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Muscadine Grape

Production Guide
For North Carolina

North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
NC State University

Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this
publication as a convenience to the reader. The use of brand names and any
mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not
imply endorsement by the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service or
discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Individuals
who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use
complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Be sure to
obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current
product label before applying any chemical. For assistance, contact your county
Cooperative Extension agent.

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.... 9 Planting the Vineyard................ 7 Commercial Nurseries ................................................. Contents Introduction ........... 12 Insect and Disease Pests ........................................................... 13 Mature Vines ...................................................................... 12 Post-Plant Fertility and Liming ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Varieties ........ 19 References .................................................... 7 Propagation.................. 18 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 Harvesting .............................. 13 Establishment ...................... 10 Irrigation ........................................................................................................................... 8 Trellis Arrangements .......................... 6 Site Selection ................................................................................................................ 8 Trellising ............................................................................. 19 3 ..... 5 Production Costs and Returns for Processing ......................... 14 Training ................................................................................................................... 12 Weed Control ...............................................................................................................................

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is prone to early tolerate temperatures below 10o F bud-break in some years. cold injury. markets. Increasing supplies of afforded by moderate. responsible spring frost/freeze injury if they Georgia’s larger-fruited musca- consumption. Varieties with good as Nesbitt. Adaptation. smaller- approximately 400 acres in 2002 Carolina’s main bronze muscadine fruited varieties like Carlos. This price is up sharply from those paid by wineries in the 1990s. They do not variety. North Carolina’s second most important muscadine winegrape variety. for example. Unfortunately. and farmers’ markets). Summit. such able regional interest due. Prices for processed muscadine grapes for wine have been rising. and to potential positive health effects cold hardiness may be prone to Supreme. in part. 5 . Even in traditional Direct marketing of fresh musca- North Carolina muscadine indus- muscadine production areas. For this reason. diversification option. This muscadine grape production (Figure 1). a North Carolina-bred limited plantings of specialty bouquet and are gaining consider- variety. industry’s recent turnaround. Noble. indig- enous to the southeastern United States. they are Muscadine products. Important probability of winter temperatures including muscadine grapes. Muscadine Grape Production Guide For North Carolina Introduction humid climate. North market prices for fresh. Carlos. Muscadine grape production area in North Carolina. most notably the wine varieties are grown. roadside in 1987. Figure1. The variety stands. Consumers’ number of North Carolina farmers production in the mountains. Triumph.). were as high as $750 per ton in 2002. interest in healthier diets and who are considering growing and foothills. and areas of the upper changing lifestyles have led to an marketing this fruit as a farm piedmont where there is a high increase in eating fresh fruit. guide will help the increasing not recommended for commercial and challenges. The state’s commer- tend to break bud early in the dines have depressed wholesale cial muscadine acreage rose to spring. which from 265 acres in 1996. and in 2002 reached in the range of $500 per ton. cold dines is quite popular in North try since this bulletin last appeared injury may occur if less cold-hardy Carolina (pick-your-own. are well adapted to a hot. changes have occurred in the below 10o F. escaped with little or no varieties for direct marketing. Ison. is a variety bred Commercial growers who produce North Carolina muscadine wines in Georgia that was severely muscadines primarily for process- are becoming more widely appre- injured by a late spring freeze in ing into wine often also have ciated for their distinctive fruity 2001. Muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Prices paid for Noble.

Water should not Potential uses include muscadine Thus. Treated 4” x 4” x 8’ Timbers 42** timbers 10. grape Nesbitt.620 for * 4 bracing posts per row multiplied by (209 feet per acre divided by 10 feet materials to establish an acre of between rows) equal 21 rows per acre. equip.560 Gross revenue – (Operating developed in Georgia. Figuring average quality grapes restrict drainage.00 Returns for Processing Total Cost Per Acre 2.67 448. spray.52 30 years with good pruning. such as Summit and possibly first multiplying 10 feet between a muscadine vineyard will barely Triumph.580 per acre. or bronze types. acre (8 tons multiplied by $90). It is Materials Needed (Per A (Per cre) Acre) ($ PPer er Item) ($ PPer er A cre) Acre) not unusual for a muscadine planting to produce for more than Treated 4” x 8” Posts 218 posts 4. Treated 6” x 8’ Posts 84* posts 7. if tobacco has dine juice with neutral and less per acre. A winery varieties for the fresh wholesale rows. harvesting is about $90 per ton. and 8 tons per acre by the Number Needed Cost Cost fourth and in subsequent years. in this example: $2.14 Wire. such as the black this spacing there are 218 vines per If the yield is 5 tons per acre. 20 feet between vines. In mature dines is internal soil drainage.200 per acre.00 436. rows by 20 feet between vines (in. should be no gray mottling in the proving that competitive products an 8 ton per acre crop could subsoil above a depth of 48 inches.00 180. Musca. *** 1.621. commer- winemaking or juice. purees. Or. Cost PPer er Acre for Materials third year. generate $3. muscadines. Net return to grower North Carolina because of their thetical acre is a square (approxi- sensitivity to winter cold injury. With annual operating done well on the site. mately 209 by 209 feet). break even at $450 per ton: fruited muscadine varieties the-row) and then dividing 43.250 – ($1. an 8-ton per acre crop would stand on the site after a normal syrups. such as square feet per acre by the product. Ideally there Research in Arkansas is also and a winery price of $450 per ton. Unobstructed Yields average 1 ton per acre in the second year. and from a ton of muscadine grapes is land costs are taken into account. annual operating costs Although wild muscadines survive the crop that is not used for are approximately $1. Computations are based per acre crop (before vineyard mainly for processing). Better on a spacing of 10 feet between costs are subtracted). muscadine expensive grape and other juices costs of $1. called The cost for custom mechanical cial producers must select a well- “pomace” (skin. A drip irrigation system adds choosing a planting site for musca- muscadine industry is supporting another $1.700 per acre (mainly for grapes should also do well. acre. 100-pound rolls of #9 galvanized 3 rolls*** 60. which is 84 bracing posts per acre muscadine grapes in North Carolina ** 2 timbers multiplied by 21 rows equal 42 timbers per acre (see Table 1). excluding labor. This number is arrived at by which is closer to the state average.20 ing. rain. and pulp). In the while still maintaining the unique pruning and spraying) and a piedmont.705 feet in length 6 . and a well-constructed trellis. crop might provide a return of other obstructions.is North Carolina’s most widely ment.14 902. Bunch the total establishment costs may Site Selection grapes yield 165 gallons or more easily be more than $5. the least 50 feet away from woods or dines are generally very productive. 3 tons per acre in the Table 1. At provide a return of $1. on a wide variety of soils. The North Carolina acre.700 per acre.00 Production Costs and Grape Vines 218 vines 2. land costs.200 per The most critical consideration in per ton. only 135 to 140 gallons. custom harvest cost of $720 per above the surrounding area and at Yields and vineyard life. and irrigation about $1. costs + Custom harvest costs) = Supreme.80 655.86 It costs approximately $2. seeds.600 in gross revenue Generally speaking. can be made by blending musca. are not appropriate in The configuration of this hypo. drained soil. plant on a site elevated fruity flavors of the muscadine. A number of the larger. and the subsoil should not value-added “niche” products.700 + $450 harvest) = $100/acre The juice yield (for use in wine) When labor. and a variety of cost about $720 per acre to harvest. and a price of $500 per ton would markets include larger-fruited single wire trellising system. research on uses of the portion of vineyards. equipment.180 per acre for an 8-ton planted bronze muscadine (grown equipment.

