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Dmitri Mendeleev

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Mendeleev in 1897

Born 8 February 1834
Verhnie Aremzyani, Russian Empire

Died 2 February 1907 (aged 72)
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire

Nationality Russian

Fields Chemistry, physics and adjacent fields

Alma mater Saint Petersburg University

Notable students Dmitri Konovalov, Valery Gemilian,Alexander

Known for Inventing the Periodic table of chemical elements

after the passing of his father and the destruction of his mother's factory by fire. to Ivan Pavlovich Mendeleev and Maria Dmitrievna Mendeleeva (née Kornilieva). Russian:Дми́три й Ива́нович Менделе́ев listen (help·info)) (8 February [O. obtained new family names while attending the theological seminary. He is credited as being the creator of the first version of the periodic table of elements. along with his brothers and sisters. a priest of the Russian Orthodox Church from the Tver region. Using the table.2 Periodic table o 7. near Tobolsk. Mendeleev attended the Gymnasium in Tobolsk. 20 January] 1907).S. .S.3 Other Life Mendeleev was born in Verhnie Aremzyani village.Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (also romanized Mendeleyev or Mendeleef. was a Russian chemist and inventor.[3] At the age of 13. but the exact number differs among sources.[1] Ivan. he predicted the properties of elements yet to be discovered. 27 January] 1834 – 2 February [O.1 Biographies o 7. His grandfather was Pavel Maximovich Sokolov.[2] Mendeleev is thought to be the youngest of 14 siblings. Contents [hide] • 1 Life • 2 Periodic Table • 3 Other achievements • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Further reading • 7 External links o 7.

became the wife of the famous Russian poet Alexander Blok. In 1876. While there he became a science master of the Simferopol gymnasium №1. Though Mendeleev was widely honored by scientific organizations all over Europe. in 1894 new . Between 1859 and 1861. Mendeleev was technically a bigamist. In 1893. he worked on the capillarity of liquids and the workings of the spectroscope in Heidelberg. tuberculosis caused him to move to the Crimean Peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in 1855. he was appointed Director of the Bureau of Weights and Measures. including the Copley Medal from the Royal Society of London. On 4 April 1862 he had got engaged to Feozva Nikitichna Leshcheva. and son Ivan and a pair of twins from Anna. After graduation. Lyubov. he became obsessed with Anna Ivanova Popova and began courting her. He achieved tenure in 1867. he took part in the notable Eastern journey of Nicholas II) and daughter Olga. He returned with fully restored health to Saint Petersburg in 1857. His other children were son Vladimir (a sailor. His divorce from Leshcheva was finalized one month after he had married Popova (on 2 April[5]) in early 1882.[4] Mendeleev became Professor of Chemistry at the Saint Petersburg Technological Institute and Saint Petersburg State University in 1863. His divorce and the surrounding controversy contributed to his failure to be admitted to the Russian Academy of Sciences (despite his international fame by that time). the Russian Orthodox Church required at least 7 years before lawful re-marriage. It was in this role that he was directed to formulate new state standards for the production of vodka. where he entered the Main Pedagogical Institute in 1850. from his first marriage to Feozva. and by 1871 had transformed Saint Petersburg into an internationally recognized center for chemistry research. the now poor Mendeleev family relocated to Saint Petersburg. Even after the divorce. In 1865 he became Doctor of Science for his dissertation "On the Combinations of Water with Alcohol".In 1849. in 1881 he proposed to her and threatened suicide if she refused. As a result of his work. he resigned from Saint Petersburg University on 17 August 1890. His daughter from his second marriage. and they married on 27 April 1862 at Nikolaev Engineering College's church in Saint Petersburg. In late August 1861 he wrote his first book on the spectroscope.

