You are on page 1of 87

HOW TO SET UP A BASIC

ADMINISTRATIVE
SYSTEM
FOR YOUR LNGO

Volume 4 of the CBC Do-It-Yourself Training Manuals
Developed by Lainie Thomas

CBC Administrative Manual,
ii page

PHILOSOPHY OF THE CBC

Local non-governmental organizations, or LNGOs, are increasingly
important elements of Somaliland civil society. They have been a vital
part of the reconstruction of Somaliland through their development work
in all sectors of society. As their capacity grows, Somaliland’s will too.
Since the country was formed in 1991, over 600 LNGOs have registered
with the Ministry of National Planning and Coordination, and it is
estimated that hundreds others exist that have not registered. However,
of them, only a small fraction has the capability to design and implement
meaningful projects. With stronger organizational structures,
administrative systems, and project management skills, we hope that
Somali LNGOs will be able to carry out the long-term reconstruction and
development work that is needed.

The Capacity Building Caucus (CBC) has developed this series of training
manuals to give LNGOs in Somaliland a tool that they can use to help
themselves develop their capacity to achieve their goals and objectives.
The Capacity Building Caucus is a group of international NGOs working in
Somaliland who believe that strong coordination among the organizations
working in capacity building (CB) with LNGOs will benefit their partners. In
specific, LNGOs will benefit from receiving a consistent message from
their donors on what standards are acceptable for the management and
operation of any organization. As a result, the CBC has developed a series
of manuals designed as do-it-yourself guides for improving an
organization’s capacity to achieve its goals.

The approach proposed in these manuals is based on the assumption that
reaching development goals implies that people become actors of their
own development. These manuals, therefore, are based upon a set of
common capacity building principles supported by the CBC. The following
list of guiding principles has been designed to help organizations with the
implementation of their capacity building activities. These are things that
you should consider as your organization works towards achieving its
goals:

1. Institutional Capacity Building: Capacity-building activities
conducted by your organization should be designed as much as possible
to strengthen your overall organization. Training should not be limited to
one or two individuals, and support should be given to skills sharing.

2. Community Participation: LNGOs must develop strong ties to the
communities in which they work through participation at the community
level. The voice of your partners must be considered as you develop your
organization’s capacity to work in the community. They should be key
stakeholders and should help guide the direction of your organization.

CBC Administrative Manual,
iii page

3. Sustainability: Capacity-building activities must be based on locally
sustainable practices. Your organization should work toward the
organizational, technical, and financial sustainability of projects. Your
organization should be committed to the promotion of community building
and grassroots participation.

4. Accountability: Clear agreements about accountability (financial and
programmatic) must be made between your organization and various
stakeholders including communities, donors, partners and government
institutions. When developing the capacity of your organization, lines of
communications must remain open and clear.

5. Local Partner Relations: Your organization should promote increased
formal and informal information sharing among partners. Despite internal
constraints, LNGOs must remain flexible and listen to the priorities of their
partners, not follow donor-driven commands. Your organization should
support its partners and respect the diversity of its members and target
constituencies, as well as the spectrum of its activities.

Based upon the above set of principles, the CBC has developed this series
of manuals. They contain activities that the staff and/or members of an
organization can complete together to strengthen various areas of their
organization. Since every LNGO is different, there is not a single set of
instructions for capacity building. That is, the materials are to be used as
a basis for discussions leading you and your organization toward more
informed decisions. People must make these decisions for themselves,
adopting them as part of their own thinking. Values and principles cannot
be imposed upon others. Think of these manuals as tools in your toolbox
that you may use to build your organization however you want. Since the
long-term future of Somaliland lies in the hands of local people,
empowering them to help themselves will ensure that its development
continues.

These training manuals are for use by all LNGOs who need to develop
basic operational tools, and therefore these manuals may be reproduced
freely as long as no profit is made from doing so. We only request that
the CBC be mentioned when reproduced. We welcome feedback and
ideas for improvement to this manual from those who have used it.

The Capacity Building Caucus
Action Nord Sud/Handicap International, CARE, Danish Refugee Council,
International Cooperation for Development, International Rescue
Committee, Progressive Interventions, Save the Children US, Swiss Group
Hargeisa, Somaliland
July 2001

CBC Administrative Manual,
iv page

they have been numbered in what we feel is the most logical way. and methodology. To help you start. Usually when an organization is founded. the CBC has made a checklist of skills that you should develop to make your organization better. structure. These are documents or ideas that describe the organization. However. These skills also match those in the LNGO assessment tool that the CBC has developed. the founders have developed these concepts. although they may not necessarily be written and well defined. so if you have not made a good structure in volume one. You may use the following checklist as a starting point to identify the areas in which your LNGO needs improvement.Does your organization have a clear set of principles for both internal operation and for working with beneficiaries?  Mission statement. you will need to refer to your organizational structure chart in nearly every manual. If you need further help on the issues or activities presented in the manuals. its objectives. although they are not necessarily grouped in the same way in the assessment tool as in the manuals. For example. They will refer you to a member of the CBC Trainer’s Pool. a group of Somali trainers who are qualified to work with LNGOs in capacity building. FOCUSING THE ORGANIZATION: Every organization needs some basic structural elements to give it focus. These manuals are available from any member of the CBC.Do the members have a clear social vision of what they are working towards?  Principles of operation. Although it is not required that you work through the manuals in the order that we have proposed. once these are clarified and accepted by the organization. the CBC has developed a series of do-it- yourself manuals so that you can practice them. It can be overwhelming if you do not know where to begin. you will not be able to do the activities in the other volumes as successfully. WHERE TO START IN BUILDING YOUR CAPACITY Building the capacity of your organization requires a lot of work. you should contact the CBC. values. a direction has been established and it becomes easier to develop the rest of the organization.Has the organization developed a statement that distinguishes it from other LNGOs and describes the organization and its purpose? Is it up-to-date and realistic? CBC Administrative Manual. v page . To help you develop those skills. Step 1: Structure and Governance  Vision statement.

clarifies all of the job responsibilities.Does the organization have a financial policy and system for regular financial reporting. staff. cash management. and budget of the organization. structure your organization. train your leadership and management. Effective administrative and financial systems are a sign that an organization has the capacity to run a project. and for staff development? Are there personnel policies. as well as the needs of the target group.Does the leadership body of the organization have a well-defined role? Does the management have a well-defined role? Are these groups capable of fulfilling their roles?  Constitution and organizational values/methodology. is it being followed?  Financial resource management. and write your constitution.Knowing the mission. retaining and motivating staff.Is the organization’s constitution a real reflection of the organization? Do the members have an active role in the organization? If so. and vehicle use in place? Are records kept and filed in a systematic way?  Human resource management. How to Write A Strategic Plan for Your LNGO (Volume 2) gives you step-by-step instructions for conducting research and developing a strategic plan.Does the organization have a clear structure that identifies the role of each staff member. inventory. RUNNING THE ORGANIZATION: Once the organization has a clear direction. is the process of joining and participating in the organization well defined in the constitution?  Written strategic plan or activity plan. does the NGO have a realistic and effective plan for what it wants to do over the next few years? Has the organization identified what resources and how much time it needs to implement these activities? How to Set-up Your LNGO (Volume 1) will help you to make your mission statement. Step 2: Organizational Management  Working budget.Has the organization identified and planned what to do with all of its resources? Has the organization identified what its needs are for fundraising? If the budget has already been developed.Are appropriate polices and practices for managing the organization’s fixed assets. Clear organizational structure. staff contracts and CBC Administrative Manual.Does the organization have set policies and practices for recruiting. and accounting?  Material asset management. When applying for project funds. then it is time to begin setting up the administrative and financial systems that will give it the ability to run its projects. you must show that you organization has the capacity to manage the funds and activities that you propose. values. and indicates the work the organization does?  Leadership/management. procurement. vi page .

Is the project well managed? Is it well documented? Is it reaching its objectives?  Monitoring and evaluating.Have you written a clear concept paper outlining what you want to do.Have you done careful fieldwork using participatory methods to clearly identify what development work needs to be done?  Concept paper. How to Set Up A Basic Administrative System for Your LNGO (Volume 4) takes you through the setting up of basic administrative systems. and write and implement good financial policies. It CBC Administrative Manual. This volume also includes sample forms.Does your organization have a clear set of principles for both internal operation and for working with beneficiaries?  Understanding your vision. and good staff relations? How to Set Up A Basic Accounting System for Your LNGO (Volume 3) shows you how to develop a budget. Step 3: Project Management  Principles of designing and implementing a project. RUNNING THE PROJECTS: A good LNGO must help the community identify its needs and help them develop practical solutions to meet these needs.Is the proposal for your project well written and clear? Does it include specific indicators for the success of your project?  Managing the project. inventory management. sustainable change in the lives of its target group? How to Design and Manage a Project for Your LNGO (Volume 5) takes you step-by-step through designing and managing a project. and how?  Writing the proposal. and reception systems. regular staff evaluations and meetings.up-to-date job descriptions. including staff management.Have you clarified your organizational vision or mission so that your project is a step towards reaching your vision?  Identifying a project. why.Have you conducted a needs assessment where your target group identified its needs? Have you examined the cause and effect relationships of your identified projects? Are you able to rank which projects are feasible to narrow your scope? Have you selected a project that addresses the needs that the community has prioritized?  Fieldwork and research. vii page . The projects must be well run and supported by both the beneficiaries and the organization.Is the project operating according to the plans in the proposal? Is someone checking the indicators to see if they are being met? Has the project made a significant. The manual includes sample forms that you can use. then set good procurement procedures.

and knowledge?  Autonomy.How well can the organization mobilize resources (human. disabled people. An NGO must work with its constituency and beneficiaries. BUILDING THE ORGANIZATION: An organization is more than just projects and an office. the more sustainable it will be. donors. it must operate successfully with the community. It must also develop good relations with the government and with other development agencies. Sustainability of an organization relates to its independence: the more independent an organization is. and membership of the organization represent a diverse set of backgrounds. material and financial) and the community? SUSTAINING THE ORGANIZATION: For an organization to survive long-term. etc. staff. and on whom it depends.Sustaining Your Organization  Women and minorities. experience.Is the organization “donor driven”? How many of the organization’s activities are determined by the organization instead of by available funds? CBC Administrative Manual.Does the leadership.looks specifically at how you need to work with your target group so that there is the best chance of changing the attitudes of your target group. and other local organizations? Is the organization an active member of the community?  Public relations.How well are women and minority groups (minority clans. Step 5: Further Development. The organization should consider who its members are. the government. whom it represents. viii page .How is the organization known by the public in its community (outside of its target group)?  Advocacy.How easily can the organization set its own agenda? Do political movements.Can the organization make changes that benefit its target group through its work? Is the organization a “voice for change”?  Mobilization. or other forces influence it?  Financial independence.) represented within the organization and as its beneficiaries?  Organizational diversity.How is the organization known among its beneficiaries. both local and international. the government. Step 4: Networking and Publicity  External relations.