a The following winter or spring. Each shoot will root and grape Supreme has exceptional are Carlos. satellite stands. areas outside the coastal plain. Magnolia. Early yields. size and very good eating quality. Nesbitt Carlos. Doreen. form where the branch is covered. it is the standard process- ing variety in the state and it is also it is not likely to adapted well to At this stage. Cultivar Type Fruit Color Fruit Size Ripening Preferred row orientation is north to south. Magnolia. either female or perfect-flowered. and Late Fry. lay cold-hardy varieties. other Propagation important winegrape is Noble. Scarlett. Summit. leaving the tant new black muscadine variety Muscadine cultivars may be growing end exposed. Growers gated by layering vines in late June The fresh market demands should plant limited numbers of or July. varieties. Pick-Your-Own Nesbitt Carlos. cut markets) and fresh wholesale perfect-flowered variety must also the rooted portion from the old marketing to chain stores. cut off and discard the Home Garden Noble. and Nesbitt is these cultivars and evaluate them layering. FFrequently requently Recommended Muscadine Cultivars for North Carolina gate large quantities of plants with Use Black Cultivars Bronze Cultivars softwood cuttings taken during Wine Noble Carlos. take the entire fruiting arm. farm If a female cultivar is used. The leading variety. Magnolia and immediately after bloom in Fresh Market. Roots will for both direct marketing (U-pick. Sterling Self-fertile Bronze Medium Mid represents most of the acres of Summit Female Pinkish Large Mid muscadine grapes in North Caro. Supreme Female Black Very Large Mid-late lina.locations allow air to drain away Table 3. Triumph tender tip. such as Supreme. Triumph. The second most is not the primary use. June. Five of the most leaving the tips of the shoots above Although the new Georgia black consistently cold-hardy cultivars ground. a large number of plants by layer- are three of the most consistently Some home gardeners grow ing. Nesbitt. however. Pam. Triumph Self-fertile Bronze Medium Large Early tion potential and is a dual-use variety. and make the cutting from the rest of the shoot. and Sterling proper pollination. only a few account for Noble Self-fertile Black Medium Mid most of the commercial production Scarlett Female Red Large Mid acreage. but it is strictly a processing Fry. Cowart Self-fertile Black Medium Mid Doreen Self-fertile Bronze Medium Late Early Fry Female Bronze Large Very Early Varieties Fry Self-fertile Bronze Very Large Very Late Of the numerous muscadine grape Nesbitt Self-fertile Black Large Mid-late varieties. If wine small berry size. Fry. Noble and muscadines in areas that are the arm in a shallow trench. be planted in order to assure vine and transplant. Black Layering Noble is outstanding for its high Fry. than varieties bred in Georgia. To propagate Carlos. there are still no acceptable for fresh local market. wholesale markets because of its varieties is not exhaustive. Characteristics of Muscadine Cultivars from the vineyard on cold nights. simply cover a portion of quickly becoming the most impor. Softwood Cuttings It is easier and quicker to propa- Table 2. Leave 7 . form a new plant. for specific markets. but it is not recommended for The above list of muscadine muscadines for fresh market sales. Carlos. Carlos has excellent produc. Noble. used in the coastal plain. and Nesbitt are also more cold hardy marginal due to cold winter cover it with 4 to 5 inches in soil. temperatures. ready-pick. may be Muscadine grapes can be propa- grape due to its small berry size. To obtain new plants by larger fruit size. a new shoot with soil. and Sterling. commercially acceptable seedless ing. Using the current season’s Summit shoots. topography of Black Fry Female Black Large Mid-late the vineyard site may dictate a Carlos Self-fertile Bronze Medium Mid different row orientation.

