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Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World

VOCABULARY
IELTS 1
1. Annotated : to make or furnish critical or explanatory notes or comment
2. Comprehending : to grasp the nature, significance, or meaning of
3. Colleagues : an associate in a profession or in a civil or ecclesiastical office
4. Retrieving : to get back again
5. Conveys : obsolete
6. Stricter : tight, close; also : intimate; narrow
7. Prescriptive : serving to prescribe
8. Demonstrate : to show clearly
9. Unfold : to open the folds of
10. Melbourne : city E Florida SSW of Cape Canaveral population 59,646
11. Re-allocated : again
12. Drought : a period of dryness especially when prolonged that causes extensive damage to crops or prevents their successful growth
13. Flint : a massive hard quartz that produces a spark when struck by steel
14. Divine : of, relating to, or proceeding directly from God or a god
15. Charcoal : a dark or black porous carbon prepared from vegetable or animal substances
16. Primitive : not derived; original, primary
17. Briskly : keenly alert ;lively
18. Cord : to furnish, bind, or connect with a cord
19. Porcelain : a hard, fine-grained, sonorous, nonporous,
20. Combustibility : capable of combustion
21. Ounce : a unit of weight equal to 1/12 troy pound — see WEIGHT table
22. Fumes : a smoke, vapour, or gas especially when irritating or offensive
23. Succumbed : to yield to superior strength or force or overpowering appeal or desire
24. Ignition : the act or action of igniting: as
25. Pioneered : to open or prepare for others to follow
26. Smouldering : to burn sluggishly, without flame, and often with much smoke
27. Instantaneous : one, occurring, or acting without any perceptible duration of time
28. Stuffed : to fill by packing things in
29. Extol : to praise highly
30. Mediocre : of moderate or low quality, value, ability, or performance
31. Buzzword : an important-sounding usually technical word or phrase often of little meaning used chiefly to impress laymen
32. Masquerading : to disguise oneself; also
33. Flaw : a spell of stormy weather

Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 1

Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World
34. Naïve : marked by unaffected simplicity
35. Censured : Estimate, judge
36. Notorious : generally known and talked of; especially
37. Damning : bringing damnation
38. Disillusionment : to leave without illusion or naive faith and trust
39. Triggered : a piece (as a lever) connected with a catch or detent as a means of releasing it
40. Storey : the space in a building between two adjacent floor levels or between a floor and the roof
41. Cue : a signal (as a word, phrase, or bit of stage business) to a performer to begin a specific speech or action
42. Asymmetry : not symmetrical
43. Macaque : any of a genus (Macaca) of chiefly Asian monkeys typically having a sturdy build and including some short-tailed or tailless forms
44. Anatomical : a branch of morphology that deals with the structure of organisms
45. Embryos : a archaic: a vertebrate at any stage of development prior to birth or hatching
46. Abstraction : the act or process of abstracting : the state of being abstracted, absence of mind or preoccupation
47. Consolation : the act or an instance of consoling : the state of being consoled : COMFORT
48. Subliminally : inadequate to produce a sensation or a perception, existing or functioning below the threshold of consciousness
49. Sinister : unfavourable, unlucky, fraudulent, singularly evil or productive of evil
50. Stammer : to make involuntary stops and repetitions in speaking, halt — compare stutter
51. Untrustworthy : do the opposite of : reverse, deprive of : remove (a specified thing) from
52. Floral : of or relating to flowers or a flora, a design, pattern, or picture in which flowers predominate
53. Nectar : the drink of the Greek and Roman gods, something delicious to drink, a beverage of fruit juice and pulp
54. Scrambling : to move or climb hastily on all fours b : to move with urgency or panic, to spread or grow irregularly
55. Haul : to exert traction on, to obtain or move by or as if by hauling, to transport in a vehicle

VOCABULARY

56. Wagons : a usually four-wheel vehicle for transporting bulky commodities and drawn orig. by animals, a lighter typically horse-drawn vehicle for transporting goods
or passengers, paddy wagon
57. Bloom : a mass of wrought iron from the forge or pudding furnace, a bar of iron or steel hammered or rolled from an ingot
58. Stacked : to arrange in a stack : pile, to pile in or on, to arrange secretly for cheating
59. Pallets : straw-filled tick or mattress, a small, hard, or temporary bed
60. Fragrant : marked by fragrance
61. Uncapped : opposite of : contrary to
62. Carousel : a large draft of liquor : toast, a drunken revel
63. Centrifugal : proceeding or acting in a direction away from a centre or axis, efferent, tending away from centralization
64. Mites : a small coin or sum of money, a very little : bit, a very small object or creature
65. Teeming : to become pregnant, conceive, to become filled to overflowing : abound, to be present in large quantity

Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 2

Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World
66. Groves : a small wood without underbrush ²a picnic grove³, a planting of fruit or nut trees
67. Tranquil : free from agitation of mind or spirit, free from disturbance, steady, stable
68. Spun : to draw out and twist fibres into yarn or thread, to revolve rapidly, to feel as if in a whirl, to plunge helplessly and out of control
69. Trivial : commonplace, ordinary, of little worth or importance relating to or being the mathematically simplest case; specifically
70. Deviance : deviant quality, state, or behaviour
71. Bizarre : strikingly out of the ordinary: as a : odd, extravagant, or eccentric in style or mode b : involving sensational contrasts or incongruities a flower with
atypical striped marking
72. Idiosyncratic : a peculiarity of constitution or temperament : an individualizing characteristic or quality b : individual hypersensitiveness (as to a drug or food),
characteristic peculiarity (as of temperament); broadly : eccentricity
73. Deviant : deviating especially from an accepted norm
74. Manifestation : the act, process, or an instance of manifesting, something that manifests or is manifest , one of the forms in which an individual is manifested, an occult
phenomenon ; specifically : materialization, a public demonstration of power and purpose
75. Gazed : to fix the eyes in a steady intent look often with eagerness or studious attention
76. Dissertations : an extended usually written treatment of a subject; specifically : one submitted for a doctorate
77. Pseudo : an extended usually written treatment of a subject; specifically : one submitted for a doctorate
78. Contrived : artificial, laboured, devise, plan, to bring about by stratagem or with difficulty
79. Gullibly : easily duped or cheated
80. Burgeoning : to send forth new growth, to grow and expand rapidly : flourish
81. Contradicts : to assert the contrary of : take issue with, to imply the opposite or a denial of
82. Synoptic : affording a general view of a whole, presenting or taking the same or common view; specifically often capitalized
83. Clamp : to fasten with or as if with a clamp, to place by decree : impose, to hold tightly
84. Gondola : an elongated car attached to the underside of an airship, an often spherical airtight enclosure suspended from a balloon for carrying passengers or
instruments, an enclosed car suspended from a cable and used for transporting passengers; especially : one used as a ski lift
85. Bespectacled : wearing spectacles
86. Vibrant : oscillating or pulsating rapidly, pulsating with life, vigour, or activity, sounding as a result of vibration: resonant
87. Vernacular : the mode of expression of a group or class, a vernacular name of a plant or animal
88. Intuitively : known or perceived by intuition, knowable by intuition, possessing or given to intuition or insight
89. Sifting : to put through a sieve, to scatter by or as if by sifting, to pass or fall as if through a sieve
90. Irony : a pretense of ignorance and of willingness to learn from another assumed in order to make the other's false conceptions conspicuous by adroit
questioning, a usually humorous or sardonic literary style or form characterized by irony
91. Protruding : to thrust forward, to cause to project
92. Chink: a small cleft, slit, or fissure, a weak spot that may leave one vulnerable, a narrow beam of light shining through a chink
93. Thistly: any of various prickly composite plants (especially genera Carduus, Cirsium, and Onopordum) with often showy heads of mostly tubular flowers; also : any of
various other prickly plants
94. Tranquillity: the quality or state of being tranquil
95. Subterranean: being, lying, or operating under the surface of the earth, existing or working in secret : hidden
96. Suburbia: the suburbs of a city, people who live in the suburbs, suburban life
97. Chic: cleverly stylish : smart, currently fashionable
98. Cosseted: to treat as a pet : pamper

Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 3

Vastly: very great in size. to arrange or form in a queue 118. Crystalline: resembling crystal: as. intensity. Downsizing: to reduce in size. Ceramics: the art or process of making ceramic articles. land fit or used for the growing of crops. weariness or exhaustion from labor. a product of ceramic manufacture 121. to be brought to an end (as death) by the effect of destructive or disruptive forces 114. manual or menial work performed by military personnel. fused or liquefied by heat 126. to feed (as cattle) on pasture. Versatile: changing or fluctuating readily : variable. to shape by or as if by carving or molding 125. Molten: made by melting and casting. Tutorial: of. to intrude upon : pester. Quirks: an abrupt twist or curve. Humblest: not proud or haughty : not arrogant or assertive. 124. Maisonettes: a small house. Embankment: a raised structure to hold back water or to carry a roadway. large. the action of embanking 101. the tendency of a material to break under repeated stress 115. to cause to be anxious or concerned 106. thick-headed 130. a groove separating a bead or other molding from adjoining members. relating to. Opaque: exhibiting opacity. Fatigue: labor. having mass VOCABULARY 100. to undergo a reduction in size 109. curve. or heavy in structure. or office of a deputy who acts as a substitute for another. Periscopes: a tubular optical instrument containing lenses and mirrors by which an observer obtains an otherwise obstructed field of view 104. to fail to stimulate or retain interest. bulky. a notorious person 108. : an act or instance of puffing. an apartment often on two floors 103. Bothered: to annoy especially by petty provocation : irk. Contradicts: to assert the contrary of : take issue with. reflecting. obtuse. existing or working in secret : hidden 102. a musical composition (as for organ) resembling such a symphony in complexity or variety Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 4 . Massive: forming or consisting of a large mass. to imply the opposite or a denial of 117. Subterranean: being. function. Proxy: the agency. vagary. having many uses or applications 120. accident. to use as pasture 112. small fluffy pad for applying cosmetic powder 128. the feeding of livestock : grazing. Workaholic: a compulsive worker 105. or operating under the surface of the earth. something experienced as if in a prescribed or measured amount 122. a tendency to drift 127. Pasture: plants (as grass) grown for the feeding especially of grazing animals. or especially in extent or range 123. authority or power to act for another 113. weighty. clear-cut 129. degree. amount. Queue: a braid of hair usually worn hanging at the back of the head. Stagnated: to become or remain stagnant 107. or stress. Succumb: to yield to superior strength or force or overpowering appeal or desire. lying. expressing. Puff: to blow in short gusts. a plot of such land 111. hard to understand or explain. Notoriety: the quality or state of being notorious. having warmth or brilliance. twist 110. or involving a tutor 119. heavy. Symphony: consonance of sounds. a large wave or billow. Arable: fit for or used for the growing of crops. land or a plot of land used for grazing. Sags: drift. Surge: to rise and fall actively. solid. Doses: a portion of a substance added during a process. strikingly clear or sparkling. exertion. to let go or slacken gradually. especially : to design or produce in smaller size. a waiting line especially of persons or vehicles. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 99. Sculpture: impressed or raised markings or a pattern of such especially on a plant or animal part. or offered in a spirit of deference or submission 116.

Marsupials: any of an order (Marsupialia) of mammals comprising kangaroos. surmount 135. one lacking in experience and competence in an art or science 145. Momentarily: for a moment. Thermostat: an automatic device for regulating temperature. to become covered with or as if with froth 156. limited in size. amount. Windsurfing: the sport or activity of riding a sailboard 147. relating to. or infect by contact or association. Epidemic: excessively prevalent. a chief commodity or production of a place 155. Frothing: to foam at the mouth. to serve as a covering or pavement of. Fossil: one whose views are outmoded. contagious. definite. deviation from a direct. an absolutely chaste young woman. or computer program that provides practical information about a specific subject Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 5 . amount. Tutorial: of. or being the depiction of a scene suggesting a story. to assume a posture or attitude usually for artistic purposes 150. of jewels : set as close together as possible to conceal a metal base 153. to put or set in place. 134. to remove (a playing card) from one's hand 151. Emission: something (as a theory) that has become rigidly fixed. or involving a tutor. free of impurity or stain 152. Biodegradable: capable of being broken down especially into innocuous products by the action of living things 149. or proper course 146. film. Virgin: an unmarried woman devoted to religion. quality. bandicoots. 138. a place where something is kept in store. a period of reduced economic activity 133. Bona-fide: made in good faith without fraud or deceit. admirer. at any moment : in a moment 142. Paved: to cover firmly and solidly as if with paving material. obstacle. inhabiting or frequenting trees 139. Arboreal: of. neither specious nor counterfeit. Scorching: to burn a surface of so as to change its color and texture. a departing procession. Staples: to provide with or secure by staples. an old word or word element preserved only by idiom (as fro in to and fro) 157. book. to leap over especially while running (as in a sporting competition). corrupt. Anecdotal: of. to afflict painfully with censure or sarcasm 144. a part of an apparatus in which a liquid is held 141. to throw froth out or up. Amateur: devotee. Exorbitant: not coming within the scope of the law. Extinctions: the act of making extinct or causing to be extinguished. an outbreak of epidemic disease 137. a trip at special reduced rates. overcome. or size the customary or appropriate limits 132. to provide with or control the temperature of by a thermostat VOCABULARY 143. or resembling a tree. made with earnest intent 148. a paper. relating to. a place of supply : source. the process of eliminating or reducing a conditioned response by not reinforcing it 136. to make inferior or impure by admixture 154. Persistence: perseverance. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 131. Modestly: observing the proprieties of dress and behaviour. relating to. archaic. stain. or scope 159. and related animals that do not develop a true placenta and that usually have a pouch on the abdomen of the female which covers the teats and serves to carry the young 140. or constituting an epidemic. Recession: the act or action of receding : withdrawal. Reservoir an extra supply. the action or fact of persisting. Discarded: to get rid of especially as useless or unpleasant. exceeding in intensity. an old word or word element preserved only by idiom (as fro in to and fro) 158. Pose: to present for attention or consideration. something (as a theory) that has become rigidly fixed. wombats. Contaminants: to soil. Hurdles: barrier. Excursion: a going out or forth. of relating to. opossums.