.........................HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT..................MATERIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT.......................................................................................4 IMPROVING YOUR FILING SYSTEM...19 OVERVIEW OF FIXED ASSET AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT........... 1 page .........75 SUMMARY OF ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDKEEPING.V INTRODUCTION......................................................37 SUMMARY OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FORMS.72 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN INVENTORY POLICY.....FILING AND RECORDKEEPING..........77 CBC Administrative Manual.................55 SUMMARY OF THE OFFICE MANAGEMENT FORMS...............................................................................................................................................................FIXED ASSET MANAGEMENT...............9 2.......13 2.........................11 SUMMARY OF THE FIXED ASSET FORMS......................................VEHICLE MANAGEMENT.........2 1.......................73 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A VEHICLE POLICY.......3..............................III WHERE TO START IN BUILDING YOUR CAPACITY...........................................................66 6.1...... TABLE OF CONTENTS PHILOSOPHY OF THE CBC.......32 3.................................68 20 QUESTIONS FOR POLICY MONITORING AND EVALUATION....................................................................40 4........................................................ADMINISTRATIVE AUDIT............................................HOW TO WRITE ORGANIZATIONAL POLICIES.................................................................22 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTORY FORMS..24 2.............31 SUMMARY OF THE VEHICLE MANAGEMENT FORMS........................7 2......................62 5.........................2..OFFICE MANAGEMENT...............74 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A HUMAN RESOURCE POLICY....INVENTORY MANAGEMENT........70 GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A FIXED ASSET POLICY..............

and reception. the Administrator/ Accountant. there is a full administrative audit that you can use to monitor and evaluate your administrative systems. CBC Administrative Manual. As you establish these systems. and often staff members change and the new staff does not know what happened before. material resource management. you should appoint one person to be your Administrator. This manual looks at four main areas for establishing an administrative system: filing. This book has been developed with reference from the CARE Internal Control Manual’s section on administrative systems. if your NGO is small and you do not have many activities going on at once. We have included blank forms for the NGO to use itself or to adapt as needed. human resource management. Many thanks go to CARE for their work in outlining a good administrative system for LNGOs. The other main part of an organization is the Projects Department. the same person manages the administration and the finance. and when. Since the job requires keeping written documents. This training manual may serve either as a do-it-yourself workbook for organizations or as a training manual to accompany formal training. Written documents also make writing a report easier. Administration means managing the activities of an organization and its projects. Before you start this manual. Although one can manage a project or an organization by looking at what is happening. which was developed for their partners in the Somali Partnership Program. or just one person. Some require daily updating while others do not require updating as often. and those people are responsible for implementing the NGO’s projects. An Administrator can manage an LNGO office well by keeping as few as ten written documents up-to-date. as well as guidelines for making administrative policies. you should make written policies to confirm what steps should be taken by whom. Any organization working to the standards outlined in these manuals will certainly have met CBC standards for its partners. it is better administrative procedure to keep written records of what goes on. The Administration Department is the part of the organization that keeps the records about the office and the projects. the Administrator should be someone who can read and write. It is possible to appoint one Administrator and one Accountant. Some reasons for this are that people forget what they have seen. In many offices. INTRODUCTION This manual has been developed by the CBC for the use of LNGOs in Somaliland wishing to either establish or improve their administrative system. 2 page . Then.

However. You can choose when you want to implement the others. not all of their systems are appropriate to all other LNGOs. Therefore. you will not see blank copies of those documents as you would for the others. The other ones may not be as necessary until you are bigger. and a Driver. start with an Administrator and add other people as the workload increases. Those are documents. you will also need an Executive Director to approve and oversee what the Administrator is doing. it is not necessary in a small NGO to have all of these employees. However.Of course. 3 page . but not forms. but not a form that you keep. Watchmen. some Administration Departments also have an Administrative Assistant. then look for the * symbol beside some of the forms. a Cleaner. Everyone should notice that other forms are inside () symbols. an employee’s CV is a document you should have. have more projects. and have paid staff. If you are a small NGO. In addition. I have used an imaginary local NGO. I have showed how they have set up some of their systems to serve as a model for other organizations to copy. Save Somaliland Trees. a Storekeeper. Finally. CBC Administrative Manual. but the starred ones are required by the CBC for all local NGOs. Secretary. so they should be adapted to fit the needs of your organization. For example. The forms with that symbol are the most important ones that you should use. to provide examples in some of the exercises. Bigger organizations should try to use all of the forms in this manual.

It may also be subdivided into sections like CVs.Finance. 120.Cash Advances 250. 4 page .Cash Management 240. 210.Administrative Documents. the information will be much more accessible and ready to present to them than if your papers are kept in different places.Vehicle. A BASIC FILING SYSTEM If possible. In a small office. 200.This file will be for all of the administrative records for your office. you may want separate files for 110. and 130. then all of its documents will be kept here. If all of your organizational documents are easy to find and all are present.Petty Cash 260.Payroll and Personnel.All of the forms that tell what inventory and fixed assets you have and where they are will be kept in this subfile.If you have a vehicle. 100. The following filing system is a standard set up that may suit your office.Financial Reports CBC Administrative Manual. Fixed Asset Register. then it will be much easier to know what is happening in your organization. Big offices may even want to make an index for their files. purchase five new files and some card to make subfiles inside of them. It will contain three subfiles: 110.The finance file will contain all of the financial documents that you have. etc. In a big office. This may even be subdivided again into Supply Control Cards. See page 17 of the CBC Finance Manual for more information on setting up this file. 120. When it comes time to report to your donors. These files should be kept locked up so that they cannot be altered. Also.Fixed Assets and Inventory. It is best to keep the records on your projects separate from your administrative documents so that they are not confused.All of the documents that you have relating to the employees of your organization will be kept in this subfile.Budget 220. many of these can be combined and you can use fewer files if you prefer. it is a good idea to put a number on the outside of your files so that people can find and replace them quickly. Use a marker pen to label the files and their subfiles. etc.Procurement 230. 130. 1.FILING AND RECORDKEEPING The very first step to setting up a solid administrative system is to make a good filing system. Time Sheets.

Financial Monitoring 300.Bank Accounts 280. other LNGOs. should be kept here. 310. 520.Meeting Minutes. including correspondence with the donor about the project and background research that you have completed. The background research and even budget items can help you with another proposal later on. local government. such as your registration papers with the Ministry of Planning. You could also file your old organizational structure charts here whenever you make a new one.Project Proposals. and all documents related to that project could have that reference number. contacts abroad.Local Correspondence.International Correspondence. Some organizations file outgoing letters separate from incoming. except that these are the current projects. Once the project is funded and you begin work.Copies of proposals that you have already submitted to donors can be useful even if they are not funded. 5 page . or articles about your organization that appeared in the newspaper. 420. if you prefer). UN agencies. If it is not funded.This file is the same as the Completed Projects file.Organizational Documents 410.Ongoing Projects.All letters to and from the government ministries. Inside each subfile. Others separate the correspondence by whom the letter is to or from.All letters that you send and receive should be kept together. 320. Choose the system that you prefer. The projects could be numbered. 400.Future Projects. Management Team. This subfile should be divided into subsections for all of the projects that you have completed. should be kept in one place.Correspondence. move the records into file 530. should be kept here in chronological order (or by organization. If your organization has several groups that meet. arranged in alphabetical order by organization.Any proposals that you are developing should be kept together in this file. such as a Board of Directors. When the project is finished. move the papers into file 520. CBC Administrative Manual. keep the minutes in chronological order. You should file a copy of all completed proposals here. and/or Executive Committee. 500.All letters to and from international NGOs. etc. if you prefer).All of the papers related to projects that you have already completed. 270. should be kept here in chronological order (or by organization.All of the minutes of organizational meetings should be kept in this subfile.Financial Audits 290. 540. arranged by their date.Other Documents. then file it in 510. municipality. in this subfile.Other important documents related to your organization. including copies of their proposals.Project Documents 510.Completed Projects. 530. then this subfile should be divided into those groups. etc.

You can also include sub-files in your index. C) If the names of the files do not really show what is inside them. or keep all administrative records in the Administrator’s office and project files with the Project Managers. Remember. you may have other ideas for how to make your own office’s system better. 6 page . If so. you can find old information. under the Correspondence File for government. it may be a good time to look your record-keeping system and decide if you should be keeping more records. but rather resources. keep all files in the same shelf or cabinet. Keep them separate from the other files. Another solution is to keep your old files separate from the current ones. That way. Invite the others to give feedback on the filing system so that you can continue to improve it. For example. you can start a resource center. move the papers that are not similar and start another file for them. it is useful to then prepare an index to hang on the wall or filing cabinet to make finding files faster. all of your hard work will be lost! Be sure to show the others in your office how the improved system is set up and how they can help maintain it. Municipality.Here are some notes to consider when setting up your filing system: A) Make sure that files are located in the most logical place. E) As long as you are redesigning your filing system. but it is not crowding the files that you use everyday. D) If you do number your files. B) If your files are overcrowded. Every January. See the sections on material resource management and human resource management for information about the records that you should be keeping. The most important step after improving your filing system is maintenance. newspapers and training materials are resources and not files. or re-file the papers that are inside to the correct files. then check their contents and either rename the file. you can move the new files into the old files and then restart with empty files for the year. then maybe it is time to look at their contents and throw away irrelevant. If you have a lot. Be sure to separate what records are not actually files. duplicate. these are only guidelines for improvements. CBC Administrative Manual. you may want to establish these new files and integrate them into your new system now. or unimportant papers. For example. you could list Ministries. For example. and Presidency as sub-files. If people continue to file papers using the old system.