Use cient to support the trellis. Commercial Nurseries should last up to 20 years.by 20-foot 1 tablespoon of 20-20-20 soluble heartwood in each post is suffi- spacing. the single wire system pine posts.four nodes on each 4. Gently shake the rooting adequately with a proven material. remove the The GDC system requires 12. just muscadine grape nurseries can be prevent deterioration or destruc. Store the rooted cuttings at Rows (feet) Vines (feet) Per A cre Acre treated wood.xls. available in the marketplace. Be sure the amount of can be reduced to 10. making them more versatile than tives are highly toxic. the (chromated copper arsenate) has strikes than wood posts. found on the Web at http:// tion caused by insects. • Wire slots provide more built-in www. Wood posts. such as metal posts When the cuttings have rooted are available. Number of Vines PPer er Acre remove the rooted cuttings from • Make sure the wood is treated at Various Spacings Various the bed. Most wood preserva. and wood treated with these close to 100 percent by using mist • Pruning takes less time and is preservatives are expected to be nozzles that deliver about 2 easier. Keep the cuttings Observation and research have nounced a voluntary decision by moist to avoid wilting and space shown that muscadine yield is 20 industry to move away from them out on a 3-by-4-inch spacing to 25 percent higher with a GDC consumer use of CCA treated in a propagation bed containing a system than with a single wire lumber by December 31. wood posts. in mixture of 1 part coarse sand and 1 system. but cutting. pressure. In gallons per hour at 30 to 50 pounds • Blueberry mechanical harvesters addition. nent location. but the single wire system favor of new alternative wood part peat. when using chemically treated posts: Table 4. On February 12. 38° to 40° F in sealed plastic or in a 10 20 218 • Plant vines at least 1 foot away protected cold frame until late 11 20 207 from posts treated with a March or early April. EPA an- two leaves. Posts of durable (after 4 to 6 weeks). untreated wood (e. Sap- 1 gallon per 25 square feet of plant number of vines per acre. nurserycommdatabase. 2002.g. As long as the shade. number of vines per acre. Maintain humidity crossarms are unnecessary. watering only when needed. the bunch grape poor root systems should be Posts industry has been turning to steel grown in a nursery row a year Posts should be long-lasting. Small plants with Recently.smallfruits. fungi.org/ bacteria. Allow the plants to harden by offer durable support.to 6-inch system has been the predominant treatment of vineyard posts. Table 4 wood rots quickly and does not shows how row spacing effects the bed. • Row spacing may be decreased. but are usually harder to grower’s equipment will negotiate and fertilize once a week until obtain and cost more then treated mid-September with a solution of the width. EPA. then plant 12 20 181 preservative (CCA. organisms. Gradually reduce misting. cedar and locust) and nonwood night or on very humid days. and remove the bottom trellising system in North Carolina. Take the following precautions Before freezing weather occurs. In the past. sive. 13 20 167 pentachlorophenol). string your wires. “Preser. or them in the field in their perma. • Easier to use than wood posts. mixture from the roots. Geneva Double Curtain (GDC) been widely used in the past for 8 . 2003. Trellising The wood preservative CCA • Better for grounding lightening New information. No misting is needed at may be used to harvest grapes. This increases the total fertilizer per gallon of water.by natural woods may be less expen- 20-foot spacing. which offer the following before planting them in the posts should be treated with a advantages: vineyard. A number of preser- to block out about 50 percent of the • Installation costs are less since vatives have been registered by direct sunlight. creosote. or other wood-destroying options for placement of wires. alternatives. vative” means any chemical used • Ready to use once they are The names and addresses of in treating wood to retard or driven into the ground. preservative for in-ground use and • Easier to install than wood posts. Use shade cloth or lath has several advantages: preservatives.. and Distance Distance Number of • Do not allow vines to make remove any leaves that are on the Between Between Vines direct contact with freshly plants.

The end brace it 6 feet from the outside brace post post is 8 ½ feet long. are not needed. and placed less than 3 to 4 inches in diameter 4 feet in the ground at a slightly Line posts 8 feet long are placed used for interior positions. Research has indicated a 2 1/2’ slight yield advantage in orienting 4 1/2’ vineyard rows in a north-south 6’ 2 1/2’ direction. making a final decision on bracing 3/ 16 Dia. There are several methods for bracing end posts.. Twisted Trellis Arrangements 6’ 20’ 2’ 2 1/2’ Vertical One-Wire Trellis Bracing and supporting posts (interior) should be at least 8 feet in length. Place is placed below ground level. Construction details of the Geneva Double Curtain. such as slope and ability to move equipment. but other factors. apart (Figure 3). Two outward angle. etc. • More fruit harvested with less #9 Wire beater power of a harvester and less damage to costly vines. Posts no smaller than Figure 2. Use tractor- powered posthole augers and post drivers to install posts. • Quality is more consistent than #9 Wire wood posts. 9 . and new growers should visit several #9 Wire 4 x 4” or 4 1/2’ Equivalent established vineyards before 2 x 4 x 45 Bolt Spreader 5” Min. The Vertical One-Wire Trellis for Muscadine Grapes. A 6 ½-foot post is 2 ½ feet in the ground and 20 feet and one-half feet of the line post used as an inside brace post. tion Costs and Returns). staples. Brace end posts according to Figure 2 using Number 9 galva- #11 Wire nized wire. Most bracing tech.• Wire clips.600 per acre for materials (see section on Produc- Figure 3. A rachet strainer at the Bo iniz 8” lt ed end of each row may be used to al x G 3/8 help establish and maintain wire 2 x 4” or v 29” 4’ Equivalent tension. at least establishing the wire and vine height at 5 1/2 feet. may be overriding 4’ factors.to 30-degree angle to the 14’ Twisted ground. 5 to 6 inches in diameter should be used for bracing and with posts no Geneva Double Curtain Trellis 5 inches in diameter. Post making harvesting more effi- 5’ 5’ cient. procedure. Set line posts 20 feet apart in the row. 20’ ”B 5 1/2 ‘ olt niques set the end posts deeper than interior posts with braces at a 4’ #9 Wire 15. A vertical one-wire trellis with 10-by-20-foot vine spacing costs about $2.