and functions as the immediate instrument of vision by receiving the image formed by the lens and converting it into chemical and nervous signals which reach the brain by way of the optic nerve — see eye illustration 29. Dredgers: to bring to light by deep searching. characterized by firmness or obduracy 13. Buckle: a crisp curl. to begin to be perceived or understood 23. a long speech monopolizing conversation 2. dread. subject matter. society. or gas especially when irritating or offensive. the legal right of one spouse to the company. Linguistic: of or relating to language or linguistics. cauliflower. particularly 21. vapor. a form of government Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 6 . or apprehension. Inferential : relating to. the routine of a stand-up comic. having qualities that discourage approach or attack. deduced or deducible by inference 19. characteristic of an isolated people. Biometric : the statistical analysis of biological observations and phenomena 30. kale. especially : any of various crop plants (as broccoli. of or relating to an island of cells or tissue 24. Notably : in a notable manner : to a high degree. to spread or develop irregularly 28. or group (as of companies) formed to undertake an enterprise beyond the resources of any one member. especially : being. to interrupt the normal course or unity of 22. Cole : any of several brassicas. involving. especially : wool or worsted material. mode of rule or management. give way. Factual: of or relating to facts. Alluvia: clay. a holistic study or method of treatment 17. brussels sprouts. narrow. Endure : to undergo (as a hardship) especially without giving in : suffer. or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint. association. is composed of several layers including one containing the rods and cones. Fumes: a smoke. Insularity : of. cabbage. dwelling or situated on an island. Inevitable: incapable of being avoided or evaded 9. Regimes : a regular pattern of occurrence or action. affection. Genuine: actually having the reputed or apparent qualities or character. Dawned : to begin to grow light as the sun rises. restricted to or based on fact 4. or crumple 8. to deepen (as a waterway) with a dredging machine 11. a meaningful unit of speech 3. and assistance of and to sexual relations with the other 10. having. Consortium : an agreement. Unyielding : characterized by lack of softness or flexibility. a state of excited irritation or anger VOCABULARY 27. to cause to bend. Typhoon: a tropical cyclone occurring in the region of the Philippines or the China sea. or resembling inference. or similar detrital material deposited by running water 7. gravel. to begin to appear or develop. Disrupted : to break apart : rupture b : to throw into disorder. relating to. combination. a long. to prepare with vigor. finished textile suitable for clothing. Perplexing : to make intricate or involved : complicate 20. Trenches: a long cut in the ground. having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing 25. Sprawl : to creep or clamber awkwardly. Seabed: the floor of a sea or ocean 6. Cosmopolitan : cosmopolite. sand. especially. Stuffs : personal property. silt. dunk shot 14. Retinas : the sensory membrane that lines the eye. and usually steep-sided depression in the ocean floor 12. to lie or sit with arms and legs spread out. free from hypocrisy or pretense : sincere 26. Formidable : causing fear. Monologue: a dramatic sketch performed by one actor. and kohlrabi) derived from the same wild ancestor 18. tending to inspire awe or wonder 15. or constituting an island. Holistically : of or relating to holism. whirlwind 16. to continue in the same state 5. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World IELTS 2 1.

and acquisition of language 33. Embarked: to go on board a vehicle for transportation. Subtle : delicate. any of several small sandpipers 59. Oppression : unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power. 47. Unprecedented: having no precedent : novel. or freshness. extremely rapid 48. Foetuses 42. highly skilful. compilation 39. limitation. sphere. Lounge : to act or move idly or lazily. to pass (time) idly. art. stiffness. to make a start 51. imprisonment of a person contrary to law 46. broadly : the genetic material of an organism 38. desist. silly. especially : muscular dystrophy. wearisome 50. Impoverished : to make poor. to perform (as a dance) with a dragging. any myogenic atrophy. Fibrosis : a condition marked by increase of interstitial fibrous tissue. Shuffled : to mix in a mass confusedly. or the painting or drawing of pictures. a periodical having much pictorial matter 62. or calling. or fertility by depleting or draining of something essential. Stints: stop. the near vicinity 55. swelling. Apprenticeship: one bound by indenture to serve another for a prescribed period with a view to learning an art or trade. Weary: exhausted in strength. operating insidiously 44. Occultation: the state of being hidden from view or lost to notice. Compendium : a brief summary of a larger work or of a field of knowledge : abstract. automatically controlled operation of an apparatus. permission. Eugenics : a science that deals with the improvement (as by control of human mating) of hereditary qualities of a race or breed 36. to move (as the feet) by sliding along or back and forth without lifting. the state of being operated automatically. moderately good or agreeable : passable 63. Realm: kingdom 2. effort. Pictorial: of or relating to a painter. a sense of being weighed down in body or mind : depression 43. a list of a number of items. or pleasure exhausted. a tract of moist low-lying usually level grassland 58. domain. process. Dystrophy : a condition produced by faulty nutrition. a smaller community adjacent to or within commuting distance of a city. elusive. represented by few species or individuals 32. tolerance. difficult to understand or perceive. vigor. Psycholinguistics : the study of the mental faculties involved in the perception. to be sparing or frugal. Automation: the technique of making an apparatus. having one's patience. the interruption of the light from a celestial body or of the signals from a spacecraft by the intervention of a celestial body 54. inflammation. 37. something that oppresses especially in being an unjust or excessive exercise of power. a painting. any of a group of hereditary diseases characterized by progressive wasting of muscles 41. Prerequisites: something that is necessary to an end or to the carrying out of a function 60. to put or thrust aside or under cover. Suburbs: an outlying part of a city or town. expressing or characteristic of weariness. sliding step 45. and decision 56. unexampled 53. and sometimes destruction of joints 35. Rheumatoid : a usually chronic disease of unknown cause that is characterized especially by pain. or a system operate automatically. Genome : one haploid set of chromosomes with the genes they contain. or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation. to put an end to. an inexperienced person 49. to deprive of strength. endurance. to enter as a geological intrusion. one who is learning by practical experience under skilled workers a trade. Dissertation: an extended usually written treatment of a subject Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 7 . Meadows: land in or predominantly in grass. Tolerable: capable of being borne or endured. a debt on which payment is overdue. Dizziness: foolish. Intruder: to thrust oneself in without invitation. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 31. restraint. richness. a process. or welcome. Imprisonment : to put in or as if in prison : confine. Delinquency: a delinquent act. mentally confused. collection. a primary marine or terrestrial biogeographic division of the earth's surface 52. production. Misled : to lead in a wrong direction or into a mistaken action or belief often by deliberate deceit 34. Curative : relating to or used in the cure of diseases : tending to cure 40. to cause to enter as if by force 57. suggesting or conveying visual images. a place for lounging 61.