If they are from the same month and year. For example. This is also useful and can save time by not having to look through all of the old documents to find the more recent ones. Some people prefer to put the oldest documents at the back and the newest in the front. The items in the file can also be filed in another order. If the second letter is the same. administration. The documents starting with A go first. It means putting the low numbers before the high numbers. This is called reverse chronological order. the files could be divided by topic (correspondence.) CBC Administrative Manual. or numbers of files. then compare their dates and arrange them with the older document first. and so on. and so on until Z. 1998 would go before December 12. you will need to file every single paper inside them in a way that is easy to find them. then look at their months and put the earlier month first. If two documents start with the same letter. when filing procurement and policies compare the first letter (both p). First compare the numbers on the left of the decimal point. There are four main ways to file:  By date (Chronological order)  By topic  By letters (Alphabetical order)  By numbers (Numerical order) Filing by date means that you put documents in order by their date. file policies before procurement.IMPROVING YOUR FILING SYSTEM Once you have your files set up. etc. all of the correspondence is grouped together in one file and the financial receipts are placed in another file. October 1. 1998.08 should be before 12. then compare the third letters. Remember to look at all of the digits in a number. For example. Although it is easy to see that 4 comes before 8. For example. 7 page . If they are from the same year. When filing by date.08 and 12. the correspondence could be put in chronological order and the receipts in numerical order. For example.1). followed by those starting with B. Filing in alphabetical order means putting items in order by the first letter of their name. Filing by topic (or subject) is when you group documents by their content. For example. Filing by number is filing documents or files by their number. check carefully when filing 12. Documents from 1990 precede those from 1995. and then look at the numbers after it from left to right (12. Since o is before r. then look at the second letter. projects. These numbers could be reference numbers on documents. and then the second letter (r or o). first compare the year of the two documents.1. REMEMBER: It is possible to use more than one form of filing.

8 page . let’s start to fill the administrative files with the correct records for managing an office and projects. but it will save more time once you have established a good system. and this manual will cover how to manage the other two. but it does save time if you are managing a lot of documents. and human. Now that you have established a filing system. It is not always necessary to arrange every single document. material and human. The CBC Finance Manual explains how to manage finances and what forms you will need.and by date (new financial documents behind the old ones in reverse chronological order). material. Look at the needs of your own files before you decide how to arrange them. Filing takes time. The Administration Department must manage three types of resources: financial. CBC Administrative Manual.

2. and vehicles.  Expendable supplies.MATERIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT Material resources are things that are used in doing your work. etc. The forms needed for material resource management are:  Receiving Report *1  (Fixed Asset Acquisition Supporting Documentation)  Fixed Asset Register *  Supply Control Card  Small Non-Expendable Supplies Register  Supplies Request Form  Vehicle Logbook * (if you have a vehicle)  Vehicle Control Board DEFINITIONS OF DIFFERENT MATERIAL RESOURCES:  Fixed assets.) 1 Remember that forms with the * symbol are those required for all organizations. We manage them using three different systems. vehicles. However.  Non-expendable supplies. stolen.oversees the procurement of the supplies (See pages 9-10 of the CBC Finance Manual for more information about this job. paper. books. hole punch. An Administrator must manage them so that they do not get destroyed.items that have a long life (more than 5 years) and real financial value (worth more than $50) such as furniture. 9 page . or misused. Note: The non-expendable and expendable supplies together are called inventory. computers. THE PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR INVENTORY AND FIXED ASSET MANAGEMENT ARE:  Procurement Officer. or markers. such as typewriters. pens. wheelbarrows. no matter what size. CBC Administrative Manual. pens. staples. stapler. such as a dustbin. since not all material resources have the same value or will last the same length of time.items that are thrown away after they are used such as tape. The small organizations may want to use only the forms with the * symbol when they are just starting up. or curtains.items that have a long life (more than 5 years) but no significant financial value (worth less than $50). you do not manage them all the same way. They do not have a long life or real financial value.

and expendable supplies are all managed in different ways. The Storekeeper can also be a Project Manager or the Cashier. CBC Administrative Manual. the non- expendable supplies quarterly. the Procurement Officer and the Storekeeper may not be either the Administrator or the Executive Director. for example.stores the inventory in a locked cupboard. and counts the inventory every month.approves requests for non-expendable supplies Note: These responsibilities are not full-time jobs. and the fixed assets every six months. let’s look at them one by one.  Storekeeper. non-expendable.  Executive Director. However.completes the Receiving Report when supplies are received. and issues supplies  Administrator. maintains the fixed asset and inventory register and Supply Control Cards. Since the fixed assets. 10 page . approves requests for expendable supplies.

The Administrator gives the fixed asset to the person who will be responsible for using it. The Administrator completes a Receiving Report and the Executive Director approves it. serial number. purchase price. 2. 2. date of purchase or receipt. 11 page . The Administrator has already followed the correct procurement process for purchasing the fixed asset. Then it gives a description of the fixed asset. Acquisition means receiving or getting. then the Administrator should give it an organizational serial number. or their condition changes.1. These are the basic procedures for managing basic fixed assets. The Administrator should note all of these things. The fixed assets must be used with care since they are valuable. The Administrator should count all fixed assets every six months and be sure that the Fixed Asset Register is up-to-date. This number should be written with a permanent marker pen on the asset (usually on the back or underneath). MAINTAINING FIXED ASSETS: 1.2. This is the number that the factory gives the item. and if there is any charge for doing so. Some organizations develop specific policies for some of their fixed assets that describe who can use them. If there is no serial number. 3. RECEIVING A FIXED ASSET: 1. 5. model. such as a video camera. It will be the only item that the company makes with this number. location (such as Administrator’s office). and when the register was updated. for how long. The Fixed Asset Register is kept in the Fixed Asset subfile of the Fixed Asset and Inventory file.FIXED ASSET MANAGEMENT Fixed assets must be managed very carefully since they are the most valuable resources that the organization has. Sometimes fixed assets are moved from one place to another. DISPOSING OF FIXED ASSETS: CBC Administrative Manual. The fixed asset arrives in the office. The Administrator collects all documents that came with the asset (called Fixed Asset Acquisition Supporting Documentation) and files them in the fixed asset file. The Administrator checks to see if the item already has a serial number on it. and how/when you disposed of (threw away) it. The Administrator adds this item to the Fixed Asset Register. 4. when. so it is used as an identification number. budget category. records the make. The Fixed Asset Register tells when the last physical count was. but you may want to develop special guidelines for special equipment that you have. 6.

etc.1. 12 page . 3. Or. and the condition of the fixed asset when it was disposed. The Administrator must state the date of the disposal. the Administrator must record it on the Fixed Asset Register. CBC Administrative Manual. some fixed assets become so out of date that the LNGO wants to donate them to someone else and buy a replacement. Choose a letter for the item. MAKING YOUR OWN SERIAL NUMBERS: 1. 2. So. A2. 2. Write the serial number on the item in permanent marker pen. Number each item with the letter. B3. A3. B2. they will be A1. … up to A10. For example. Record your serial numbers in the Fixed Asset Register. and tables/desks will be B. and then a different number. 3. The Administrator may then remove all Fixed Asset Acquisition Supporting Documentation related to the fixed asset from the file. The Administrator disposes of the fixed asset. chairs will be letter A. Sometimes a fixed asset will become so badly damaged that it is no longer usable. Your desks and tables will be B1. When any fixed asset is removed from the office (disposed). if you have 10 chairs.

its make and model. The register includes a specific description of each item (this should include the color.  Prepared by: The Administrator  Approved by: The Executive Director Made in China? The make of an asset is the company that makes it. and remarks (who it was given to. size. but rather papers that the company that made the asset gives you. e. and any remarks. When the asset is disposed of (thrown away). Contributions must be managed the same way that things you buy are. etc. The make is almost always written on the asset. or numbers and letters telling what type of item it is. such as the office and the workshop. there are supporting documents. its cost. or mailing documents. the budget category from which it was purchased. etc. complete the last part which tells the condition of the asset when it was disposed of. what the total price was.. Someone who is not the Procurement Officer and not the Storekeeper should complete the Receiving Report. The make is not a country. or expendable supplies) have come into the office. some printers are model CBC Administrative Manual. and what it is made from. A Receiving Report is completed after purchasing something or after receiving an in-kind contribution. are Compaq. The model of an asset is either a number.) Fixed Assets Register (FAR)*. 13 page . small wooden table). how many there are. IBM. (Note: Fixed Asset Acquisition Supporting Documentation is not a form. or if it was thrown away). It also records the date of the last physical count and the date of the register.Whenever the organization receives (acquires) a fixed asset. letters from donors confirming their donation. These papers are important and must be kept together in the Fixed Assets file.The Receiving Report tells what items (fixed assets.g. For example. Then for each item received.  Received by: Anyone except the Procurement Officer or the Storekeeper  Approved by: The Executive Director (Fixed Asset Acquisition Supporting Documentation). Some makes for computers. The Administrator should keep one Fixed Asset Register for each location where the organization has fixed assets. the date it was disposed of. These include receipts.SUMMARY OF THE FIXED ASSET FORMS Receiving Report*. such as Japan. what the unit price was. information about the warranty or guarantee.The FAR lists all fixed assets that the organization has. letter. its serial number (which must be written on the item by the Administrator if it does not already have one). the date of receipt or purchase. the vendor (or donor) and date are recorded. write what it was. Hewlett Packard. for example. Across the top. and its location in the office. Italy. non-expendable.

DJ420.numbers LJ1100A. 14 page . etc. often just after the make. CBC Administrative Manual. The model should be written on the asset itself.

15 page . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland RECEIVING REPORT Name of Vendor or Donor: _____________________________________________________ Date: ______________________________________________________________________ Item Quantity Unit Total Remarks Price Amount Was the bill checked against the purchase order and receiving report? Yes No Received by: Approved by: Name: ___________________________ Name: ___________________________ CBC Administrative Manual.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. 16 page . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland Signature: ________________________ Signature: ________________________ Job Title: _________________________ Job Title: _________________________ CBC Administrative Manual.

17 page . Catego se Purchas on Conditi Date Remar ry Price e/Recei on ks pt Prepared by: Approved by: Name: __________________________________________ Name: ________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland FIXED ASSET REGISTER Date of last physical count: ________________________ Date register was last updated: ___________ Description of the Make/Mo Serial Budget Purcha Date of Locati Disposal of asset fixed asset del No.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland Signature: _______________________________________ Signature: ______________________________ Job Title: ________________________________________ Job Title: _______________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. 18 page .