The most popular the bottom of the outside brace Space between rows (post to post) row width spacing for the post. Space piece of lumber between the top of post so that supports form a “Y”. place a izer. year before planting. the main wires. Both main wires recommended for the Geneva commercially fabricated from are fastened to the top of the double curtain. Plan on an used. Run a Both should have angles approxi- mowers. The supports are Key Factors to Consider Before slightly more productive 29 inches long and predrilled Planting vineyard than east-west row 2 inches from the end to accommo- Land preparation should begin the orientation when standard date 3/8-by-8-inch galvanized vertical one-wire training is bolts. Soil pH and fertility. usually mid. After select- 4. 8 3/ Approx. tractors. Use Number 9-gauge wire for feet. deal with internal water Collect soil samples about 8 to ¾ inch washer over the loop and drainage problems. galvanized steel. needed by harvesters. The brace wires are trellis. Row spacing and equipment. These cross arms are made mize soil erosion. there was very drilled from the other end of the early spring planting after danger of hard freeze is past. the two posts as a brace. and land and the shape of the field arms are very durable and easy to then run down either side of the are the major determinants of install on the posts. allow the Number 11-gauge brace March to mid-April. However. Row orientation. 10 . Do not crowd your vineyard. one-wire and the GDC trellis. Here are 8 key factors to con- 24” sider in selecting a vineyard site Flat Washer 3/8” Hole #11 Wire and in preparing it for planting: Chain Repair Link 1. and other equipment is double Number 9-gauge wire from mately 35 degrees with the ground the major factor determining the top of the inside brace post to and measure 4 feet from tip to tip. Wire to trellis through chain repair links. and twist to tighten the entire should be no less than 10 feet. little difference with Geneva support parallel to the ground to double curtain-trained vines. 35o 2” 69” Wire to Ground 2. it quickly attached to the cross arm braced in the same way. (cross-slope planting) to mini- used. space both plants and posts 20 and position a 4 x 4 or equivalent now fastened around the top of the feet apart in the row. especially if land is available 54” to Ground and relatively inexpensive. are generally outside brace post. These through a 45-inch spreader. two wires are tightened around the at right angles to the slope Wooden cross arms also can be top of the outside brace post. If the land has support the plantings can be The opposite end of the trellis is more than a 2 percent slope. Row Post width on slopes and especially on contours must be wider than on level land. step in good vineyard fertility the loop end of the doubled wire management is a soil test. After passing ing the best site. row width. For addi- loop (Figure 4). and the may be advisable to align rows with a hairpin-type clip. and establish the 10 inches deep no later than the attach a chain repair link to the fall before planting. Field shape. On both vertical Figure 4. eliminate perennial weeds. vertical one-wire trellis is 10 brace system. North-south from Number 2 grade 2-by-4’s or Planting the Vineyard row orientation results in a the equivalent. row direction. An additional hole is pre. threaded 3. test the soil and till in any needed lime and fertil. Choose a row direction that maximizes row lt Bo length for important equip- d 12” n ize ment-efficiency gains and a lvi 2” x 4” Treated ’G Support or reduced end-structure invest- x8 Equivalent ment and maintenance costs. through the support. The support system for the GDC. The first wire to pass through. The slope of the used with new plantings. A row width of 12 feet is Metal cross arms (supports).

8 to 10 inches. Lime is usually necessary planting. This hand or tractor auger and should also based on the soil test operation should be completed be several times larger than the recommendations 6 months by early March of the planting root ball of the grapevine. Planting on the refrigerated area (38 to 40° F). In North Carolina the ideal below) and the land has been Bed up so that they are 4 to 6 planting window for dormant plants adequately tilled. along the north side of a building. moisten (but do control in muscadines see the against the posts may result in not wet) the roots. early rather than late. of water or wrapped in wet burlap. and After planting. apply lime inches higher than the sod occurs between April 7 and May 7. mowing. and harvesting. plants. it is better to plant dations. wide-spectrum systemic herbicides 11 . Perennial weeds and Plants. minimize winter injury. vine roots should 5. and store them in a plant injury from the toxic wood Chemicals Manual. contact your mont. which often Prepare the soil as thoroughly injury may occur. One-year-old. Setting vines planting weather.edu/agchem. and plow it year (Figure 5). middles in coastal plain grow. Bedding up rows in coastal plain. is possible but increased winter magnesium. Never place fertilizer fescue sod cover in the pied. well as or better than layered johnsongrass. Construct trellises by early March. Planting holes and alignment. These tubes also allowed Figure 5. vines 1 to 2 inches deeper than thoroughly to a depth of they were growing in the nursery. Control becomes much the soil surface immediately.ncsu. Fescue sod middles to control planting. becomes deficient in muscadine as for planting corn or tobacco. agent. sure to set vines directly under the trellis. Weeds. seal the plants North Carolina Agricultural in plastic bags. such as bermudagrass. Vines Planting. After 6. allow earlier spring planting and in- crease the rate of growth. At the Castle Hayne Research Station. which is also preservatives. water the vines. properly brambles. If available on the Web at http:// north side of posts may help to this is not possible. If the row vulnerable to freeze and drought covering of at least a foot of loose middles are to be planted to a straw or similar material. plants. To avoid damage. plastic cylinders 24 to 36 inches tall and 3 to 4 inches in diameter. honeysuckle. most years. Plant the before planting. Be freeze damage to tender growth. Grow tubes. vines out of line are more likely to be injured by cultivation. the young vines are and protect them well with a erosion in the piedmont. Dolomitic lime is ing areas. first-year plant growth in the 36-inch tubes was nearly twice as much as those grown without tubes. the longer planting is to raise the pH to 6. Keep clean strips However. heel them in ipm. Fall planting preferred because it contains 8. seed in the late summer postpone planting until there is county Cooperative Extension or early fall of the year before little chance of a hard freeze. Grow tubes. In according to soil test recommen. planted. suffer from high temperatures and removed from the site (see 7. For the nursery prior to suitable should be planted 12 to18 inches recommendations on weed from the posts. drought. directly in the planting hole. Rooted cuttings survive as be temporarily submerged in a pail grasses. are relatively easy to grown plants are as good as and Pack the soil firmly after the hole is kill before the vineyard is filled and irrigate or hand water usually better than older plants. If plants arrive from more difficult after planting.html. Bracing and interior posts should be set before vineyard is planted. Plants and Planting During planting. After where the vineyard row is delayed the more likely plants will problem weeds have been located. tional information.5. Incorporate the lime and then lay off the rows and set the The planting holes can be dug by any recommended phosphate posts before planting.