or constituting a theme 87. scheme 3. an extra supply 67. a medicinal drug 86. Charcoal: a piece or pencil of fine charcoal used in drawing. Pharmaceutical: of. of a vowel: being the last part of a word stem before an inflectional ending. Seduced : to persuade to disobedience or disloyalty. to produce by flickering 69. marked by final determination of a doubtful issue. having a venom-producing gland and able to inflict a poisoned wound 76. obscene. system. to carry out the physical seduction of : entice to sexual intercourse. to lead astray usually by persuasion or false promises. causing severe pain or suffering. a primary marine or terrestrial biogeographic division of the earth's surface 6. to accomplish by intrigue. Abolish : to end the observance or effect of. or practice of censoring. a trainee for spaceflight 5. advertisement 65. lacking in interest and life. not capable of being solved 7. to burn or shine fitfully or with a fluctuating light. Slippery: causing or tending to cause something to slide or fall. of. sodium nitrate especially occurring naturally 8. or engaged in pharmacy or the manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals. store. poisonous. the office. or range 79. Muggers: a common usually harmless freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus palustris) of southeastern Asia. Roistering: to engage in noisy revelry 75. plot. Sporadically: occurring occasionally. Propelling: to drive forward or onward by or as if by means of a force that imparts motion 2. dark gray Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 8 . singly. Delinquents : offending by neglect or violation of duty or of law. relating to. or characteristic of delinquents 82. sharply unpleasant 80. Aridity: excessively dry. being overdue in payment. to fill with distaste : shock 72. Thematically: of or relating to the stem of a word. to appear briefly. to place out of sight 74. or in scattered instances 4. Reservoirs : a place where something is kept in store. a line of division between different or opposed things 83. reproductive structure of a plant or fungus 77. Intrigued: cheat. Dams: a female parent of a domestic animal. Frontier : a border between two countries. incapable of being disentangled or untied. relating to. trick. Realms: kingdom 2. physically repugnant. Gonium : germ cell. of. one who attacks with intent to rob 73. sphere. scope. Saltpetre: potassium nitrate. envenomed. having insufficient rainfall to support agriculture 66. Inextricably: forming a maze or tangle from which it is impossible to get free. significant 78. Venomous : full of venom. Concealed: to prevent disclosure or recognition of. relating to. Flickers: to move irregularly or unsteadily. power. preposterous VOCABULARY 71. sodium nitrate. Censorship: the institution. a body of water confined by a barrier 68. supply. to cause to flicker. indecent. Adverts: to turn the mind or attention. Astronauts: a person who travels beyond the earth's atmosphere. Horrified: to cause to feel horror. domain. attract 81. or term of a Roman censor IELTS 3 1. destroy 84. Ridiculous: arousing or deserving ridicule : absurd. important. to lengthen in extent. a charcoal drawing. Crucial : important or essential as resolving a crisis. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 64. not to be trusted 70. Nasty : disgustingly filthy. Prolonged : to lengthen in time : continue.

to supply or impregnate (as the soil or a liquid) with air. Beetles: any of various insects resembling a beetle. or characteristic of the world. a ceremonial act or action. Ethnography: the study and systematic recording of human cultures 37. Rigorously: manifesting. or severe 31. or counteracts 20. to fertilize or dress with manure 22. or influence of 24. also: a disease marked by this 15. directly under: underneath. Leukemia: an acute or chronic disease in humans and other warm-blooded animals characterized by an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the tissues and often in the blood 12. or rough in tone 21. Cervical: of or relating to a neck or cervix (neck. Breeders : an animal or plant kept for propagation. bitter. characterized by the practical. tending to excite or inflame. prevents. under the control. Canoes: a light narrow boat with both ends sharp that is usually propelled by paddling Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 9 . Entomologists: a branch of zoology that deals with insects 30. Adolescence: the state or process of growing up. to emit breath or vapour. a customarily repeated often formal act or series of acts 33. harsh. Ambiguity: the quality or state of being ambiguous especially in meaning. Incendiary: of. Unbiased: free from bias. especially : the back part of the neck) 13. Antidote: a remedy to counteract the effects of poison. an incendiary agent 11. to make cloudy or confused 32. marked by extremes of temperature or climate. to give evidence of displeasure or disapproval by or as if by facial expression 34. one engaged in the breeding of a specified organism 29. sully. Exhaled: to rise or be given off as vapour. Excavate: to form a cavity or hole in. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 9. Censored: to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered objectionable 36. pressure. firework. Coarse: of ordinary or inferior quality or value. Frowned : to contract the brow in displeasure or concentration. relating to. to dig out and remove. to breathe out. an ambiguous word or expression. 39. Bronchitis: acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes. or vague in outline or character. Beneath : in or to a lower position : below. Blurring : to obscure or blemish by smearing. indistinct. Rituals: the established form for a ceremony. and ordinary 38. Artefact : something created by humans usually for a practical purpose. a person who deliberately sets fire to a building or other property. scrupulously accurate : precise 19. to make dim. the period of life from puberty to maturity terminating legally at the age of majority. something that relieves. Bury : to dispose of by depositing in or as if in the earth. to make or use a tunnel 25. Pyrotechnic: of or relating to pyrotechnics. Mundane: of. to expose to view by or as if by digging away a covering 27. harsh. Dung: the excrement of an animal : manure. Exacerbate: to make more violent. a heavy wooden hammering or ramming instrument. severe. Pneumonia: a disease of the lungs characterized by inflammation and consolidation followed by resolution and caused by infection or irritants 14. having an expected value equal to a population parameter being estimated 18. or favoring rigor : very strict. to form by hollowing out. relating to. a combustible substance used in a firework 10. Coracles: a small boat used in Britain from ancient times and made of a frame (as of wicker) covered usually with hide or tarpaulin 40. to make light or sparkling 28. a wooden pestle or bat for domestic tasks VOCABULARY 23. or involving a deliberate burning of property. especially : free from all prejudice and favoritism : eminently fair. to defeat overwhelmingly 26. to give forth (gaseous matter). Aeration: to supply (the blood) with oxygen by respiration. raucous. exercising. something repulsive. transitory. any of various similar devices. to cause to be emitted in vapor 16. Tunnelling: to pass through a potential barrier. uncertainty 35. a stage of development (as of a language or culture) prior to maturity 17.