The Administrator gives the items to the Storekeeper. The Storekeeper may only give supplies to the people who have a completed. The Non-Expendable Supplies Register is kept in the Inventory subfile of the Fixed Asset and Inventory file. When someone needs to use one of the non-expendable supplies that is in the store. The Administrator then adds this item to the Non-Expendable Supplies Register. date of receipt.INVENTORY MANAGEMENT Inventory includes both non-expendable supplies and expendable supplies. who puts them into the office store. and they can disappear. 3. and if the supply is part of his or her project. 4. 4. get damaged. The Executive Director approves the Supply Request Form if the person requesting the supply needs it for his or her work. NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES RECEIVING NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: 1. location. The Administrator has already followed the correct procurement process for purchasing the non-expendable supply. 3. If the supply is not paid for by the project that that person is working on. and how/when you got rid of the item. The Storekeeper must not be the Administrator. The Administrator must count the non-expendable supplies in the store and in the office every three months and check that they match the records in the Non-Expendable Supplies Register. The person who needs the supply gives the approved Supply Request Form to the Storekeeper. quantity. The Administrator completes a Receiving Report and the Executive Director approves it. he or she must complete a Supply Request Form (SRF). approved Supply Request Form. The Supply Request Form tells who wants what supply. CBC Administrative Manual. 2) you will know when it is time to reorder items. 19 page . The office store must be a secure place with a strong lock. then the Executive Director should only approve the request in special cases. There are three main reasons for recording an NGO’s inventory: 1) at any time you can know exactly how many items you have without having to count them all. The Non-Expendable Supplies Register records the make. 2. However. 2. The Storekeeper gives the completed Supply Request Form to the Administrator. and 3) you can check to make sure that you are using a reasonable amount of different supplies. model. but the procedure for managing them is different.2. the receiver signs the Supply Request Form. It arrives in the office. The Storekeeper must have the only key to the store. After the Storekeeper gives the supply to the person who requests it. it is still important to have a good inventory system because inventories can run out unexpectedly. 5. MAINTAINING NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: 1.2.

DISPOSING OF NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: 1. 3.6. some non-expendable supplies become so out of date that the LNGO wants to donate them to someone else. 20 page . The Administrator disposes of the non-expendable supply. The Administrator must state the date of the disposal and the condition of the non-expendable supply when it was disposed. the Administrator must record it on the Non-Expendable Supplies Register. 2. The Administrator updates the Non-Expendable Supplies Register and files the SRF in the Inventory file. Sometimes a non-expendable supply will become so badly damaged that it is no longer usable. When any non-expendable supply is removed from the office (disposed of). Or. CBC Administrative Manual.

2.EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES RECEIVING EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: 1. who puts them into the office store. The Administrator gives the items to the Storekeeper. Since the expendable supplies are much less valuable. The Supply Control Cards are kept in the Inventory subfile of the Fixed Asset and Inventory file. After the Storekeeper gives the supply to the person who requests it. he or she must complete a Supply Request Form 3. 21 page . 2. 6. DISPOSING OF NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: Since expendable supplies are meant to be thrown away after they are finished. and if the supply is part of his or her project. The Supply Control Card is like a register for each supply. When someone needs to use one of the expendable supplies that is in the store. The amount recorded on the SCC should always match what is in the store. approved Supply Request Form. The Administrator completes a Receiving Report and the Executive Director approves it. It records the item and when it is received and distributed. The Administrator has already followed the correct procurement process for purchasing the expendable supply. The Administrator approves the Supply Request Form if the supply is needed for his or her work. 5. the Administrator (instead of the Executive Director) may approve requests for them. The person who needs the supply gives the approved Supply Request Form to the Storekeeper. The Storekeeper may only give supplies to the people who have a completed. MAINTAINING EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES: 1. The expendable supply arrives in the office. The Storekeeper gives the completed Supply Request Form to the Administrator. CBC Administrative Manual. the person who has the supply may throw it away (dispose) at any time without having to record it like fixed assets or non-expendable supplies. 4. 3. The Administrator then adds this item to the Supply Control Card. The Administrator updates the Supply Control Card. the receiver signs the Supply Request Form. The Administrator must count the expendable supplies in the store (not those already in use in the office) every month and check that they match the records on the Supply Control Cards. 4.

22 page .OVERVIEW OF FIXED ASSET AND INVENTORY MANAGEMENT What What records? Where? Who? When? happens? Supplies arrive in the office Check the Purchase  Receiving Report Procureme Administrator When the Order and count Fixed Asset nt File supplies supplies to be sure Acquisition arrive they match Supporting Documentation (for fixed assets only) Put supplies in a  Fixed Asset Fixed Storekeeper After locked cupboard or Register for fixed Asset and Receiving store assets Inventory Report is  Non-Expendable File completed Supplies Register for non-expendable supplies  SCC for expendable supplies The person needing  Supply Request File for  Person When a supply requests it Form blank SRFs requesting supplies are and file for supply to fill needed completed out form SRFs  Authorized by Administrator for expendable supplies  Authorized by ED for non- expendable supplies The storekeeper  SCC for Fixed Storekeeper When receives the SRF expendable Asset and Storekeeper and issues the supplies Inventory receives an supplies Inventory Register File approved for non-expendable SRF supplies  Fixed Asset Register for fixed assets Physical count of Fixed Asset Fixed Administrator Every six fixed assets Register Asset and months Inventory (January and File July) Physical count of Inventory Register Fixed Administrator Every three non-expendable Asset and months supplies (new and Inventory being used) File CBC Administrative Manual.

23 page .Physical count of Supply Control Fixed Administrator Monthly expendable Cards Asset and supplies (only those Inventory not being used and File in the store) CBC Administrative Manual.

etc. On the top of the card the supply’s name and description (color. the NESR tells the condition of the item when it was disposed of. number of the item coming in or out. and where it is located (in the office or the store). The SRFs are kept in the Fixed Asset and Inventory file. each time that supply is received or issued the SCC must be updated. the date it was purchased (or donated). as well as the project for which it will be used. size. etc. The balance should always show exactly how many of that supply the organization has. s/he must fill out an SRF. The person requesting the supply completes and signs the form. the date of the last physical count and the date of the register are included to be sure that the NESR is kept up-to- date. 24 page . and signature of the person issuing the supply must be completed. such as the exact size or color needed. the make and model of each supply.Whenever someone needs a supply from the store. what budget category it was purchased under.) is recorded.  Prepared by: The Administrator  Approved by: The Executive Director Supply Request Form. office.See previous section. Then. and then the Executive Director approves it if it is for a non-expendable supply. Non-Expendable Supplies Register (NESR). The date. One SCC is kept for each supply.The NESR works like the Fixed Asset Register.Each expendable supply that is received in the office must first be recorded in the Receiving Report. If it is an expendable supply. It is a ledger that shows what non-expendable supplies the organization has (including their descriptions). In addition. The remarks column is used if there are specific instructions. so the Administrator can check the level of supplies CBC Administrative Manual. person taking (or reason for receiving). then the Administrator may approve it. and then on a Supply Control Card. that person must also sign to say s/he received it. When the supplies are disposed of. balance of supplies remaining.  Requested by: The person who wants the supply  Approved by: The Executive Director (for non-expendable Supplies)  Approved by: The Administrator (for expendable supplies)  Received by: The person who receives the supply from the Storekeeper Supply Control Cards. the date. and then state the item and number needed. Separate NESRs must be kept for each of the different locations where the organization has non-expendable supplies such as the workshop.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTORY FORMS Receiving Report*. and remarks (who it was given to). The person requesting a supply must put his or her name and the date. After the Storekeeper gives the item to the person who requested it. make. It works like a ledger to keep records of how many of each supply is in storage.

No Record of My Pen? You should only keep records of expendable supplies that are not yet being used that are in the storeroom. That means that no. The Administrator keeps the Supply Control Card. you should keep records of all non-expendable supplies. 25 page . CBC Administrative Manual. whether or not they are being used.easily. However. there is no record of the pen that you are using now. a new sheet replaces it and starts with the balance forward from the last line of the previous sheet. like the cashbook. When the page is filled.

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland NON-EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES REGISTER Date of last physical count: ________________________ Date register was last updated: ___________ Description of the supply Make/Mod Budget Purcha Date of Locati Disposal of asset el Catego se Purchas on Conditi Date Remar ry Price e/Receip on ks t Prepared by: Approved by: Name: ______________________________ Name: ____________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. 26 page .

27 page . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland Signature: ___________________________ Signature: __________________________________ Job Title: ____________________________ Job Title: ___________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

28 page . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland SUPPLY REQUEST FORM Employee’s Name: ____________________________________________________________ Date: _________________________________ Item Quantity Project Name Remarks Requested by: Approved by: Name: _________________________ Name: ________________________ Signature: ______________________ Signature: ______________________ Date: __________________________ Date: __________________________ Received by: Name: _________________________ Signature: ______________________ Job Title: _______________________ CBC Administrative Manual.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland SUPPLY CONTROL CARD Name of the supply: _____________________________________________________ Date Description Amt Amt Balance Issued In Out By CBC Administrative Manual. 29 page .

30 page . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

When the vehicle is being used. The Administrator should check the Vehicle Logbook at least every week to make sure that the readings are correct and the fuel usage matches the requests for fuel. This includes all personal use of the vehicle. 2. In general. and who is with it. 2. 31 page . how long it took.” CBC Administrative Manual. as the more people who agree with what it says. the Administrator should sign in the column for Vehicle Checked. 5. 7. 6.3. If they agree. It is begun new again each day. Each organization will choose to manage its vehicle in a different way. 3. The Driver must record anytime that he puts fuel or oil into the vehicle. When a person wants to use the vehicle. The Vehicle Control Board is used to record where the vehicle is. but the main point is to decide who will be driving the vehicle. and how much fuel was put into it. what the distance was. the following points are standard for most all organizations: 1. The Administrator will put the information on the Vehicle Control Board. Therefore. It needs to be available for all work needs. The Administrator should be in charge of coordinating the use of the vehicle. The entire organization should be involved in making the organizational vehicle policy. 4. the Driver will keep a Vehicle Logbook. The Vehicle Logbook is a record of where the vehicle went. and how long the trip will take. he should tell the Administrator the time that he wants the car.VEHICLE MANAGEMENT A vehicle will probably be the most expensive fixed asset that your organization has. as few different people as possible should drive the vehicle. it needs to be driven carefully and responsibly by someone who is familiar with it. To keep a vehicle in good condition. the less chance there is of conflict later on. The passenger must sign the Vehicle Logbook after each trip. People should not ask the Driver directly to take them somewhere. but then often staff members or organizational members may want to use it for other purposes. For more specific points about making a vehicle policy. how long it will stay there. see the section on “Writing a Vehicle Policy. However. The Administrator will decide if the vehicle should wait with the person or return to the office between dropping off and picking up the person. into the Vehicle Logbook. and how much. where he wants to go. it must be managed in a very careful way. The Administrator should work closely with the Driver to know how the vehicle is being used.

