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Introduction to Femto Cell

P96942002 陳雨含

1. Introduction
z What is femtocell
femtocell—originally known as an Access Point Base Station—is a
small cellular base station, typically designed for use in residential or small
business environments. It connects to the service provider’s network via
broadband (such as DSL or cable); current designs typically support 2 to 5
mobile phones in a residential setting. A femtocell allows service providers
to extend service coverage indoors, especially where access would
otherwise be limited or unavailable. The femtocell incorporates the
functionality of a typical base station but extends it to allow a simpler, self
contained deployment; for example, a UMTS femtocell containing a Node
B, RNC and GSN with Ethernet for backhaul. Although much attention is
focussed on UMTS, the concept is applicable to all standards, including
GSM, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and WiMAX solutions.

z Typical femtocell scenario

z Coverage of femtocell

and operators announcing trials.) and Ubiquisys. Femtocell). Airave was rolled out nationwide on 17 August 2008. By this stage more companies were involved. One of their major achievements included the invention and development of the access point base station (ie. Indianapolis and Tennessee of a home-based UbiCell femtocell built by Samsung called the "Sprint Airave". a group of engineers at Motorola. the Femto Forum trade organization was founded to promote femtocell deployment worldwide. Inc. . two femtocell-focussed companies were registered at Companies House in the United Kingdom: 3Way Networks (now Airvana. ‧ In 2004. the idea had become mainstream. ‧ By 2005. which worked with any Sprint handset. the idea had become more widely recognized with demonstrations and conference discussion. ‧ In 3Q 2007. ‧ By early 2007. CDMA-2000 or WiMAX). History z Evolution of femtocell ‧ In 2002. with a number of major companies publicly demonstrating systems at the cellular industry 3GSM conference in February. ‧ By mid-2004 a number of companies were independently investigating femtocells (others as "residential base station" or "3G access point"). Sprint Nextel started a limited rollout in Denver.2. started a team (AFG) to develop new technologies. In July. The original design was intended to provide a direct equivalent to a WiFi access point. but for mobile cellular (UMTS.

LTE. Mobile WiMAX ‧ Operating in licensed spectrum ‧ Generating coverage and capacity – Create extra network capacity. representing more than 50 members. silicon and software necessary to create femtocells ‧ 3 main aims: – To promote adoption of femtocells by making available information to the industry and the general public. – To encourage the development of an active ecosystem of femtocell providers to deliver ongoing innovation of commercially and technically efficient solutions. including: – Major operators – Major infrastructure vendors – Specialist femtocell vendors – Vendors of components. Features ‧ Mature mobile technology – Qualifying standard protocols include GSM. subsystems. – To promote the rapid creation of appropriate open standards and interoperability for femtocells. z Femto Forum ‧ The only organization devoted to promoting femtocell technology worldwide. serving a greater number of users with high data-rate services ‧ Using internet-grade backhaul ‧ At competitive prices ‧ Fully managed by licensed operators . with membership open to providers of femtocell technology and to operators with spectrum licenses for providing mobile services. ‧ The Forum is international. CDMA. UMTS. ‧ It is a not-for-profit membership organization. 3.

104/141 – WCDMA base station RF specification z Flat Architectures . ‧ Security – another patent on Disposable Authentication Vectors ensures ultimate security. ‧ Bandwidth efficiency – maximizing the revenue you get from your spectrum. ‧ The neighbor problem – we’ve patented re-usable scrambling codes to overcome the limit to the number of neighbor femtocells.4. ‧ Instant provisioning – each femtocell provisions itself automatically. Challenges z Issues ‧ Interference issues – Dynamic Power Management allows us to minimize interference with the macro network. ‧ Hand-in and hand-out – our seamless handover makes it automatic and invisible to the user. ‧ TS 25. z Standards ‧ Follows the 3GPP specification ‧ TR-069 – the remote provisioning and management of DSL gateways – accepted with femto forum and broadband forum. ‧ Voice quality – with voice payload multiplexing to optimize voice calls.

‧ RNC Based ‧ UMA Based ‧ SIP/IMS Based .