sprayers or vines can sufficiently mended recently only in the deep 2) wetting of foliage. herbicides. study. Overhead irrigation can be used herbicides with green leaves or in a drought. Prevention is and Liming ever type of irrigation is used. Overfertilizing and are willing to invest the also be made before weeds during an extreme drought may capital. especially for the stems may injure the plant. weed management in young muscadines to control able. Any emerged weeds damage vines. Proper tilling 10-10-10 in a 18-inch circle around soil to dry out before irrigating techniques and systemic herbicides each vine beginning 2 weeks after again. Since grapes are agent for a list of herbicides usually nonbearing during these Weed Control labeled for grapes. 36-inch tubes produced the an authorized irrigation dealer in Once the grapes begin to grow. seeds germinate. cals Manual or local Extension first three years. During periods in which can minimize or eradicate many planting. water per week is usually ad. overhead irrigation is In recent years some growers acceptable and preferable. If applications of must. at least two desirable to adjust fertilizer rates during the growing season. during the past decade maintain control throughout the same intervals. such as chipped hardwood. When the vines begin growing. Water from most wells followed within a few days by benefits. but it requires a preemergence. such as bermudagrass and Generally apply 1/4 pound of Water thoroughly and allow the johnsongrass. years. Here is where an irrigation. In the Castle Hayne highly recommended that you ask reduced. then hand watering of newly is extremely important. weigh the added sand filter for water from ponds preemergence herbicides are not costs of these tubes against the and lakes. 1 inch of problem weeds before planting. greatest total growth per season. contact. new vineyard. and on windy days. unless it has high iron content. but this is a of weeds should be part of site mulch. Never fertilize after makes the most efficient use of should be hoed or sprayed with a the first week in July since this water. pound of cure. double the equate. them. treat the soil with intervals. and repeat every 6 weeks little or no rainfall occurs. but it has the properly. systemic or contact herbicide may lead to winter damage and 12 . planted vines can be accomplished in the planting section. especially critical with perennial avoid overwatering the vines. What. It is sometimes droughts have been common growing season. and they range in quality. If applications of these herbicides are to compensate for the effects of growers have a clean water source required. which can protect vines from herbicide South (e. The second spray should rain or drought. If During the first three years of a have experimented with mulches overhead irrigation is not avail. and soak ounce of prevention is worth a Post-Plant Fertility ost-Plant hoses have also been used. If used Irrigation non-bearing years. Mississippi) and is not increase disease. To rate of 1/2 pound per vine at the However. a preemergence herbicide. grow tubes and home- following disadvantages: made or commercial shields for Irrigation has only been recom- 1) high initial investment. Consult your Irrigation on wine muscadines is 4) reduction of fruit set if used North Carolina Agricultural Chemi- normally not necessary after the during the pollinating period. You efficient method. moving guns. the drip irrigation system. your area to evaluate your vine. Drip preparation. For many years North control of these weeds is much application rate to 1/2 pound per Carolina growers were able to more problematic. Before weed vine applied at the same time grow grow muscadines success. time-consuming method. In the third year use a fully without any irrigation. take great care to prevent any Remove grow tubes before early yard site and to properly design contact with systemic or contact winter to avoid any cold damage. As stated weeds and reduce drought stress. and price. weeds.to be applied close to young plants Drip irrigation is the most before the soil is treated with the with little possibility of injury. Avoid spraying herbicides common in North Carolina. 3) inefficient use of water. a drip irrigation system emerge. Any contact of these The tubes are reusable. however.g. elimination It is probably best to use a durable with a water trailer. It is their activity is often greatly size. Several companies carry can be filtered inexpensively irrigation or substantial rainfall. up through the first week in July. During the second year.

80 to 1. but plant out the life of the vineyard. winter. tive Extension agent for specific Boron: Boron deficiency may Element (Unit) Optimal Range Range result in poor fruit set. samples to the Agronomic Divi. causing and early July. the alert grower established in an old pasture. Send a fairly severe problem. Shoot growth is short and leaves recommendations.14 to 0.70 to 1. no single previously a well-established between the veins while the veins method is completely accurate. oldest leaves are the least green. Appropriate LLevels evels of unless the entire vine is extremely cals Manual or your local Coopera- Nutrients Based on FFoliar oliar Analysis deficient. Apply any Fertilizer Deficiency Visible symptoms generally do not mulch or compost during the Symptoms appear until the vine is critically previous fall.20 newer terminal leaves are affected damage. and boron. monitoring boron status. As a vine becomes uses all means available to develop an extra effort to kill grass during more deficient in magnesium. Excessive boron causes the vine. spray as and shoots. To be most effec. Chloro- trends and change in nutrient large numbers on land that was sis. foliar analysis is important in due to nitrogen being released into tion are nitrogen. plant injury. Leaf recommendations. Place the leaves in a paper However. too much nitrogen will Establishment growth. each shoot shoots. magnesium. a common recommenda- Accurate determination of It is important to maintain soil pH tion has been to apply 5 pounds per fertilizer needs is essential.25 the most noticeable are the die- Boron (ppm) 15 to 25 borders to repel or attract the back of terminal shots and the Copper (ppm) 5 to 10 beetles. Iron (ppm) 60 to 120 clearly proved its effectiveness. or very early In North Carolina the elements deficient in this micronutrient. phosphorus. not persist over the entire growing Magnesium: Deficiency symp- sion. Japanese beetles feed on is severe. few insects or possibly deficiencies in other opposite fruit clusters on fruiting diseases are usually encountered. If the vineyard is to be remain green. Unfortunately. eliminating grass. Consult the leaves may never show symptoms North Carolina Agricultural Chemi- Table 5. gives a “Christmas Consequently. Foliar analysis determines the are smaller than on vines with actual nutritional status of the adequate nitrogen.12 to 0. Ideally.18 magnesium deficiency. Manganese (ppm) 60 to 150 milky spore disease is frequently Boron deficiency is more common Molybdenum (ppm) 0. pasture. The bloom. Unless the deficiency tive. however. the growing season preceding chlorosis becomes more intense in lar vineyard. Growers inclined toward Nitrogen (%) 1. Collect a double fist During the 2 to 3 years required late ripening of the crop and full of mature leaves located for establishment. Take leaf samples in June result in excessive growth. Japanese beetles can be should grow 30 to 36 inches each bag and allow them to dry. On the other Insect and Disease Pests Pests plants during critical periods of hand.10 rather than older leaves. Young terminal concentration are shown in Table 5. 13 . Annual at 6. Zinc (ppm) 18 to 35 grub stage. willing to accept a greater level of Potassium (%) 0.35 used in an attempt to control the on sandy soils with a high pH. or yellowing of the leaves levels. Appropriate levels planting.65 to 2. the fertilizer program for a particu. continue the practice from needed. so spring to minimize winter injury most likely to limit grape produc. They do growing season.possibly crown gall.15 symptoms are similar to those of sustainable agriculture may be Phosphorus (%) 0. do not exceed boron but the cost is minimal. Sprays and/or cultiva- older leaves and progresses to based on whole-leaf nutrient tion are effective methods for younger leaves. acre of Borax (10 percent) every soil tests may be used. 2 years or spray annually with foliar analysis has been proven to Nitrogen: Foliage of vines 1 pound per 100 gallons of water of be the most accurate way to deficient in nitrogen are green to Solubor (20 percent) just before determine the nutritional status of yellowish over the entire vine. make tree” effect. it does not become year to year to help establish grass roots and may emerge in evident until late summer. often several from each node. vineyards. Although no research has prolific growth of lateral shoots.0 with dolomitic lime through. potassium. This service is not free. They may also try inter- Calcium (%) 0. elements. Probably planting companion plants or Magnesium (%) 0.15 to 0.to 6-week period. For mature the soil late in the season. North Carolina Department season but normally feed over a toms develop first on basal leaves of Agriculture. 4.