Every sheet of the logbook must also show the current month. 32 page . CBC Administrative Manual. it can be a notebook that is divided into these columns. What about those old Vehicle Logbooks? Old Vehicle Logbooks may seem useless.The Administrator writes on the Vehicle Control Board the vehicle’s destination. it is not necessary to change the paper each time it fills up. The passenger signs that the information is complete at the end of the trip. The Administrator should always record trips to the fuel station and other small trips so that the staff members know where the car is and what it is doing.SUMMARY OF THE VEHICLE MANAGEMENT FORMS Vehicle Logbook. time out. That way. The driver must also record the amount of oil and fuel he put in the car.  Passenger signature: The passenger  Vehicle checked: The Administrator Vehicle Control Board (VCB). stating the date.Either the passenger or the driver completes the logbook. year. They can tell you how much it costs to run the car. and passenger name(s). time out. time in. and starting and ending odometer reading (the seven-digit reading). destination. A logbook does not have to be a form. what percentage of your costs are for project use and what percentage is for overheads. time expected back. and the vehicle’s identification (license plate) number. but they can be very useful when writing project proposals that involve vehicle usage. It is best if the VCB is a chalkboard or a white board so that it can be cleaned at the end of every day and reused the next day. Use them to document your fuel expenses.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. page 33 . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland VEHICLE LOGBOOK Vehicle Number: ________________________ Month: ______________________________ Date Destination Time Startin Time Ending Total Passen Fuel Oil Vehicle Out g Km In Km Km ger Checke Signat d ure CBC Administrative Manual.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. page 34 . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland CBC Administrative Manual.

page 35 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland VEHICLE CONTROL BOARD Destination Time Time Passenge Out Expected r(s) CBC Administrative Manual.

page 36 . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

CBC Administrative Manual. The better documented your employees are. Likewise. there are three handouts on management to help develop the basic skills of your managers and leaders in volume one. What this section of the manual tries to do is to help you keep the correct documents on your employees. if the employee is absent. 3. the employee must say what kind of leave she wants. Before you hire an employee. Since there are different types of leave. or how to build successful relations with your colleagues. which covers organizational development. The forms needed for Human Resource Management are:  (Employee CV)  Employment Contract*  Time Sheet  Leave Approval Form  Payroll Register*  Personnel Action Form  Job Description*  Performance Appraisal  Benefits Form  (Responsibility Turnover Letter) PAYROLL: 1. then she should fill in a Leave Approval Form. read the section on “Guidelines for Making a Human Resource Policy.HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The most difficult resource to manage is human resources. the employee signs the time sheet to say that what the Administrator recorded was correct. No manual can tell you how to interact well with people. that should also be recorded. the Administrator should mark him present on the Time Sheet. At the end of the month. sick or on leave.” 2. This section divides human resource management into two subsections. the less chance there is for conflict later on. then the Administrator should note that. or people. Every day that an employee is present. If the employee was at a workshop related to his job. page 37 . she can still have a contract. when it will begin. you should have a copy of his or her CV or resume. payroll (paying the employees) and personnel (records about the staff themselves). The Executive Director should sign on behalf of the NGO. Even if the person is a volunteer. you should sign a contract of agreement between the NGO and the employee. For more information about how to hire an employee. However. If an employee wants to take leave. 4. This outlines all previous work experience and educational background. As soon as you hire the person. 3.

2. CBC Administrative Manual. Benefits are often a source of conflict. 8. PERSONNEL: 1. The employee should also have a copy. the Administrator should submit the Time Sheet to the Accountant to prepare an invoice to pay the salaries of the staff. Most employees will receive their normal salary. often ex-employees return to their employers demanding their last paycheck or other benefits they believe they are owed. it is much harder to manage staff. All leaves except for emergency sick leave must be approved before taking it. When the salaries are paid. When the Payroll Register is being prepared. but sometimes people take a salary advance. 11. When employees receive their salary. 4. they must be paid directly by the Cashier to the person who has earned the money. Each employee should also keep a copy of his or her leave records. When leaving the organization. Without a Job Description. At least once a year. when it will end. This form is very important. Often the supervisor and the employee make them jointly. That is the Personnel Action Form (PAF). The Executive Director must always check to see how much leave time an employee has left before approving the leave. it must be supported by real attendance records of the employees for the whole month. 3. 9. 5. the employee should prepare a letter to his or her replacement called a Responsibility Turnover Letter. After receiving the Time Sheet at the end of the month. The Accountant should check leave records against the Time Sheet before paying salaries. the Accountant should prepare the Payroll Register. then he should complete a Benefits Claim Form. The Administrator does not necessarily make the Job Description. as it is an agreement from the employee stating that he has received all of his benefits from the organization. 6. by Leave Approval Forms for any employee who took leave. The PAF describes the change and contains the signature of the Executive Director. The Payroll Register is a chart that shows how much each employee will receive when salaries are paid. but the Administrator must have a copy of everyone’s Job Description. and by Personnel Action Forms for any employee whose salary changed for any reason. The first record you should have for every single employee or volunteer is a Job Description. 10. so that must be deducted from the salary before it is paid. 7. then they must be supported with another form. the Executive Director should conduct Performance Appraisals (staff evaluations) of all staff members. These documents should be stapled to the back of the Payroll Register. At the end of the month. page 38 . and the total days of leave requested. they must sign the Payroll Register. This is to both encourage the good employees as well as to help those who are not fulfilling all of their responsibilities. If there are any changes made to a salary (such as a promotion or a dismissal). If an employee wishes to leave or is dismissed from the organization.

and more importantly. and how. CBC Administrative Manual. and information on procedures that need to be followed. The letter can include advice about people who can help. Both the old and the new employees should sign this letter. Its purpose is to make it easier for a new person starting in this job to know what to do. This letter outlines what work has been done up to that point. what work is remaining to be done. page 39 .

The Administrator prepares it and the Executive Director approves it.The Time Sheet includes the month and year. it includes the employee’s name and the types of leave allowed according to the Personnel Policy. including formal education. If the conditions of the person’s employment are different from those in the personnel policy. specifying his responsibilities. monthly salaries (minus advances already paid). the employees’ names. the total amount of leave allowed per year is written. The CV should also include a list of the training the employee has received. the employees’ names. and his job title. the dates approved by the Executive Director. working hours. Employment Contract.The Payroll Register shows the month and year. where he was working. For each type of leave.  Prepared by: Administrator  Approved by: Executive Director Leave Approval Form.A contract is a legal document stating that the organization agrees to employ and pay the employee to do the tasks that are outlined in the job description. it records the dates of leave requested. and the days remaining.SUMMARY OF THE HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FORMS Payroll- (Employee Curriculum Vitae). and each day of the month.  Prepared by: Administrator  Approved by: Executive Director CBC Administrative Manual. and signatures of each employee. and the job title.  Dates Requested: The employee fills in the dates that s/he would like as leave  Dates Approved: The Executive Director writes the days that are approved and signs his or her name  Dates Remaining: The Executive Director calculates how many days are remaining for that type of leave Payroll Register. A contract includes the period of time the employee is hired.Completed by the employee. then they should be stated in the contract. page 40 . the salary. At the end of the month. balances due. who the employer was.  Signed by: The employee and the Executive Director (on behalf of the NGO) Time sheet. It is prepared by the Administrator daily and approved by the Executive Director at the end of the month.Every employee should prepare a list of his previous jobs (voluntary as well as paid). the employees sign to say that they were present as shown on the time sheet. Under each type of leave. when he had the job. job titles.

the PAF shows the employee’s name. agreement from the employee that s/he is not owed anything from the organization. and new and current salary.Used to show when an employee changes jobs.Personnel Action Form (PAF). Sometimes additional comments are then added.  Evaluated by: Executive Director (or whoever did the evaluation)  Employee’s Signature: The employee signs to say that s/he has seen the evaluation Benefits Form. and reason for change.  Employee’s Signature: Employee who is leaving the organization  Employer’s Signature: Executive Director (Responsibilities Turnover Letter). and sometimes the employee and supervisor write it together. Normally. CBC Administrative Manual. page 41 . and other related issues. and then contains a part for a narrative report of the employee’s performance. It shows if the employee is newly hired. it often asks standard questions about how the employee is completing his/her duties. In addition. and signatures from the employee and the employer (represented by the Executive Director). Performance Appraisal/Staff Evaluation.includes the name of the employee who is going to quit. and by getting feedback on the management of the organization.Staff evaluations are completed once a year. signs it. Sometimes a Project Manager will develop the Job Description when designing a project. or terminated. and the working hours. current and new job title. promoted. The people the employee must supervise and the work that the employee must do are included under responsibilities. The purpose is to improve the quality of work from the organization by both assessing the work of the employee. support that the employee receives.  Prepared by: Administrator  Approved by: Executive Director Personnel- Job Description. the date. the employee reads it and is allowed to respond to the evaluation by writing his comments below. the date. and dates it. The evaluator completes it. After the evaluation is complete.The turnover of responsibility from the departing employee to the employee who will take over is documented in this letter. comments (if necessary). the reason for quitting.The Job Description is a list of the tasks that the employee must complete as part of his or her job. The job description includes the job title. It should have the signatures of both employees and the date of the official turnover. a staff evaluation includes the employee’s name and job title. The Administrator prepares it and the Executive Director approves it. the person the employee answers to.

Why so many forms? Why is it that fixed assets and inventory only need a few forms. For example. and one of the best ways to prevent conflicts is to document everything. if you have clear job descriptions. there will be less argument about whose job is what. page 42 . but human resource management requires so many forms? The answer is simple: fixed assets don’t talk to us! We need to manage people carefully. CBC Administrative Manual.

discipline procedures. and other related issues. page 43 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. benefits. Part II: Employment conditions (Employee’s name) will work in accordance with the Save Somaliland Trees Personnel Policy in regards to: working hours. (Employee’s name) the amount of (amount of salary in figures and in words) every month. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT This is a legally binding contract between Save Somaliland Trees (SST) and (employee’s name). leave. termination of employment. employee of SST. Part I: Terms of the contract (Employee’s name) agrees to work as a (job title) for Save Somaliland Trees and complete all tasks included in the related job description under the terms of this contract beginning (date contract begins). will pay the employee. This agreement has been signed by both parties: Employee’s Signature: On behalf of Save Somaliland Trees: Name: ________________________ Name: __________________________ Signature: ______________________ Signature: ________________________ Date: _________________________ Date: ___________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. Save Somaliland Trees. Part III: Employer’s obligations The employer. The salary will be paid on the last working day of every month.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland TIME SHEET Month: ______________________________________ Year: ________________________________ Employee’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Employee’s Name: Signature Key: S = Sick T = Training AL = Annual leave Prepared by: Approved by: Name: ________________________________ Name: ___________________________ Signature: _____________________________ Signature: _________________________ Job Title: _____________________________ Job Title: _________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. page 44 .