‧ Authentication of the FAPs connected to the femto cell network.Aggregation of 3G-related traffic coming (over IP) from several FAPs towards the core network. z Components ‧ Femto Gateway (FGW) ‧ Traffic control . ‧ Femto AP (FAP) ‧ Integrated set-top box ‧ Operation and Maintenance System(OMS) . ‧ Encapsulation of 3G-related IP traffic between the FGW and FAP in an IPSec tunnel (secure gateway). ‧ Protocol conversion between the ATM-based interface towards the CN and the IP-based interface towards the FAP. ‧ Access control (AC) of the UEs attempting to receive services from an FAP. ‧ Element Management (EM) of the FAPs.

femtocells will be installed by consumers and activated through service providers. and LTE.only a single satellite is needed ‧ From the overlaying (highly accurate) macro-cellular network 5. UMB. Benefits z Key benefits ‧ Low-cost ‧ User-installed . ‧ Low-power . as well as emerging standards such as WiMAX.Like cable modems and DSL routers.Network Time Protocol ‧ PTP . ‧ Interfaces ‧ Synchronization ‧ NTP .transmit at 10-100 mws. ‧ Broadband-connected . . and may share the same spectrum with the macro cell network. ‧ Compatible with existing mobile handsets ‧ Deployed in operator-owned spectrum – Femtocells operate in licensed spectrum owned by wireless operators. or fiber optics.service such as DSL.Precision Time Protocol/IEEE 1588 ‧ GPS timing reference. cable. similar to Wi-Fi APs. ‧ Based on cellular network standards .comply with existing UMTS and CDMA standards.

NSN.access. ‧ Motorola. Ubiquisys. Deployments z Companies over the world ‧ Ameriaca – Sprint Airave-Samsung Ubicell – Verison – Samsung Ubicell – AT&T – Trail at the end of 2008 ‧ ALU. NEC. ip. ZTE ‧ Asia – Softbank – Ubiquisys & NEC – CHT – Still on trial ‧ Europe – T-Mobile .Germany – Orange – France – Vodafone . Ericsson. Huawei. backhaul) Mobile coverage where it is needed the Seamless operation indoors and outside most Improved customer loyalty and reduced Lower cost home zone calling churn Continued use of existing mobile phone No requirement for dual-mode handsets Higher quality voice Counters the VoIP threat One consolidated bill Potentially increased ARPU Lower power phone transmissions at home Increased adoption of new wireless and extended phone battery life technologies 6. z Comparison between customer and operator’s view Customer Benefits Operator Benefits Increased indoor coverage Increased network capacity Higher performance data Reduced CapEx (fewer new macrocells) Improved multimedia experience Reduced OpEx (power.

Sprint Airave ‧ Enhanced coverage and unlimited calling — at home or in the office.99/each (requires activation at time of purchase and subscription to an AIRAVE plan. – Installs in minutes with your existing broadband Internet access. – Automatically transfers calls to the Sprint Nationwide Network once you leave your home or office. cable or T1. such as DSL. – Available Ethernet port — either on your modem or via a router — to connect AIRAVE to your broadband data service. including nationwide long distance. Excludes taxes. when using your Sprint phone and initiating your call on the device (requires an AIRAVE unlimited calling plan).$99. z Business Case. – Limit access to your AIRAVE by creating a list of up to 50 approved Sprint phone numbers. ‧ Requirement .) . cable or T1. – Available power outlet ‧ Pricing – Sprint AIRAVE Base Station .What You'll Need – Active Sprint phone(s) – Sprint voice plan – Broadband Internet access. such as DSL. – Unlimited incoming and outgoing calls. ‧ Key Features – Works with any Sprint phone — up to 3 users at the same time.

‧ User Manual of femtocell . per account. per account. – Single Line Unlimited Calling Plan (optional) .$20/mo. – Multi-Line (multiple phones sharing minutes on one account) Unlimited Calling Plan (optional) .$4. (required per AIRAVE unit).99/mo.$10/mo. – AIRAVE Enhanced Coverage Charge .

com/ † † † .org/femto/ † † † † http://en.broadband-forum. flat architecture networks that can utilize the Internet as backhaul and deliver expanded capacity for customers. – This hybrid mobile network will yield an improved platform for new mobile multimedia † † http://www. and new technology introduction.ubiquisys. higher † http://sprint. Conclusions ‧ Femtocells will change the mobile industry. Reference † http://www. – Operators will use femtocells to build a new generation of lower † † http://www.eettaiwan.femtoforum.picochip. Excellent wireless coverage in the home will become the norm and not the exception. – Femtocells will also change the mobile broadband experience for customers.