damp. corpse. Depleted: to empty of a principal substance. inventiveness. maintained. Indigenous: having originated in and being produced. Hostility: deep-seated usually mutual ill will. and close 64. Irritable : capable of being irritated. relating to. Strachey: very formal and unbending. a survivor or remnant left after decay. Drastically : acting rapidly or violently. Epitomize: to make or give an epitome of. or belief 52. remains. or occurring naturally in a particular region or environment. or value 50. innate. a trace of some past or outmoded practice. Congestion : to cause an excessive fullness of the blood vessels of (as an organ). the act of assembling : the state of being assembled. Apace: at a quick pace : swiftly. artifacts. cleverness or aptness of design or contrivance. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 41. very bright in color 62. to progress toward or realize a goal 57. souvenir. or resistance in thought or principle 46. intoxicated by alcohol or narcotics 65. or disappearance. Relics : an object esteemed and venerated because of association with a saint or martyr. especially : one exerting a stimulatory effect on a cellular activity 66. to lessen markedly in quantity. Archaeological : the scientific study of material remains (as fossil relics. inborn 47. Muggy : being warm. Thrived: to grow vigorously : flourish. rejection. Pineal : of. custom. junk. clog. Ingenuity : skill or cleverness in devising or combining. Melatonin : a vertebrate hormone derived from serotonin and secreted by the pineal gland especially in response to darkness VOCABULARY 67. and odds and ends 42. to spread over or into as if invading 55. Murky : characterized by thickness and heaviness of air : foggy. memento. Tenable: capable of being held. reasonable 59. or censure 48. Ventured: to expose to hazard. relating to. a pleasing appearance or effect 45. Siesta : an afternoon nap or rest 63. Aesthetic: of. Hamsters : any of a subfamily (Cricetinae) of small Old World rodents having very large cheek pouches 69. darkly vague or obscure 70. especially : one embodying the ideals and institutions of a society or segment of society 56. to concentrate in a small or narrow space Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 10 . Assemblages : a collection of persons or things : gathering. growing. Impaired : being in a less than perfect or whole condition. Fluorescent : having or relating to fluorescence. Irrevocable: not possible to revoke : unalterable 44. and monuments) of past human life and activities. easily exasperated or excited b : responsive to stimuli 71. to encroach upon : infringe. to undertake the risks and dangers of : brave. Hormone : a product of living cells that circulates in body fluids or sap and produces a specific effect on the activity of cells remote from its point of origin. remains of the culture of a people : antiquities 54. and apparently lacking in warmth or a sense of humour 49. extreme in effect or action : severe 61. an artistic composition made from scraps. abreast 60. to serve as the typical or ideal example of 53. an ingenious device or contrivance 43. opposition. content. misty. or defended : defensible. living. disintegration. power. or being the pineal gland 68. Machetes: a large heavy knife used for cutting sugarcane and underbrush and as a weapon 51. Myth: a popular belief or tradition that has grown up around something or someone. to offer at the risk of rebuff. conflict. Invaders: to enter for conquest or plunder. Retarded: slow or limited in intellectual or emotional development or academic progress 58. or dealing with aesthetics or the beautiful. to gain in wealth or possessions : prosper.

love. to avail oneself of : welcome 9. contrarily 16. to subject to confiscation as a forfeit 76. one or two nares opening externally at the top of the head. seamed with wrinkles and furrows : weathered 77. disintegrate. to travel or pass over on skis 79. to decline in quality 12. porpoises. or competence 78. urbanity. encircle. Rudimentary : consisting in first principles : fundamental. Superb : marked to the highest degree by grandeur. having a rough uneven surface : jagged. Rugged : shaggy. Embraced: to clasp in the arms : hug. Bout: a spell of activity: as a : an athletic match (as of boxing). to sink into a low intellectual or moral state. characterized by or producing obscurity 17. or subtle 73. Multifaceted: many : multiple : much. Lexical : of or relating to words or the vocabulary of a language as distinguished from its grammar and construction. archaic : wandering 6. especially : cultivation. of or relating to a lexicon or to lexicography 3. Tropospheric : the lowest densest part of the earth's atmosphere in which most weather changes occur and temperature generally decreases rapidly with altitude and which extends from the surface to the bottom of the stratosphere IELTS 4 1. or plastic curving upward in front that are used especially for gliding over snow. very imperfectly developed or represented only by a vestige 13. characterized by stereoscopy 14. deficient in clarity or purity : foul. Disruption : to break apart : rupture b : to throw into disorder. turbulent. Intermittent : coming and going at intervals : not continuous. also : occasional 4. to rise up. requiring strength or vigo . to interrupt the normal course or unity of 75. metal. enclose. dolphins. Hiking : to travel by any means. attack. to call forth or draw out 2. and related forms and that have a torpedo-shaped nearly hairless body. Erroneous: containing or characterized by error : mistaken. the process or result of becoming cultured. Sophistication : the process of making impure or weak : adulteration. or condition : degenerate Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 11 . Robust: rough. being or relating to a semiconductor in which the concentration of charge carriers is characteristic of the material itself instead of the content of any impurities it contains. a nostril in the top of the head of a cetacean and especially a whale 11. Forfeit : to lose or lose the right to by some error. Turbid : thick or opaque with or as if with roiled sediment. Suffrage : a short intercessory prayer usually in a series. one of a pair of opposites. Ski : one of a pair of narrow strips of wood. Cetaceans: any of an order (Cetacea) of aquatic mostly marine mammals that includes the whales. full-bodied 7. Stereoscopic: of or relating to stereoscopy or the stereoscope. the right of voting 74. archaic: publication. offense. excellence. and a horizontally flattened tail used for locomotion 10. Contrary: a fact or condition incompatible with another : opposite — usually used with the. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 72. a vote given in deciding a controverted question or in the choice of a person for an office or trust. heavy with smoke or mist. the process or result of becoming more complex. Emission : an act or instance of emitting: emanation. functioning. Blowholes: a hole in metal caused by a bubble of gas captured during solidification. to glide on skis in travel or as a sport. or part 8. Elicit : to draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential). outbreak. rude. developed. paddle-shaped forelimbs but no hind limbs. Degenerated to pass from a higher to a lower type or condition : deteriorate. knowledgeable. brilliance. Intrinsic : belonging to the essential nature or constitution of . or crime. Deteriorated: to make inferior in quality or value : impair. of a primitive kind. contrariwise. many times over 5. session 18. more than one. originating or due to causes within a body. organ. a putting into circulation 81. muddy. to become impaired in quality. to take up especially readily or gladly. stormy. cherish. hairy. Porpoises: dolphin 1a 15. or disillusioned. more than two. especially: to work upward out of place 80.