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland CBC Administrative Manual. page 45 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

page 46 . Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland LEAVE APPROVAL FORM Employee’s Name: ____________________________________________________________ Annual Leave: Amount allowed per year: ______________________________________________________ Dates Requested: Dates Approved: Days Remaining: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Sick Leave: Amount allowed per year: ______________________________________________________ Dates Requested: Dates Approved: Days Remaining: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Maternity Leave: Amount allowed per year: ______________________________________________________ Dates Requested: Dates Approved: Days Remaining: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Other Leave: CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland Amount allowed per year: ______________________________________________________ Type of Leave: Dates Requested: Dates Approved: Days Remaining: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. page 47 .

page 48 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.Advances Net Pay Employee’s Signature TOTAL Prepared by: Approved by: Name: ________________________________ Name: ________________________________ Signature: _____________________________ Signature: _____________________________ Job Title: _____________________________ Job Title: _____________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland PAYROLL REGISTER Month: _____________________________________________ Year: ______________________________________ Employee’s Name Job Title Gross Pay .

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. page 49 .

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland PERSONNEL ACTION FORM Employee’s Name: ____________________________________________________________ Date: ______________________________________________________________________ New Position: _______________________________________________________________ Old Position: ________________________________________________________________ Salary: New: _____________________ Old: ______________________ Reason for change: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Status: Newly hired Promoted Terminated Prepared by: Approved by: Name: ___________________________ Name: _____________________________ Signature: _________________________ Signature: ___________________________ Job Title: __________________________ Job Title: ____________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. page 50 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland JOB DESCRIPTION Job Title: Reports To: Working Hours: Responsibilities:        CBC Administrative Manual. page 51 .

6. Other comments or notes about the employee: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Evaluated by: Name: ______________________________ Signature: ___________________________ Job Title: ____________________________ Date: _______________________________ Employee’s comments or notes about the evaluation: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. The employee is prepared and organized for work. The employee has the skills needed to do his/her job. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. 4. 3. 2. page 52 . 5. The employee is motivated working here. The employee is open to ideas from other workers. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL/STAFF EVALUATION Employee’s Name: _______________________________________ Job Title: _______________________________________________ Goo Fair Poo d r 1. The employee is available when needed. The employee has good ideas for the office.

SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Employee’s signature: _____________________________ Date: ________________ CBC Administrative Manual. page 53 .

Employee’s Signature: ____________________ Date: _________________________________ Employer’s Signature: ____________________ Date: _________________________________ CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland BENEFITS CLAIM FORM Employee’s Name: ____________________________________________________________ Position: ______- _____________________________________________________________ Years Employed: _____________________________________________________________ Reason for Leaving: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Comments: ________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ I hereby declare that I have received all benefits that I am entitled to from this organization. page 54 .

managing the office in relation to people from outside (external) and in relation to the people who work inside it (internal). it is not normally covered in a policy.  Label all of the offices so visitors can find the office they want quickly.  Set up a reception area with at least two chairs and a small table with your brochure. organizational profile. then you will make people think that you are a well-run organization. meeting board. Sending or receiving letters to or from the office VISITING: The following ideas will make it better for outsiders to come and visit your organization:  Install the signboard outside so visitors will know where the organization is. Telephoning the office 3.) so that they make the office look more attractive and active. People who visit your office will make an impression of you and your organization based largely on what they see. page 55 . etc. As important as office management is. this section of the manual discusses some ideas for managing your office well and making the most of your activities.  Keep an Appointment Book that shows when visitors are expected. and/or annual report where visitors can wait for the person they need to see. Visiting the office 2. It is divided into two parts.  Make a sign showing where the main door is if it is not clear. Therefore. If your office is well managed. CBC Administrative Manual.  Design the boards (vehicle control board. 4.OFFICE MANAGEMENT Having a good office management and reception systems is important because they are the most visible of all of your administrative systems. The forms needed for office management are:  Appointment Book  Visitor’s Book  Telephone Message Forms EXTERNAL OFFICE MANAGEMENT People outside the organization communicate with your organization in three main ways: 1.

Fill out a Telephone Message Form and include the caller’s name.  Prepare for an informal office tour and visit to your project sites. then tell him that the person he wants is not available. The following ideas will make it better for outsiders to telephone your organization:  Answer the telephone by identifying your organization. weak voice. etc. Usually people who are calling who will not give their names are not making work-related telephone calls!  If the person the caller needs is not available. telephone/fax number. If the caller will not give him your name.  Display your organizational structure chart. An office is a professional place. “hello” in a quiet. and when you hope to meet again. tell him or her that. Do not say. and ask if you can help with anything. CBC Administrative Manual. address. ask if s/he wants to speak to the caller. When visitors arrive. whom the message is for. annual report. and organization. and strategic plan if you have developed them. “Good morning. COSONGO Office. such as an organizational profile. ask the caller to leave a message. and visitors to your office. the caller’s telephone number. email address. Tell the caller your name and your job title. the message itself. and a list of your completed projects. an outsider may think that he has called somebody’s house!  If the person the caller needs is in the office and is not busy. say. ask the caller his or her name. and then look for the person. workshops you have attended. For example. If not. page 56 . any follow-up you would like (such as your submission of a proposal.  Have background information available to either give or show to the visitor. If that person is busy.). ask the caller to wait and call that person to the telephone.  If the person the caller needs is around.  Collect any information that the visitor gives you and file it together for future reference. mission statement. the time and date of the call. do the following to make their visit as productive as possible:  Request that they make an appointment in advance so that the necessary people are available to meet with them.  Hang a display board showing your organization’s current activities.” or “Hello. take a message. and the name of the person who took the message. This is extremely important! Some points you could include are: reminding them of your NGO’s objectives. If not. job title.  Ask that the visitor sign the Visitor’s Book and state his name.  Follow up the visit with a letter or phone call. the structure chart.” If you do not say the name of your organization. and you should speak clearly and identify your office. this is the COSONGO Office. This should include photos (with captions) of your projects.

Sometimes people put their initials after their name at the top. but the other types are not labeled. there is often confusion between the styles. informal (used within the office) 2.  Make sure that letters are proofread. CBC Administrative Manual. or Sincerely.internal message. international correspondence for the organization Example of Memo style: MEMO TO: Project Managers FROM: Lainie Thomas DATE: 14/8/99 RE: PM Training next week This message is just to remind you that we have rescheduled our training for next Monday morning at 8:00am until noon. and that they include a reference number and look neat.. etc.). Formal (block style). Semi-formal (also called semi-block).  Re is an abbreviation for regarding. You can also use Subj. or hand-write their names at the bottom. I hope that you will all be able to make it. which is an abbreviation for subject.sometimes handwritten name) Notes for a memo:  A memo does not say Dear ____. In Somaliland. However. (No signature. Memo. here are some international standards: 1. There are three main types of letters. page 57 .cover letter for official correspondence (job application. people you don’t know. documents.personal letter to someone you know 3. Example of Semi-formal style: 14 August 1999 Dear Aideed. report. _____.LETTERS: The following ideas will make it better for outsiders to receive letters from your organization:  Set a standard way to write letters so that they are faster to write. It is not signed because it is informal.  A memo is usually labeled with the word Memo on top.

it must start another line below where it would in a semi-formal letter.O. Every paragraph begins on the left side.  It is opened with Dear (followed by the person’s first name) and a comma  The closing is informal. indented again on its first line. Yours truly. it is not indented as with the informal style. Somaliland 252-213-4501 Ref: LCT/2.Sincerely.1/120/98 Dear Mr. or Sincerely yours  It is signed by hand only (no typed name or job title underneath) Example of Formal style: P. It is also not indented. Then when you write a second paragraph. Lainie Thomas Lainie Thomas CBC Administrative Manual. The second paragraph starts like this. Moge: I am writing you to show you the format for a formal style letter. page 58 . Regards. Did you notice that I used a colon after your surname? Yours Sincerely. Lainie Notes for a semi-formal letter:  Each new paragraph is indented. I am writing you about the different styles of letter writing that I have learned in PM training. like this. Abdulkarim Ahmed Moge Project Manager. either. I hope that you understand the difference between this semi-formal style and the formal letter. Sincerely. Box 683 Hargeisa. Greetings from Hargeisa. Circus Hargeisa Hargeisa Voluntary Youth Committee Hargeisa. Somaliland 14 August 1999 253-220006 Mr. There is no empty space between paragraphs.

Somaliland East Africa Notes for addressing the envelope:  Put the sender’s address either at the top left-hand corner or on the top of the back of the envelope (on the flap for closing it). CBC Administrative Manual. Also. and the job title is typed below the signature.  The letter is signed below (not beside) the closing and the full name of the sender.  It is unnecessary to put a telephone number on an envelope if it is being delivered through the postal service.  In the UK. the closing Yours Sincerely is used for closing letters to people who you don’t know. it will take longer to arrive.  Write the addressee’s name and address in the center of the envelope. you can use letterhead paper. Sincerely is the most common closing. In the US. Addressing the envelope: Lainie Thomas (post office postage PO Box 683 stamp cancellation) stamp Hargeisa. page 59 .Development Adviser Notes for a formal style letter:  Instead of typing your address at the top. The post office will put another stamp on top of it to cancel the stamp you paid for so that it cannot be used again. and Yours Faithfully is used for closing letters to people you do know. Also. Abdulkarim Ahmed Moge HAVOYOCO Hargeisa.  Leave a blank space at the top right hand side of the envelope. some people may object to their telephone number appearing on the envelope for privacy reasons. Somaliland Mr. some people place the return address on the left instead of the right side of the paper. Use clear handwriting and a dark pen because many countries use machines to sort the mail and if it is not clear. This is where the stamp will go. A postal service will never call that number to deliver it.

consider if it requires action or if it should just be passed on. the staff members communicate in the following ways: 1. By giving telephone messages 4. they will know when to come back.  Share resources.INTERNAL OFFICE MANAGEMENT Within the office. One method is to put everyone’s name on a slip of paper.  Be patient. By having meetings or conversations (informal or formal) 2. or more fancy wooden shelves. and then followed up to make sure that the person received it. page 60 . If they see that the person is in a scheduled meeting. then it should be written down.  Develop a plan for what to do if a meeting is interrupted (by telephone calls.) MEMOS: For memos inside the office:  Hang short internal memos on the Administration Office notice board for everyone to see  Develop a circulation system for longer memos or letters. CBC Administrative Manual. he crosses off his name and passes it to the next person. Mailboxes can be simple boxes. etc. Through office cooperation (people working together as a team) MEETINGS: For more successful internal meetings:  Hang a meeting board in the Administration Office that shows who is attending which meeting (inside or outside of the office). with our regular tasks and work when needed.  Build mailboxes/pigeon holes for everyone for easier circulation of messages.  Solve internal problems professionally and completely. By sending memos 3. trusting.  Respect each other’s schedules and appointments  Respect each other. visitors.  Help cover job responsibilities when others are away.  If the message should be passed on. OFFICE DISCIPLINE: For improving office discipline:  Speak honestly. This also helps people who want to visit someone in the office. and tolerant of each other.  Respect others when making jokes. friendly and politely to each other. TELEPHONE MESSAGES: When someone leaves a telephone message:  After taking the message. After a person reads it. put on the desk or pigeonhole of the person it is for.  Respect the privacy of others and the organization.