occasion- second or third season after covered with a white fungus ally causing a marginal leaf burn planting. and the entire fruit may rot just tive fruit disease. For instance. harvest. Ripe growths. but injury. the yellow spots become more Magnolia) are more susceptible. Rotted grapes turn bacterium frequently associated present and infections are not dark brown over part or all of the with gall formation on grape vines. A regular spray Black rot causes a circular program with an effective fungi- (acervuli) erupting through the brown leaf spot and a black scab cide plus an insecticide is highly skin of the fruit. Fall planting exposes new control requires high pressure and to ripen. Timely harvesting harvest. and galls may form all profitable production. near harvest. and young much damage in sprayed vine- shoots. Angular leaf spot is an important skinned cultivars (Noble. dark. Fry seasons. Black rot seldom causes is essential to produce the high fruit stems. sunken. with spore-bearing structures Fungicides. Just before sometimes not visible until the soft cordons and trunks of vines. cultivars tend to have less ripe rot. the disease can small particles. round with distinct edges in the the disease often increases and undergrowth near vines will early part of the season. develop in the center of the spots. The fungus infects tendrils. usually severe. lesions may or may not fall to the ground beneficial and profitable. Repeated early season growth. noticeable. develops around the black spot. As cultivars (Carlos. spread rapidly to other ripe fruit. the yield and quality of the and removal of leftover fruit at the around the initial lesion. Avoid excessive late-season Bitter rot can be a very destruc. Generally speaking. these spots may the vineyard. rots. As men- are more resistant. Infected grapes are disease control program in the most muscadine grapes. Pride) leaf disease. yields of quality grapes that are yards. irregularly shaped usually necessary. A halo end of the season help reduce fruit grapes are reduced. Grape root borer is not a threat fungus growth disappears. Growers should establishment in a vineyard. blast to break the material into the vineyard. while bronze tioned earlier. the 14 . Scuppernong. occur. Controlling Major Diseases The most devastating losses to this Resistance. Infection occurs fertilizing to reduce disease and before harvest. As the grapes enlarge. light yellow while Triumph is not. dark-skinned spots first appear on the leaves. black fruit spots that are Mowing or otherwise reducing As the growing season progresses. but since no fruit is usually rot disease. If heavy defoliation develop a greasy-looking soft rot occurs. Rotted grapes on grapes. Chemical control is not appear on the leaves of musca. Reduce Macrophoma rot causes small. Powdery mildew attacks berry Pierce’s disease is a bacterial In new vineyards. is very susceptible to ripe rot. dines during the establishment become the most damaging fruit Crown gall is caused by a period. spore masses on the surface. The disease usually A good sprayer for disease and rot infections can occur at any occurs in association with freeze insect control is essential for stage of fruit development. To cover the fruit infected in the green (unripe) along the length of the trunk and leaf and fruit surface for disease stages do not rot until they begin cordons. diseases through cultural practices. Appar. leaves. among Symptoms of Major Diseases cultivars during rainy harvest large-fruited bronze cultivars. grapes become rough-skinned Carlos. Infections are the likelihood of winter injury to shortly after bloom. possible with the newer varieties. As harvest improve air movement through causes extensive defoliation by approaches. Faint. Plant disease-resistant Mature Vines disease occur on susceptible cultivars. avoid propagating from symptom- Symptoms of black rot may Ripe rot also causes a grape rot atic vines. infected grapes turn black rot stage occurs. Once infected grapes vines to freeze injury and should many nozzles or a high-speed air begin to rot and produce spores in be avoided. sprays are not grape and have pink or orange Galls are fleshy. irregular brown flecks Cultural Practices. Grape susceptible and may be killed by degree of shade for successful drop and reduced size of grapes the bacterium. In recent years it has available. begin the clusters and young grapes just pathogen of little importance on after flowering. The cultivar Pride is highly ently the borer requires some (russetted) and may crack. but the on susceptible cultivars such as during the first 3 years. An occur on the young stems and effective disease control program before harvest. Occasionally.