Tragic: of. or inherited from an ancestor 35. Deprive: remove. to preserve (meat) in long sun-dried slices 26. to contract to less extent or compass. operas. to gain possession of a rebound in basketball 32. Juvenile: physiologically immature or undeveloped : young. or expedients 21. Choruses: to sing or utter in chorus. or twist to. derived from sources within the earth and coming to the surface for the first time — used especially of water and gas 44. the act or an instance of enduring or suffering 47. measure. Spinning: to measure by or as if by the hand with fingers and thumb extended. to become smaller or more compacted 31. Indulge: to give free rein to. Naturopath: a system of treatment of disease that avoids drugs and surgery and emphasizes the use of natural agents (as air. Wobbling: to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or staggering motion or unsteadily and clumsily from side to side. or manner of speaking 23. duration. Fostering: to give parental care to : nurture. Ancestral: of. Acoustic : of or relating to the sense or organs of hearing. 45. or glacial ice. reecho. or parts that a company or person is prepared to perform. or consideration. broadly : eccentricity 25. pull. appropriate to or typical of tragedy. the ability to withstand hardship or adversity. conventional 37. to cause to deteriorate or disappear as if by eating or wearing away 41. to lie or sit with arms and legs spread out. to take something away from 33. to indulge oneself 46. relating to. to yield to the desire of : humour. Sprawls: to lie thrashing or tossing about b : to creep or clamber awkwardly. cower. or to the science of sounds. style. lamentable 29. Manoeuvres: a military or naval movement. Disenchantments: to free from illusion 39. generosity. to treat with excessive leniency. Shrunk: to contract or curl up the body or part of it : huddle. and sunshine) and physical means 40. a part of a song or hymn recurring at intervals 22. to spread or develop irregularly 30. to wear away by the action of water. Bilingualism: the ability to speak two languages : the frequent oral use of two languages 36. Idiosyncratic: individual hypersensitiveness (as to a drug or food). waver. to take unrestrained pleasure in : gratify. Deemed: to come to think or judge : consider. infection. joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic 43. power. size. to promote the growth or development of : encourage 34. water. a supply of skills. Eroded : to diminish or destroy by degrees. vacillate 27. tremble. Endurance: permanence. characteristic peculiarity (as of temperament). vocal expression : speech. Repertoire: a list or supply of dramas. Hiccup: a spasmodic inhalation with closure of the glottis accompanied by a peculiar sound. especially: the ability to sustain a prolonged stressful effort or activity . Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World VOCABULARY 19. to have an opinion : believe 28. Rebound: to spring back on or as if on collision or impact with another body. Exuberant: extreme or excessive in degree. Orthodox : conforming to established doctrine especially in religion. devices. or cancer). to eat into or away by slow destruction of substance (as by acid. to recover from setback or frustration. pieces. Jerking: to give a quick suddenly arrested push. deadening or absorbing sound 20. an armed forces training exercise an action taken to gain a tactical end Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 12 . or expressive of tragedy. Clientele: a body of clients 42. to form an arch over 24. regrettably serious or unpleasant : deplorable. Utterances : the last extremity : bitter end. Chiropractor: a system of therapy which holds that disease results from a lack of normal nerve function and which employs manipulation and specific adjustment of body structures (as the spinal column) 38. wind. marked by. or extent. dealing with or treated in tragedy. to sound. quaver.

Acrobats: one that performs gymnastic feats requiring skillful control of the body. extraordinary ability 49. to throw forcefully Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 13 . Hurl: rush. Introspection : a reflective looking inward : an examination of one's own thoughts and feelings 74. Meshing : to catch in the openings of a net. Prowess: distinguished bravery. the main part or body of a bodily structure or organ 73. to send or thrust with great vigor. Corpus : the body of a human or animal especially when dead. entangle. one skillful at exercises of intellectual or artistic dexterity 55. Thoroughly: carried through to completion. having full mastery 54. 50. Swiftly : in a swift manner : with speed : quickly 63. a candy made with caramelized sugar and nuts spread in thin sheets 60. a small-scale figure (as of a person or animal) usually with a cloth body and hollow head that fits over and is moved by the hand 56. voice 64. Rim : brink. given to fighting or killing. Fierce : violently hostile or aggressive in temperament. Kaleidoscope : an instrument containing loose bits of colour material (as glass or plastic) between two flat plates and two plane mirrors so placed that changes of position of the bits of material are reflected in an endless variety of patterns 52. to cause (as gears) to engage 77. a depression formed by the impact of a meteorite. Froth : bubbles formed in or on a liquid. Eruption : an act. careful about detail. to call forth or draw out 72. divide. Saliva: liquid secreted into mouth 53. disorder. penetrate VOCABULARY 59. extremely unpleasant or trying 76. Coyote: one who smuggles immigrants into the U. enmesh. Pumice : a volcanic glass full of cavities and very light in weight used especially in powder form for smoothing and polishing 65. vent. the breaking out of a rash on the skin or mucous membrane. Impoverished : to make poor. at one's convenience 75. Messy: marked by confusion. to cover with froth. Likens: compare 51. lacking neatness or precision : careless. disappointing. Rifted : cleave. richness. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 48. Scrupulous : having moral integrity : acting in strict regard for what is considered right or proper. slovenly. Treacle a medicinal compound formerly in wide use as a remedy against poison. to cause to resemble network. or fertility by depleting or draining of something essential 58. specifically. complete in all respects. the outer often curved or circular edge or border of something to form or show a rim 68. to cause to foam. or snapped. Irresistible : impossible to resist 67. punctiliously exact : painstaking 71. marked by full detail. extremely vexatious. Leisure: freedom provided by the cessation of activities. a hole in the ground made by the explosion of a bomb or shell. to throw down with violence. an inadequate supply 57. Puppets: one whose acts are controlled by an outside force or influence. a product of erupting 69. or intense 70. a dimple in a painted surface 66. easily hurt or offended. an eroded lesion. especially: time free from work or duties. Brittle : easily broken.S. or dirt: untidy. something (as a tone of voice) heavily sweet and cloying 62. a group of islands 61. or instance of erupting. hurtle. Dearth: scarcity that makes dear. to deprive of strength. cracked. Archipelago : an expanse of water with many scattered islands. Elicited : to draw forth or bring out (something latent or potential). process. Crater : the bowl-shaped depression around the orifice of a volcano.