Remember. your organization should adapt the ones that will help improve your office management. the happier they will be and the better they will work for you. CBC Administrative Manual. page 61 .Although these points do not apply to every single office. the more friendly and open people are towards one another.

page 62 . address. if the office has one) should write down the person who called. his telephone number.Whenever a person calls for someone who is not in the office.  Prepared by: Person who took the message CBC Administrative Manual. organization’s name. visitors should sign their name. and the message. and the date of their visit. the date of the call. Some visitors who have business cards will just give this. The Administrator can also write down later with whom that person met. Visitor’s Book.The Visitor’s Book can also be a blank book. In it. The Administrator should put that into the book instead. if your organizational has one. Telephone Message Forms. An Administrator with good computer skills can put the visitor’s information in a database or spreadsheet so that the organization can keep contact with the visitor. email address. should record all of the appointments and remind people about them closer to the time that they will be. and what was discussed. The person who took the message should also sign his name.The Appointment Book can be a diary or any other calendar that is used only to record the appointments that the organization has. telephone number.SUMMARY OF THE OFFICE MANAGEMENT FORMS Appointment Book. fax number. The Administrator or the Secretary. the Administrator (or Secretary. the time of the call.

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland APPOINTMENT BOOK Date: _______________________________ Time: Appointment with: Place 8:00-8:30 8:30-9:00 9:00-9:30 9:30-10:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:00 12:00-12:30 12:30-1:00 1:00-1:30 1:30-2:00 CBC Administrative Manual. SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. page 63 .

Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland VISITORS BOOK Name Organizatio Address Tel/Fax/Em Date n ail Visited CBC Administrative Manual. page 64 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa.

Telephone number: ______________________________________  Will call you later./Miss ____________________________________________________ called you at ________________ AM/PM on _________________________________________ 2001. page 65 . SAVE SOMALILAND TREES Hargeisa. Somaliland Working together to strengthen the natural environment of Somaliland TELEPHONE MESSAGE FORM For: _____________________________________________________________________ Mr.  Will visit you.  Left a message for you: ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Prepared by: Name: _____________________________ Signature: __________________________ Job Title: ___________________________ CBC Administrative Manual./Mrs.  Please call back.

and Procurement Officer may not be the auditor. an internal audit and an external audit. if the staff has corrected the mistakes. The first time that an audit is done.ADMINISTRATIVE AUDIT An internal organizational audit is a complete check of all administrative systems. Storekeeper. For example. except reception. The audit should be done at least twice a year. Administrator. Then the auditor should make a list of recommendations for how the mistakes can be fixed. If there are errors. then the auditor must write down exactly what the problem is. If not. Someone your donor selects will complete external audits. the auditor should clearly explain what the mistake was and how it should be corrected. The person doing the internal audit should be known to the organization. page 66 . The internal audit is important so that you can check your systems before an external auditor comes and checks your organization. after the first audit. for example. but independent of the administration and finances of the organization. 5. location. CBC Administrative Manual. The Executive Director is responsible for seeing that the recommendations are followed. Somebody from the Board of Directors or a member with some financial and administrative experience is a good choice. There are two types of audits. However. then he or she should write down that the Administrator needs to give the new chairs serial numbers. it may take a lot of time (up to one week to check every single paper) because every document must be checked carefully. To do the audit. if the auditor is checking to see if “All fixed assets are recorded correctly in the Fixed Assets Register. If. the auditor should be able to check everything in just a few days. the auditor sees that the new chairs do not have serial numbers on them. When the auditor is finished. the auditor follows the checklist below and records what s/he finds. she or he should prepare a report with the findings and share it with the staff and Board of Directors. serial numbers. It is the most important tool in monitoring and evaluating administrative systems. which checks the financial systems of the organization.” then she or he will have to go and see all of the fixed assets and check their condition. as it checks to see that all of the systems are in place and working. Someone from within your organization completes an internal audit. the auditor simply looks at each of the following statements and checks to see if it is true or not. etc. To do the audit. It is similar to a financial audit. That means that the Executive Director.

signed Employment Contracts.  There is a written Organizational Structure Chart. written. C. INTERNAL AUDIT CHECKLIST A. and it is being implemented.  The vehicle policy has been implemented.  All staff members have detailed job descriptions. INTERNAL SYSTEMS  The NGO has a Board of Trustees or Board of Directors.  Documentation and authorization of payroll exists (such as timesheets and contracts).  The NGO maintains a Vehicle Logbook. CBC Administrative Manual. D.  The NGO has implemented its personnel policy. PERSONNEL AND PAYROLL  The NGO has a clear personnel policy. When inventory is used. E. it is:  Authorized by the correct person.  The fixed assets policy is implemented.  There are defined systems of evaluating and measuring staff performance and they are in use.  All staff members have current.  The inventory is counted regularly and the count is recorded. page 67 . B.  The inventory policy is implemented. which is filled in completely and correctly. INVENTORY  A written inventory management policy exists.  Properly recorded in the Inventory (Non-Expendable Supplies) Register or Supply Control Card.  All fixed assets are recorded correctly in the Fixed Assets Register.  Properly supported with a Supply Request Form.  There is a system for reviewing and following-up reports that has been made for the organization.  The fixed assets are counted regularly and the count is recorded. VEHICLE MANAGEMENT  The NGO has a comprehensive vehicle usage policy. FIXED ASSETS  The NGO has a clear fixed assets policy.

3.how to hire. it is necessary to write down what procedures you will adopt to make sure your staff use them.HOW TO WRITE ORGANIZATIONAL POLICIES Now. Write the new policy The staff should develop the new policy based on current procedures and weaknesses that they have learned about in this manual. Organizational policies are extremely important because they help the organization to manage its resources in a regular way. Policies should:  Define what the policy covers  Establish what the procedure is for managing the resource  State clearly who will have what responsibility  Explain how to monitor and evaluate the resource  List what records must be kept to manage the resource 4. Once these procedures are written. They can also prevent conflict about how something should be handled. 1. page 68 . and dismiss your staff 2. then they should be approved and made into organizational policy by the Board of Directors. an organization needs at least:  Inventory policy. Here are the basic steps to developing policies. 5. Even if they are very informal. then it is time to start writing the policies. maintain. etc. photocopier. such as a video camera.  Vehicle policy. having learned all of the good practices for setting up and managing your organization’s administrative systems. Begin by writing down all of the current procedures.how to manage your organization’s vehicle  Personnel policy. State what the current procedures are- After you have established what policies your organization needs. write down what you are doing now. and leadership should discuss it.how to manage organizational inventory  Fixed assets policy. Then the new policy goes to the leadership body for approval. Approve the policy- After the policy has been drafted. 6. Use the list of questions on the next CBC Administrative Manual. The guidelines for each policy as well as the standards for a good administrative system in the following sections should help you to identify the points that you need to cover. members.how to manage the fixed assets. then the policy should show the agreed way to manage it. all of the organization’s staff. Lay out the framework for a new policy- Based on your current procedure. identify areas that are not covered or that need to be improved. with specific policies for any fixed assets that have different procedures. If there is disagreement. Identify what policies the organization needs- To set up a good financial system.

The most important thing is to make a policy that you can really implement and follow! CBC Administrative Manual.page to review the policy and decide if it is something that your organization can actually implement. Remember that the policy must include ways of monitoring itself so that you can check to see that it is being implemented. page 69 . It could also include the constitution. It is essential that all staff have access to the policies. After the leadership approves the policy. the organization can make an Administrative Manual that contains all of its policies. mission statement (if it is not in the constitution). and organizational structure chart. so make several copies of the manual and distribute them throughout the office.

Does the policy help minorities in any way? CBC Administrative Manual. it is necessary to consider many aspects of the policy before deciding whether or not to accept it. Is the policy too vague? 12. Does the policy specifically say who has what responsibility for what. Adopting a policy is an important responsibility. Is the policy transparent? Does everyone know what it says can they see it being followed? 9. Does the policy reflect the organization’s missions and goals? 2. and when it should be done? 11. Does the policy outline clear lines of responsibility and accountability? 13. can the organization cover these costs? 17. Is the policy acceptable to local standards and local regulations (such as the Somaliland labor code)? 7. Can the policy be integrated with other policies? 8. Does the policy discriminate against or favor women? 18. Here are some issues to discuss: 1. Does the policy explain how it is to be implemented and/or enforced? 14. Is the policy in agreement with an international standard (such as the Generally Accepted Accounting Procedures for finance)? 6. Are there financial costs in implementing this policy (such as stating that forms must be pre-numbered. Does the policy conflict with another one of the organization’s policies? 3. therefore. Is the policy realistic? Can what has been written actually be implemented? 5. and therefore pre-printed)? 16. If so. page 70 . Does the policy state the consequences of not obeying the policy? 15.20 QUESTIONS FOR POLICY MONITORING AND EVALUATION It is the role of the Board of Directors or leadership body to develop and/or approve all of the organization’s policies. Is the policy similar to what is actually being practiced? 4. Does the policy include technical words that some people may not understand? 10.