once egg laying. Additional individual vineyards. This attracts males for mating. and pupation occurs near the soil trapping and mating confusion of wood. leaves. Full-grown borers Henderson. leaves. and eventual death of bases of grape vines during their 7-day life. applications of fungicides (May. Adults emerge from the pupal case pheromone are under investigation. root. and Apply a quart dilute mixture of production. However. Pupal skins shed Onslow. especially from noon to 4 p. Resistant root stocks show some fly only by day and bear a striking June-July) are the most effective. Proper are whitish with brown heads. female moths lay some 500 eggs indis.Table 6.m. with a herbicide low-pressure apparent. FFungicide ungicide Effectiveness in Control of Grape Diseases* counties will be verified as grow- ers and Extension personnel Macro Macro-- Fungicide Angular Bitter Powdery Ripe phoma Black Plant closely examine vineyards. In larger roots this technique. resemblance to wasps. The grape root borer are in progress using a mass several times or run with the grain overwinters in the larval stage. The effect of borer vine. Other (4. can very readily be finding a root. Do Detection. physical barrier that prevents adult previous damage by borers or emergence. crested fly catchers. discoloration. and dead vines for Rutherford. loss of vigor and criminately on weeds. The grape root borer has been Tests in North Carolina indicate and eventual death follows over a that plastic or ridges of soil placed period of years. They are dark brown with two orange and yellow bands on females.0 lb/acre) XXXX XXXX 0 XXX XXX XXXXX XXXXX fireflies. Wilting. reported on bunch grapes in around the base of vines provide a ened. and larvae enter the soil in search of sprayer 35 days before harvest. grape root borer adults are more Grape Root Borer A periodic and constant surveil- sluggish than wasps.0 lb/acre) 0 0 XXXXX 0 0 0 XXXX parasites and predators undoubt- Nova 40WP edly exist. loss of production. August. eats through the the abdomen and have orange- approached and killed. xxxxx = very effective or very safe) able. Richmond.0 oz/acre 0 XXXX XXXX 0 X XXXX XXXXX weather conditions are unfavor- *(0 = ineffective or injurious. releases a strong sex attractant that excavate an irregular burrow. Females. their hind pair of wings are clear and in lance of vineyards during July and The grape root borer is a native August could reduce infestation species belonging to a family of flight have less rapid wing vibra- through elimination of adult insects known as clear-winged tions. Jones. The pupal commercial availability of the found along the underside of the stage requires about 39 days. Grape root borer not let spray contact the fruit or injury first appears as discolored roots. Lorsban 4E at the rate of 4 1/2 Large numbers of borers cause pints in 100 gallons of water. Lenoir. they fail to control the grape root borer. Make a single application feeding may not be immediately day. Cleveland. be determined for areas and near the base of vines in August Robeson. counties. when (5. Reports on muscadine grapes have been verified in timing (about August 1) is critical sparsely covered with stiff hairs. Stokes. The cycle is repeated in foliage. a number of fungi. Also. promise. but will not be available commercially for many years. 2 years. Identification and excavation is most likely to be surface in June and July. Severe pruning and girdling Grape root borers can be of roots lessens the feeding area of at the soil line during July and controlled with chemicals. Apply the vine. and a Wettable Sulfur species of nematodes. and Onslow weeds around young vines. Pender. Johnston. and Bladen counties. once engaged in moths. with this procedure and needs to 1 ¾ inches long. Natural enemies include barn swallows. After mating. weakening the plant. (Rate/A (Rate/A cre) ate/Acre) Leaf Spot R ot Rot Mildew Rot Rot Rot Rot R ot Rot Safety Control. The female outer bark and then begins to colored tufts on the tips of the abdomen. Flight occurs during the spray to the soil at the base of the the vine. wilting. Anson. However. larvae of (4. Moore. Adults 15 . mocking- Captan 50WP birds. The larva or borer. Examine weak. Mecklenburg. It also helps control actual feeding. Studies burrow may encircle the root Life Cycle. are also signs of infestation. Eggs hatch in about 15 days.

which means working Pruning Mature Vines from buds set on the previous on each vine once a week through. Training arising from older wood usually mass of unproductive and often establishes the optimal shape and diseased wood. If you have productivity. however. irrigation. Framework of vine. muscadine vine. year’s growth (Figure 8). String or Wire whether it is a healthy. 16 . Choose two of these lateral branches and begin training them along the wire as future cordons. vines need regular training (Figure 6). Various materials renew the fruitfulness of vines appropriate amount of last year’s are used for attaching vines to the wood on the vine. Hence. Continually remove lateral suckers along the trunk in order to direct all the plant’s growth into the growing tips of the Permanent Arm cordons. Shoots Unpruned vines become a tangled out the growing season. so girdling is the arrangement and number of borne on current season shoots. The current standard mate. good Post producer or a weakened. Until the cordons reach full length. The only vineyard supply companies. poor producer because of the lack of good cultural practices. remove all fruit at the earliest possible stage in order to direct growth to the desired shoots. Cultural methods like weed control. Figure 7 shows the are unfruitful. fertilization. not common. and weekly Nail cultivation (disturbance of top 1 inch of soil) help reduce injury. The difference in the VW and GDC is healthy fruit-bearing wood. One-year-old where annual pruning has been stake. Pruning principles position of the vine for vineyard are the same whether you are vine structure of a properly management and maximum training your muscadine vines to a pruned muscadine. Training During the first two or three Figure 6. The VW system has Train the young vines up the two permanent fruiting arms or stake or string to the wire. pinch it back to approximately 4 inches Fruiting Spur below the wire. use the steps in shoot and training it up a bamboo Most important is to leave an “Pruning Neglected Vines” to stake or string. wood is the only source of fruitful neglected. Fruit is tape seems to decay. Proper training is “inherited” a poorly managed vertical wire (VW) trellis or a accomplished by selecting a single Geneva Double Curtain (GDC). rial is a plastic tape sold by most Pruning is a key to maintaining shoots on the plant. is a Stub deciding factor in the decline of a Buds Stake Cut vine as a result of injury by borers. Figure 7. This will encourage a V-shaped branching. When the vine reaches the wire. the condition of the vine. Likewise. years. these shoots must arise fruiting arms. Methods of training a young vine. cut back side shoots to approximately 4 to 6 inches during Trunk the growing season. clean cultivation.

than to wait until the fourth or fifth fruiting season (7. On young vines. It is previous year to fruiting spurs. fruiting. 7. They are especially cordons. After pruning mechanical hedging equipment. As the vine grows older.” or “spurs. Older comes cold-injured. leave the per 10’ arm). use great Prune where caution when pruning with any bars show cuts. 1-year-old “shortened canes. AND TRAIN A NEW CANE TO REPLACE IT. Musca- dine pruning is quite simple and can be accomplished with a mechanical hedger or hand pruners. the GDC has four perma. remove wood that has grown at the top of the trunk. Grapevines grow tendrils that Figure 8. One-year wood and spurs. 4” Fruiting Spur 4. 6. (about 25 spurs 2. These clusters are called Figure 9.to 8-year-old vine). bind to the trellis or whatever is nearby. To Step-by-step pruning: 3. This thinning back all 3-inch-long wood the trunk or fruiting arm of the (called “canes”) that grew the will force new spur growth to vine. prune remove all tendrils attached to of these bearers. begin to thin out some 1.to 6- year-old vine). After the 4th or 5th year of prevent girdling damage. 17 . Wood REMOVE IT ENTIRELY BACK TO THE HEAD OF THE VINE. replace these older bearers. In the dormant season. or broken. Experience has shown that it is (1 Year Wood) better to gradually thin out the older bearers starting in the third fruiting season (5. If an arm be- Thicker. This helps to maintain vigorous growth and good yields along the lengths of the fruiting arms. (of 1-year-old wood) close to the original fruiting arm. it will develop clusters of spurs at each of these locations on the fruiting arm.” about 6 inches apart. However. “bearers” (approximately bothersome when they encircle nent arms or cordons (Figure 9). 6 inches apart). Vines pruned in late winter will critical to keep fruiting spurs No scientific evidence suggests Harvesting of muscadine grapes that yields or fruit quality in muscadines will be improved by more time-consuming “balanced pruning” methods or Before Pruning more complex formulas used in bunch grape pruning. Each year. the trunk or fruiting arms. Pruning a mature vine. 5.