Unorthodox : not orthodox. or harmonize 95. to force a way into or through something 105. to hit (a golf ball) poorly b : to execute poorly 84. period before Lent 97. unconventional 86. Adage : a saying often in metaphorical form that embodies a common observation 80. to rob especially on a large scale and usually by violence or corruption. Choral: of or relating to a chorus or choir. Extrapolations: infer. scope. cause 79. revival 100. generously sufficient to satisfy a requirement or or need. epithet. to displace in favor of another 107. Lash: to move violently or suddenly. sung or designed for singing by a choir 101. discharge of waste gases 91. to trim or remove the comb and wattles of. excellent 92. Carnival: public celebration. to enter or thrust into sharply or painfully. to force out of use as inferior. Soviet: an elected governmental council in a Communist country 112. to thrash or beat violently. to go to bed. remove gas to create vacuum. Exhaustible: to make somebody feel very tired or weak. to become adjusted so as to match. Geared : to make ready for effective operation. affluence. logical incongruity 83. estimate value 94. to make a verbal attack or retort 104. lying within the range for which forecasts are possible 88. Sawdust : fine particles (as of wood) made by a saw in cutting 87. discerning. having apprehension. room. Piercing : to run into or through as a pointed weapon does. or capacity. Emeritus : one retired from professional life but permitted to retain as an honorary title the rank of the last office held. extending beyond the usual or ordinary especially in size or scope. Epic: of. squarely. buxom. lighthouse. Ample: generous or more than adequate in size. to appeal to or cite as authority. showing. to make a hole through. Splendour: great brightness or luster : brilliancy. more than thought possible. Contradiction : a proposition. to penetrate with the eye or mind. Painstaking: the action of taking pains. Exotic: introduced from another country. expending. relating to. Apprehensive : capable of apprehending or quick to do so. Flop : right. Invoking to petition for help or support. or phrase that asserts or implies both the truth and falsity of something. viewing the future with anxiety or alarm 96. or position of. Superseded: to cause to be set aside. to put into effect or operation : implement. pomp 109. incantation to make an earnest request for. profusion 108. to fail completely 85. also : the food prepared VOCABULARY 103. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 78. to force or make a way into or through. to take the place. rebirth. Foreseeable : being such as may be reasonably anticipated. strong excitement of feeling. 81. Doomsday: end of world 93. to call forth by . the chamber in a lighthouse containing the light Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 14 . Cuisine: manner of preparing food : style of cooking. Innumeracy: marked by an ignorance of mathematics and the scientific approach 106. excitingly. Opulence: wealth. something inspiring zeal or fervor 99. done with vigor : carried out forcefully and energetically 110. strikingly. blend. Enthusiasm: belief in special revelations of the Holy Spirit b : religious fanaticism. abundance. or having the characteristics of an epic. bring about. Renaissance: a movement or period of vigorous artistic and intellectual activity. amazing. Incredible: beyond belief. or involving diligent care and effort 89. to call by a distinctive title. or mysteriously different or unusual. Vigorous: possessing vigor : full of physical or mental strength or active force. Digitizes : to convert (as data or an image) to digital form 82. Lantern: a usually portable protective case for a light with transparent openings — compares Chinese lantern. Looting: to plunder or sack in war. statement. Dubbed : to confer knighthood on. magnificence. or nickname. portly 102. 98. to seize and carry away by force especially in war 90. heroic 111. to change or turn suddenly.

or move from side to side 125. or based on racial or cultural groups 148. Largish: lavish. to make secure by freeing from dispute or question 130. or being a spectacle: striking. the selectivity of the elite. exceptionally fine 149. of or relating to a community. Sickle: an agricultural implement consisting of a curved metal blade with a short handle fitted on a tang. tent 140. Amplifier: an electronic device (as in a stereo system) for amplifying voltage. or used in common by members of a group or community. having more than usual power. to put off intentionally the doing of something that should be done 143. Scampered: to run nimbly and usually playfully about 122. to resolve the intricacy. Elitist: leadership or rule by an elite. to cause to come apart by or as if by separating the threads of. affluence. to strike with sudden and usually great wonder or surprise 121. a piece of canvas used for a particular purpose. Undermine: to wash away supporting material from under. Humid: containing or characterized by perceptible moisture especially to the point of being oppressive 132. Advent: the period beginning four Sundays before Christmas and observed by some Christians as a season of prayer and fasting 115. or scope 144. impressive to the mind or spirit: sublime. Embezzlement: to appropriate (as property entrusted to one's care) fraudulently to one's own use 137. complexity. Quieter: to cause to be quiet: calm. Shady: producing or affording shade. Regurgitate: to become thrown or poured back. Deprived: remove. ample. something that acts like a mechanical trigger in initiating a process or reaction 135. Magnificent: great in deed or exalted in place — used only of former famous rulers. Thrive: to grow vigorously: flourish. Jury: a committee for judging and awarding prizes at a contest or exhibition. to gain in wealth or possessions: prosper. disreputable 133. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 113. Unravelling : to disengage or separate the threads of : disentangle. Procrastination: to put off intentionally and habitually. participated in. odds and ends 127. Astonishing: to strike with sudden fear. to change (a red blood cell) into a sickle cell 124. Fled: to run away often from danger or evil: fly. Trigger: stylishly or jauntily trim. of. to subvert or weaken insidiously or secretly. to hurry toward a place of security. or power Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 15 . extensive. relating to. also: supervision VOCABULARY 147. especially: one preoccupied with the purity of a language and its protection from the use of foreign or altered forms 141. Émigrés: liquid secreted into mouth 116. Proximity: the quality or state of being proximate: closeness 131. Waggling: to move frequently one way and the other. Linen: made of flax. to pass away swiftly: vanish 117. relating to. to take something away from. unreliable. a waiting line especially of persons or vehicles. or obscurity of : clear up 120. wealth. to weaken or ruin by degrees 139. characterized by collective ownership and use of property. Tweed: a rough woollen fabric made usually in twill weaves and used especially for suits and coats 119. sheltered from the sun's rays. Queue: a braid of hair usually worn hanging at the back of the head. to select material as appropriate for exhibition in (as an art show) — used chiefly as a participle 145. of questionable merit : uncertain. to withhold something from 138. current. Communal: of or relating to one or more communes. sway. sensational 134. to arrange or form in a queue 136. Hovercraft: a vehicle that is supported above the surface of land or water by a cushion of air produced by downwardly directed fans 150. Etcetera: a number of unspecified additional persons or things. pity 129. broad. to show or express disdain or scorn 126. to reel. consciousness of being or belonging to an elite 146. to throw or pour back or out from or as if from a cavity 123. Trout: any of various fishes (as the largemouth bass) held to resemble the true trouts 142. Abundance: an ample quantity: profusion. Spectacular: of. made of or resembling linen 118. extremely precise: prim. shared. Canvas: a set of sails. relative degree of plentifulness 128. Sniffing: to draw air audibly up the nose especially for smelling. to mow or reap with a sickle. Compassionate having or showing compassion: sympathetic. especially. Purists: one who adheres strictly and often excessively to a tradition. to progress toward or realize a goal 114. capacity. Surveillance: close watch kept over someone or something (as by a detective). abundant.

