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which is generated during the diagnosis. in research pertaining thereto. . treatment or immunization of human beings or animals. or in the production or testing of biologicals and the animal waste from slaughter houses or any other like establishments”. fluid or liquid waste. including its container and any intermediate product. “any solid.

abrasion or a cut in the skin . .Pathogens in infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture . through mucus membrane by inhalation or ingestion .

dizziness . It causes problems ranging from headache . vomiting to affecting genetic material . .Pathogens in infectious waste may enter the human body through a puncture . abrasion or a cut in the skin . through mucus membrane by inhalation or ingestion .

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equipment that are used to cut. wards and patient waiting areas. clothes. syringes and endoscopes ● Contaminated floors. beds. operation theatres. ● Sharps contaminated with blood and body fluids. beddings. enamel. . pierce or enter the natural orifices like needles. surfaces.It uses chemicals to destroy pathogenic organisms from any inanimate object. ● Instruments. crockery and bed pans ● Wet mopping of intensive care units.

5 % Formaldehyde 40 % 5% 10 % Savlon 5% 10 % Dettol 4.5 % 5% .5 % 2.5 % Ethyl Alcohol 70 % 70 % Isopropyl Alcohol 70 % 70 % Gluteraldehyde 2 % 2.5 % 2.8 % v/v 4% 10 % Cresol 2. Recommended concentration/dilution of Chemical disinfectants DISINFECTANT CONTAMINATED GROSSLY ( A contact period 0f 30 minutes is CONDITION CONTAMINATED required for effective disinfection ) CONDITION Sodium hypochlorite 5% available 20 ml / L 200 ml /L chlorine as liquid bleach Tincture of Iodine/Povidone Iodine 2.

Incinerator 4. 1. Hydroclave 3. Microwave . Autoclave 2. *Most of the microbes are destroyed at temperatures below 100°C.*It uses heat to decontaminate instruments and equipment and the temperatures in this process may rise to extremely high levels.

-This system operates at temperatures of 121°C and has a cycle time of approximately 60 .60 minutes and the temperatures attained are 132°C. This technology thus reduces the cycle time to 30 .90 minutes. which is able to penetrate the waste material more thoroughly. -where air is pushed out of the autoclave by steam under pressure. . Here vacuum pumps are utilized to evacuate the air in the chamber of autoclave and steam under pressure is pushed in.

. . .The organic components of the waste are hydrolyzed and the waste matter is reduced by weight and volume. .Thisis a steam sterilization technology in which the steam is used as an indirect heating source thus allowing total dehydration of waste material.The holding time for waste is 15 minutes at 132°C or 30 minutes at 121°C.

It employs combustion of waste material in stages. which is acceptable.. .Incineration is a high heat system process of burning combustible solids at very high temperature in a furnace.The end product is devoid of infectious organisms and organic compounds of waste. . .Based on the type of fuel consumed the division could be- ● Conventional incinerator using wood/charcoal ● Electrical incinerator ● Oil fired incinerator using electricity and diesel oil . followed by cleaning of the flue gas through a number of pollution control devices.

100°C for a holding period of 25 minutes . -Microwaves are electromagnetic waves that lie between the 300 to 300. -The heat produced at 95 . -This vibration generates friction. unlike the external heat given in autoclave and hydro clave. -This low heat system uses microwaves to heat up the waste material from inside.000 mega hertz range in the electromagnetic radiation spectrum. which in turn produces heat to disinfect the waste material. -They are able to penetrate materials and create vibrations in all the molecules such as water in the waste materials.

3. The waste is torn to shreds and then fed to an ultra high speed hammer mill with large spin blades which pulverize the matter into small. Grinding / Shredding: Waste material is broken down into smaller particles under pressure to avoid any spillage outside the chamber. MECHANICAL TECHNOLOGY 1. safe particles. 2. . Pulverization: Waste is mixed with large volume of water and bleach solution. Compaction: Compacting is carried out by a hydraulic ram against a hard surface.

which cannot be heated. *This involves exposing the waste matter to ultraviolet or ionizing radiation in an enclosed chamber. * Source of radiation needs to be properly disposed off after its decay. *Decontamination occurs when nucleic acids in the living cells are irradiated. . * The advantage with this technology is that energy input is minimal and it is used to treat items.

FINAL DISPOSAL METHODS General non hazardous waste Secured landfills Liquid wastes Chemical disinfectant F/b neutralization with reagent. while liquids by dilution and dispersal Pressurised containers Disposed off with general waste in secured landfills. and sent to landfill for disposal. Radioactive waste The solid wastes are disposed by concentration and storage. Infectious solid waste Autoclave/Microwave/Incineration F/b landfill disposal. . Microbiology waste Autoclave/Microwave/Incineration F/b landfill disposal. Sharps Needles can be cut by needle cutter and contained in 1% bleach solution. Human anatomical wastes Incinerated and sent to landfill sites. and discharged into the sewerage system.