that do not have good trunks (Eastern Type) Bunch Grape starting in the vine’s third fruiting and fruiting arm structures. fruit that is to be used for fresh dormant season. Berries are begins in early September and arise in the spring from the usually shaken from the vine by continues through October. Magnolia. sales. the procedure entire crop. clip the entire cluster with shears. club. are easily removed from away from the permanent fruiting volved in a renewal project. Before Pruning Mechanized harvest: Mechani- cal harvesters permit once-over harvest for grapes to be processed. and if the older renovating poorly trained vines container. Bulk bins After Pruning handled with forklifts are used with harvesters. Carlos. Some varieties. If this occurs. renewal area for training into a striking the trellis with a padded depending on location and new fruiting arm. there is back half of the vines the first Other varieties (Fry. nonbearing second year to avoid losing an cluster and have wet stem scars. commonly perforated fresh marketing and in one during the summer. Generally. but it 4. This equipment is very expensive. Eventually. Unlike the American bearers are gradually thinned out. Remove all other shoots that them into a suitable sized con- picked over several harvests for develop from the renewal area tainer. completing the mechanization process. In many instances. so wood. fresh bronze or black muscadine Harvesting of muscadine grapes nent arm (cordon). described below is necessary. Fresh fruit: Carefully hand-pick Unless a vine is pruned in each tion as a result of this proce. there are no Step-by-step renewal: Harvesting maturity standards or grades for 1. To prolong shelf life. de- of the vine (Figure 10) for each at approximately 34° F until the pending on location and variety. Catch Figure 10. and the catch frame funnels variety. setting new Sort and grade the berries. frames fit under vines and collect berries as they fall. only compete with the shoot ing requires three to five people for you have selected for the new maximum efficiency. Generally. USDA standards. then is never required if annual pruning vines may be preferable to package the best fruit in a suitable is practiced. and only a thin layer of new growth year. such as wood develops farther and farther 3. several harvests for fresh marketing and in one harvest for processing. the fruit is picked over one of the new shoots that will 18 . arms each year. industry that has established season. arm that requires renewal. Average time Pruning Neglected Vines fruiting arm. per vine is 3 to 7 minutes. fruit-bearing dure. and growers are Make cut 6 . working at the rate of 1 acre per hour. use begins in early September and only a 6-inch “stub” at the head plastic clamshells and hold grapes continues through October. cut the vines and have a dry stem scar. These will plastic bins. Cut away most of the perma. Pruning a neglected vine. and the remainder the Noble) tear when pulled from the over a mass of tangled. and leave varieties. custom-harvested. Catch-frame harvesting is used where custom harvesting services are unavailable and the vineyard is too small to justify an investment in a mechanical harvester. the fruit is 2.8” advised to have their wine grapes from “V”. Catch-frame harvest- harvest for processing. You will essen. tially lose a season of produc. Use fruit is sold. If more than one vine is in.

VA. Fruit Disease both fresh and processing uses.” sale at the vineyard or for sale at must do a complete job of growing NC State University. After you have decided North Carolina Agricultural scale and expand as demand for to plant. http:// Nesbitt. notes/Fruit/fdin012/fdin012.ces.ncsu. Alexandria.ces. “Weed Grape Root Borer. and marketing.org/ashspress/ population centers. To be successful.ncsu. and follow the guidelines on http://www. There are no annually and on the Web at stands is becoming increasingly secrets or shortcuts. published farm markets and/or satellite and marketing. Control in Fruit Crops. Pre-picking fruit for carefully.edu/agchem/ important as fewer people seem to chptr7/707.html marketing.ces.edu/agchem/ Insects Reported on Grapes in chptr8/813. harvesting.html start a U-Pick vineyard on a small planting. published www. manage. you can now fit notes/Fruits/NoteG-2. http://ipm. 19 .html the pieces together on the most Muscadine Grape Diseases and current varieties of muscadines for Their Control. Chemicals Manual. Fouad M. State University.ashs. Insect Note Conclusion #G-2. It is best to Extension agent for advice before mgrapes.ncsu. and Supreme are becom. consult with Basiouny and David G. you dine Grape Spray Program.pdf have the time and interest in References North Carolina Agricultural harvesting their own grapes. Customer harvest (“U-Pick”): In addition to the information in Muscadine Grapes. Some growers have had success this publication.edu/depts/pp/ vineyard establishment. Insect Note Larger grapes like Triumph. Eds.edu/depts/ent/notes/ ing increasingly popular for direct annually and on the Web at Fruits/fruitg3. “Musca- fruit increases. follow the guidelines Chemicals Manual. As a commercial grower or pro. http://ipm. winery representatives.” NC #G-4. 2001.ncsu.pdf North Carolina. Successful stations.ncsu. NC State University. with growing muscadines for successful growers. ASHS customer harvest. NC State University. http:// U-Pick operations are located near and your local Cooperative www.edu/depts/ent/ spective grower. http://www. Note #12.htm ment. NC State University. research Himelrick. Press.

Entomology Special thanks to the North Carolina Grape Council. Department of Agriculture. color. Mainland. Agricultural Research Technician. or disability. Professor Emeritus. Sorensen..000 copies of this public document were printed at a cost of $0. 2. Employment and program opportunities are offered to all people regardless of race. 1914. Bland. U. sex. 04/03 —2M—JMG/VG (Revised) AG-94 E03-42840 . Barclay Poling.S. Published by THE NORTH CAROLINA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION Distributed in furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30. Inc. age. and local goverments cooperating. and the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium for underwriting the cost of printing this publication. Research and Extension Specialist. Prepared by E. Plant Pathology Kenneth A. Professor. national origin. Horticultural Science Bill Cline. North Carolina State University. North Carolina A&T State University.000. Horticultural Science Charles M.00 or $. Professor. Horticultural Science William T.00 per copy.