Arrhenius was motivated by the grudge he held against Mendeleev for his critique of Arrhenius's dissociation theory.[7] In 1907. In 1905.[6] Mendeleev also investigated the composition of oil fields. Mendeleev was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Unexpectedly. proposed the candidacy of Henri Moissan whom he favored. and helped to found the first oil refinery in Russia. According to the contemporaries. The following year the Nobel Committee for Chemistry recommended to the Swedish Academy to award the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1906 to Mendeleev for his discovery of the periodic system. arguing that the periodic system was too old to acknowledge its discovery in 1906. After heated arguments. the majority of the Academy voted for Moissan. a dissenting member of the Nobel Committee. The Academy was then supposed to approve the Committee choice as it has done in almost every case. Svante Arrhenius. at the full meeting of the Academy. although not a member of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry. The attempts to nominate Mendeleev in 1907 were again frustrated by the absolute opposition of Arrhenius. as well as element number 101. are named after him. had a great deal of influence in the Academy and also pressed for the rejection of Mendeleev. Mendeleev died at the age of 72 in Saint Petersburg from influenza. The crater Mendeleev on the Moon. the radioactive mendelevium. The Chemistry Section of the Swedish Academy supported this recommendation.standards for vodka were introduced into Russian law and all vodka had to be produced at 40% alcohol by volume. Periodic Table . Peter Klason.

located in Bratislava.Mendeleev's 1871 periodic table Sculpture in honor of Mendeleev and the periodic table. Slovakia .

In 1863 there were 56 known elements with a new element being discovered at a rate of approximately one per year. Neither attempted to predict new elements.g. he noticed patterns that led him to postulate his Periodic Table. Ir. Pt. Another was Lothar Meyer. After becoming a teacher.. John Newlands published his Law of Octaves in 1865.5 K 39 Ca 40 Br 80 Rb 85 Sr 88 I 127 Cs 133 Ba 137 On 6 March 1869. Mendeleev made a formal presentation to the Russian Chemical Society. This presentation stated that 1. The lack of spaces for undiscovered elements and the placing of two elements in one box were criticized and his ideas were not accepted. 2. developed his extended version of the periodic table. He made the following table. Rb.Sculpture in Saint Petersburg Other scientists had suggested in the 1860s that the elements display periodicity. As he attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical properties. Cs). Mendeleev was unaware of the other work on periodic tables going on in the 1860s. .. The elements. and by adding additional elements following this pattern. who published a paper in 1864 describing 28 elements. if arranged according to their atomic weight.g. Elements which are similar in regards to their chemical properties have atomic weights which are either of nearly the same value (e. Os) or which increase regularly (e. entitled The Dependence between the Properties of the Atomic Weights of the Elements. K. Mendeleev wrote the definitive two-volume textbook at that time: Principles of Chemistry(1868–1870). which described elements according to both atomic weight and valence. exhibit an apparent periodicity of properties.[8][9] Cl 35.

The arrangement of the elements in groups of elements in the order of their atomic weights corresponds to their so-called valencies. 4. Be. whose atomic weights would be between 65 and 75. as well as. The elements which are the most widely diffused have small atomic weights. 8.6) remains higher than that of iodine (126. Mendeleev published his periodic table of all known elements and predicted several new elements to complete the table. as is apparent among other series in that of Li. B. 5. Meyer published a virtually identical table. and F. N. not just the one-to-one proton/neutron-ratio version of the element to which Mendeleev was referring. The magnitude of the atomic weight determines the character of the element. We must expect the discovery of many yet unknown elements–for example. and cannot be 128.gallium and scandium. Here Mendeleev seems to be wrong as the "atomic mass" of tellurium (127. based on a weighted average of all of an element's common isotopes. to their distinctive chemical properties.9) as displayed on modern periodic tables. 7. Thus the atomic weight of tellurium must lie between 123 and 126. just as the magnitude of the molecule determines the character of a compound body. Only a few months after. to some extent. Certain characteristic properties of elements can be foretold from their atomic weights. O. respectively) qualifies him for the majority of the credit for the table. 6. two elements. 3. . but this is due to the way atomic masses are calculated. ekaaluminium and ekaboron (germanium. analogous to aluminium and silicon. The atomic weight of an element may sometimes be amended by a knowledge of those of its contiguous elements. but virtually everybody agrees that Mendeleev's accurate prediction of the qualities of what he called ekasilicon. Some consider Meyer and Mendeleev the co-creators of the periodic table. C.

