align Maslow's motivation theory more closely with empirical research. He recategorized Maslow’s hierarchy of needs into three simpler and broader classes of needs: • Existence needs.These include the aspiration individual’s have for maintaining significant interpersonal relationships (be it with family." Alderfer's contribution to organizational behavior was dubbed the ERG theory (Existence.In 1969. Maslow’s social needs and external component of esteem needs fall under this class of need. Relatedness. called the ERG Theory appeared in Psychological Review in an article titled "An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Need. • Relatedness needs. The significance of the three classes of needs may vary for each individual. .These include need for self-development and personal growth and advancement. getting public fame and recognition. and Growth). In short. it includes an individual’s physiological and physical safety needs.

he might revert to the need for money to fulfill those socializing needs. if a higher. ERG Theory of motivation is very flexible as he perceived the needs as a range/variety rather than perceiving them as a hierarchy. For instance. frustration/aggravation can result in regression to a lower-level need. This is called frustration. the frustration.if an employee is not provided with growth and advancement opportunities in an organization. While according to ERG theory. an individual may revert to increase the satisfaction of a lower- level need. Thus. For instance. Thus. this will not effectively motivate the employee. an individual can work on growth needs even if his existence or relatedness needs remain unsatisfied. there is an increase in desire for satisfying a lower-level need. an individual cannot proceed to the higher-level need. he gives explanation to the issue of “starving artist” who can struggle for growth even if he is hungry. . Implications of the ERG Theory Managers must understand that an employee has various needs that must be satisfied at the same time. Also. ü While Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is rigid as it assumes that the needs follow a specific and orderly hierarchy and unless a lower-level need is satisfied. an individual remains at a particular need level until that need is satisfied.regression aspect of ERG theory.when growth need aggravates. ü ERG Theory also shows that if the fulfillment of a higher-level need is subdued. more than one need may be operational. if the environment or circumstances do not permit.level need aggravates. if the manager concentrates solely on one need at a time. The sooner the manager realizes and discovers this.Difference between Maslow Need Hierarchy Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory ü ERG Theory states that at a given point of time. then an individual might be motivated to accomplish the relatedness need and if there are issues in accomplishing relatedness needs. he might revert to the relatedness need such as socializing needs and to meet those socializing needs. ü According to Maslow. then he might be motivated by the existence needs. According to the ERG theory. the more immediate steps they will take to fulfill those needs which are frustrated until such time that the employee can again pursue growth.regression aspect of ERG Theory has an added effect on workplace motivation. According to Alderfer.

(9) A good working inter-personal relationship between leader and followers (10) Situation specific. organizing. . (12) Continuous. promotes morale and satisfaction. Leadership thus involves the following ingredients: (1) Ability to influence and persuade others (2) Seeking same defined group-goal or objectives (3) Enthuse people for willing acceptance of responsibility (or role) (4) Involvement of a group of people (5) Human factor to bind and motivate the group. which influences people to maximize productivity. (11) Generally emerges through a power relationship between leader and followers. dynamic process which changes with time. (7) Focus on human or people aspect of management. stimulates creativity for problem solving. (8) Managerial activity. staffing. (6) Important in achieving the management goal of planning. coordination and decision-making. and enthuses to achieve organizational objectives.INTRODUCTION TO LEADERSHIP Leadership is the art (or process) of influencing people for willingly and enthusiastically striving for the achievement of group goals. supervision. controlling.