Is the policy flexible enough to be implemented for a long time? CBC Administrative Manual. Does the policy allow for changes when necessary? 20. page 71 .19.

video camera.GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A FIXED ASSET POLICY Making a fixed asset policy is important because expensive equipment must be well maintained so that it will continue to be of use to the organization. How assets are registered in the organization 2. it must be made clear who is in charge of what assets and who can use which ones. purchase price. The details of each asset should be recorded in a fixed asset register that describes the asset. CBC Administrative Manual. Therefore. Damage or loss of fixed assets- What will happen if the fixed asset is lost or damaged? Will the organization pay for the damage or for replacement? If you are not sure. and for what purpose. budget category. when. Registering fixed assets- When fixed assets come into the office. 2. The fixed asset policy should cover the following areas: 1. they should be given a unique serial number (unless they already have one given by the factory where they were made). Who can use which assets 3. page 72 . etc. If it is not managed well. 4. usually every six months. and check to see that they are still in good condition. 3. Monitoring fixed assets- Someone. What happens if they are damaged or lost 1. and that the details of the fixed asset register are correct. usually the Administrator. whether they are donations or purchases. but may be for a computer. serial number. Using fixed assets- Can anyone use the asset. its make and model. you could state that the Executive Director will look at each incident on a case-by-case basis. it can be broken or misused easily. date of purchase or receipt. location. should count all of the fixed assets of the organization regularly. or must only people with specific technical expertise use it? Is it necessary that someone supervise the person using of the asset? This point is not necessary for tables and chairs. How the assets and the people using them are monitored 4. and disposal.

and that the details of the Non-Expendable Supply Register are correct. and so they could be covered by the organization. 4. The Director should appoint a Storekeeper who will keep the only key to the store. Damage or loss of supplies- What will happen if a non-expendable supply is lost or damaged? Will the organization pay for the damage or buy a new one? Or will the person who damaged it have to repair or replace it? It might be best to distinguish between intentional damage or irresponsible use and an accident. 2. How the supplies are monitored 3. Remember this applies to donations as well as purchases. Remember that the word inventory means both expendable and non-expendable supplies in this case. etc. The Administrator should count all of the expendable supplies every month and be sure that the records match the physical count of the office store. including the color. but accidents do happen. The Administrator should record all information. the Administration Department must be sure that the people who are issued the supplies are responsible for locking them after office hours and for keeping track of where they are and their condition. or may only employees or members use it? May the staff members take office supplies home? If so. do they have to request permission or tell anyone? An easy way to do this is by using a register. it can cost the organization a lot of money to keep buying supplies and materials for the office. CBC Administrative Manual. What happens if they are damaged or lost 1. model. Registering inventory- When items come into the office. Since items can be easily taken. Using inventory- Can anyone use the inventory. page 73 . 3. Monitoring inventory- The Administrator should count all of the non-expendable supplies of the organization at least four times a year and check to see that they are still in good condition. A person who purposely damages something or uses something irresponsibly should pay. Who can use which supplies 5.GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING AN INVENTORY POLICY An inventory policy is important because if inventory is not managed well. where items are checked out and in daily. How items are registered in the organization 2. The inventory policy should cover the following areas: 1. they should be recorded on either the Supply Control Cards or the Non-Expendable Supply Register.

GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A VEHICLE POLICY

Your organizational vehicle policy is extremely important since a vehicle is
very often the biggest cause of conflicts within organizations. The basis of
a good policy is a clear outline of priorities for use of the vehicle. Often
staff members need the vehicle for personal use, but it should be made
clear that that is only possible when the vehicle is not needed for other
official work. A good example is the following: first priority is for staff
doing work, second priority is for BOD members doing organizational
work, third is for staff doing personal activities, fourth for BOD doing
personal activities, fifth is for friends and partners of the organization
doing work or personal activities, and so on.

Your vehicle policy should cover all of the following points:
 Who has first priority to use the vehicle? Who has second priority?
Third? Fourth? Who will determine the priorities of the vehicle? For
example, if an employee has to go to a meeting at 10:00 and a BOD
member also has to go to a meeting at 10:00, who will decide which
person goes first? A good vehicle policy should clearly state priorities
for its use.
 For day-to-day office activities, who is can authorize use of the vehicle?
 Who can drive the vehicle?
 What documents related to the vehicle must be kept? Who keeps
them, and what information do they include? This manual
recommends the Vehicle Logbook and the Vehicle Control Board.
 May partner organizations use the vehicle? Who approves these
requests?
 May organizational members and staff use the vehicle for private
purposes? If so, how far may they take the car before they have to pay
for the fuel they use? Who will approve private use of the vehicles?
 Who checks the vehicle and its documents? How often are they
checked?
 Will the vehicle be required to wait when a person is at a meeting, or
should it return to the office in between? Is there a limit to how long
the driver can wait?
 During the night and whenever the car is not on duty, where should the
vehicle be parked?
 What are the working hours of the driver?

The Administration Department should inform the driver of the vehicle
policy and be sure that he understands it clearly, as well as the people
who use the car (staff, BOD, members, partners, etc.).

CBC Administrative Manual, page 74

GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPING A HUMAN RESOURCE
POLICY

Making a personnel policy can be a sensitive topic because many
organizations want to hire their founding members or people they know
instead of looking to see if there is anyone else who has better skills and
experience for the job. However, advertising to hire someone can be
difficult if people claim that there has been favoritism towards one clan.
Therefore, the NGO must think about how it can hire and keep the best
possible staff for the organization.

The personnel policy should cover three areas:
1. Hiring employees
2. Maintaining employees
 Training
 Evaluation
 Discipline
3. Dismissing employees

1. Hiring employees
Good practice for hiring staff is to make known any vacancies within the
organization. A selection committee is nominated who will read all CVs,
select whom to interview (at least 2 candidates), and conduct the
interviews. Then the committee makes a recommendation. New
employees usually must first have a trial period of a month or so before
they are confirmed.

The hiring policy should answer these questions:
 How does the organization decide if it needs to hire someone?
 Who is eligible to be employed by the organization (example: only
women, only Somalilanders, etc.)? Is there a priority to hire
previous employees or members?
 How is the position announced?
 Who will oversee the hiring process? If it will be an interview
committee, then who will select the members? Who will the
members be (include their telephone number, and the department
of the organization if needed), and how will they be chosen?
 Has the committee considered at least 2 candidates for each
position?
 Who makes the final decision on who is hired?
 What is the trial period for employment? During the trial period, if
the organization realizes that the employee is not suitable, they
can dismiss him/her without as much notice. Likewise, if the
employee does not like the organization, then he may terminate
employment at the end of the trial period.
The procedures for hiring people can be different for different types of
staff. For example, hiring the Director may be a different process from
hiring the watchman. The policy should cover all these points.
CBC Administrative Manual, page 75

2. Maintaining employees
An organization should improve the experience and skills of its employees
as much as possible, both to keep the employee happy in his or her work
and for the sake of the organization. The main points to cover are:
 How is staff ensured training opportunities outside the
organization?
 What training is staff ensured from the organization itself?
 What support will be given to the staff?
 How will the organization evaluate its staff and get feedback from
the staff?
 What is the process for promotion of staff?
 When are salary increases considered?
 How can an employee make a complaint against the organization or
his supervisor?
 How can the organization request that the employee improve his
work?
 What are the steps for disciplining staff?
 What are the basic working conditions that the organization must
provide?
 What benefits do the employees receive: annual leave, sick leave,
use of office resources for personal use, assistance for personal
situations (like death in the family), Eid bonuses or other
overtime/holiday payments, etc.?
 How is overtime work paid?
 What personnel records are kept? Do employees have access to
any records?

3. Dismissing employees and handling resignations
Sometimes an employee becomes unhappy in his job or gets a better
employment opportunity; likewise, sometimes an organization becomes
dissatisfied with an employee or must dismiss employees because of
funding problems. Dismissing employees is never easy to do, so it must
be done as fairly as possible. The policy should explain:
 What is the procedure for resigning from the organization?
 How much time does the employee need to give the organization in
advance so that he does not lose some of his salary?
 How much time does the employer need to give the employee in
advance so that the organization does not have to pay extra
salary?
 What is the procedure for dismissing an employee (not for
disciplinary reasons)? As much as possible, it is always best to put
a contract’s end in writing.
 What is the procedure for dismissing an employee for disciplinary
reasons? There should be a standard process of at least one
written warning.
 Does the employee have the right to a recommendation or
reference letter when leaving the organization?
CBC Administrative Manual, page 76

SUMMARY OF ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDKEEPING

The following is a summary of the administrative files and records that
your organization should have when you finish setting up your
administrative system. Remember, this is just a list of the administrative
files. You should also have files for correspondence, meeting minutes,
etc. For a full list, see the first section of this manual on filing. Use this as
a checklist to see how your organization compares with where it should
be.

NAME OF RECORD WHERE THE WHO USUALLY WHEN THE
RECORDS ARE KEEPS THE RECORDS ARE
USUALLY KEPT RECORDS UPDATED
MATERIAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Fixed Assets
(Receiving Report) Procurement File Administrator When supplies
arrive
F. A. Supporting FA and Inventory Administrator When FA is
Documents File received
Fixed Assets FA and Inventory Administrator When FAs arrive
Register File

Inventory
(Receiving Report) Procurement File Administrator When supplies
arrive
Non-Expendable FA and Inventory Administrator When supplies
Supplies Register File arrive or are
issued
Supply Control FA and Inventory Administrator When supplies
Cards File arrive or are
issued
Supply Request FA and Inventory Administrator When supplies
Form File are issued

Vehicle
Vehicle Logbook Vehicle File Driver or Every trip
passenger
Vehicle Control If it is on paper, Administrator Every trip
Board in the Vehicle
File

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Payroll
Employee CV Payroll file Employee When hired
Contracts Payroll file Executive When hired
Director
Time sheets Payroll file Administrator Daily
Leave Approval Payroll file Employee As needed
CBC Administrative Manual, page 77

Forms Payroll Register Payroll file Administrator End of month Personnel Action Payroll file Executive When job Forms Director changes Personnel Job Descriptions Personnel file Executive When job Director changes Performance Personnel file Executive Annually Appraisal/ Staff Director Evaluation Benefits Claim Personnel file Executive When quitting Form Director Responsibility Personnel file Employee When quitting Turnover Letter CBC Administrative Manual. page 78 .

page 79 .OFFICE MANAGEMENT Appointment Book Administration Administrator Whenever a Office or Receptionist visitor comes Visitor’s Book Administration Administrator Whenever a Office or Receptionist visitor comes Telephone Message Administration Administrator Whenever there Form Office or Receptionist is a telephone message ADMINISTRATIVE AUDIT Internal Audit BOD File Auditor At least twice a Checklist year Auditor’s Report BOD File Auditor At least twice a year CBC Administrative Manual.