[13] Other achievements Mendeleev made other important contributions to chemistry.For his predicted eight elements. incorrectly predicting that the accepted atomic weights at the time were at fault.[12]Noting that there are striking similarities between the Periodic Table and the introductory Śiva Sūtras in Pāṇini's grammar. Kiparsky says: [T]he analogies between the two systems are striking. who had created sophisticated theories of language based on their discovery of the two-dimensional patterns in basic sounds. three) in their naming. Some people dismissed Mendeleev for predicting that there would be more elements. fitting perfectly into the two missing spaces. pointing out that they did not correspond to those suggested by his Periodic Law. Mendeleev questioned some of the currently accepted atomic weights (they could be measured only with a relatively low accuracy at that time). a fruitful researcher in the fields of .[10] By giving Sanskrit names to his "missing" elements. first-class physicist. The Russian chemist and science historian Lev Chugaev has characterized him as "a chemist of genius. He noted that tellurium has a higher atomic weight than iodine. According to Professor Paul Kiparsky of Stanford University. two. and tri (Sanskrit one. but he placed them in the right order. who was preparing the second edition of his book on Pāṇini[11] at about this time. and Mendeleev wished to honor Pāṇini with his nomenclature. dvi. Mendeleev showed his appreciation and debt to the Sanskrit grammarians of ancient India. and predicted the existence of another row to the table which were the actinides which were some of the heaviest in atomic mass. Like Panini. He was puzzled about where to put the known lanthanides.. he used the prefixes of eka. Prof. Mendeleev was a friend and colleague of the Sanskritist Böhtlingk. Just as Panini found that the phonological patterning of sounds in the language is a function of their articulatory properties. Mendeleev arrived at his discovery through a search for the "grammar" of the elements. so Mendeleev found that the chemical properties of elements are a function of their atomic weights. but he was proven to be correct when Ga (gallium) and Ge (germanium) were found in 1875 and 1886 respectively..

hydrodynamics. while in 1861 he anticipated Thomas Andrews' conception of the critical temperature of gases by defining the absolute boiling-point of a substance as the temperature at which cohesion and heat of vaporization become equal to zero and the liquid changes to vapor. coronium. he investigated the expansion of liquids with heat. Of these two proposed elements. He worked on the theory and practice of protectionist trade and on agriculture. in 1869. and the slightly heavier one to be a proposed element." Mendeleev was one of the founders. a thorough expert of chemical industry and industry in general. Mendeleev Medal In another department of physical chemistry. In an attempt at a chemical conception of the Aether. and devised a formula similar to Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases. and fuels. meteorology. for example) and other disciplines adjacent to chemistry and physics. irrespective of the pressure and volume. certain branches of chemical technology (explosives. he thought the lighter to be an all-penetrating. he put forward a hypothesis that there existed two inert chemical elements of lesser atomic weight than hydrogen. petroleum. . all-pervasive gas. of the Russian Chemical Society. Mendeleev devoted much study and made important contributions to the determination of the nature of such indefinite compounds assolutions. geology. and an original thinker in the field of economy.

In 1892 Mendeleev organized its manufacture. He invented pyrocollodion. This work had been commissioned by the Russian Navy.Mendeleev is given credit for the introduction of the metric system to the Russian Empire." (Dmitri Mendeleev. Mendeleev studied petroleum origin and concluded hydrocarbons are abiogenic and form deep within the earth . 1877)[14] . and it is only there that we must seek its origin. which however did not adopt its use. He wrote: "The capital fact to note is that petroleum was born in the depths of the earth. a kind of smokeless powder based on nitrocellulose.see Abiogenic petroleum origin.