to clean away dirt or refuse from : cleanse. the representation (as a plot) of a spectrum. a branch of knowledge that deals with folklore 15. word. Eccentricities : the quality or state of being eccentric. Chaos : chasm. to cause annoyance 157. dances. a sense of utter distaste or repugnance 23. Spectrum : a continuous sequence or range. specifically: a noticeable arrangement or conjoining of linguistic elements 158. a state of utter confusion 4. to harass especially by quick brief attacks. or being a musical instrument whose sound is not electronically modified 156. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 151. Mercy: a blessing that is an act of divine favor or compassion. a web like pattern or construction. Pliable: supple enough to bend freely or repeatedly without breaking. the eccentricity of an astronomical orbit used as a measure of its deviation from circularity 14. during b : with the accompaniment of 13. Annoyed: to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts. a favorable or unfavourable event or situation that occurs by chance. Compiled : to compose out of materials from other documents. to overcome by force of arms. or annoyance. Vicissitudes : the quality or state of being changeable. adjustable to varying conditions 152. to collect and edit into a volume. 21. Doltish: a stupid person 159. vigor. grief. among. alternating change 9. Groans : to utter a deep moan indicative of pain. Rivalled : to be in competition with. Lexicographer : an author or editor of a dictionary 10. or trickery. relating to. individual. Expletives: a syllable. to strive to equal or excel. to act as an attendant. Garret : a room or unfinished part of a house just under the roof 8. to possess qualities or aptitudes that approach or equal 7. Amidst: in or into the middle of. to remove (burned gases) from the cylinder of an internal combustion engine after a working stroke 153. a fortunate circumstance 22. or phrase inserted to fill a vacancy (as in a sentence or a metrical line) without adding to the sense. the quality or state of being obscure 12. the range of frequencies of sound waves 16. extortion. the period of one's greatest strength. Meshed: one of the openings between the threads or cords of a net. Denouncing : to pronounce especially publicly to be blameworthy or evil. yielding readily to others : complaisant. or prosperity 6. to build up gradually 2. Impetuous: marked by impulsive vehemence or passion. business or activity provided by patrons. Obscurities : one that is obscure. one who excels greatly especially in a particular field 155. await 3. Conquer : to gain or acquire by force of arms. working contact 154. abyss. to announce threateningly 20. Idiomatic: of. to make a harsh sound (as of creaking) under sudden or prolonged strain 17. to move or proceed with twists and turns 18. Patronage : kindness done with an air of superiority. or art forms preserved among a people. the power to make appointments to government jobs especially for political advantage 11. a often capitalized: a state of things in which chance is supreme. or style IELTS 5 1. Acoustic: of. relating to. Heyday: high spirits. Sharks: a rapacious crafty person who preys upon others through usury. excitement. one that serves to fill out or as a filling 19. sayings. a sudden or strong reaction or change. Tended : listen. tales. upset. Revulsion : a strong pulling or drawing away. or disturbance. to feed on (carrion or refuse). peculiar to a particular group. Collocations: the act or result of placing or arranging together. Overwhelming: tending or serving to overwhelm. to gain mastery over or win by overcoming obstacles or opposition 5. or conforming to idiom. Writhing : to twist into coils or folds. Folklore : traditional customs. deviation from an established pattern or norm. overthrow Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 16 . Scavenging: to remove (as dirt or refuse) from an area. marked by force and violence of movement or action 160. to pay attention. Calmly : free from agitation.

Wrecking: to cast ashore. Fringe: to furnish or adorn with a fringe. to rouse or stimulate to action or to physiological readiness for activity. Prominence: something prominent : projection. bring about. or imperil by a wreck. Lopsidedness: leaning to one side. Prefrontal: anterior to or involving the anterior part of a frontal structure. any of various cloths of a dull brown or gray color. something that is marginal. Arousal : to awaken from sleep. organized for the purpose of doing good. Shudder : to tremble convulsively. additional. having a capacity for adaptive change 41. exaggeration. to ruin. false. wreak 37. or faded appearance or quality 42. Scepticism: explain something. or proportion 34. doctrine that knowledge is impossible 36. Malleable: capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer or by the pressure of rollers. first in importance : primary 28. marked by or suggestive of goodwill 29. to attempt to influence or sway (as a public official) toward a desired action 35. to serve as a fringe for. Dwindling: to become steadily less : shrink. to reduce to a ruinous state by or as if by violence. meriting derisive laughter or scorn as absurdly inept. and that have been used especially formerly as fireproof insulating materials 40. Transient: passing especially quickly into and out of existence : transitory. extreme in effect or action 38. state. an act of shuddering 50. Devastating : to bring to ruin or desolation by violent action. the quality. conciliate 44. a light olive brown. Drastic: acting rapidly or violently. a group with marginal or extremist views. shipwreck. Lunatic : affected with lunacy. to cause to subside. affecting something or producing results beyond itself. Lobby : a corridor or hall connected with a larger room or series of rooms and used as a passageway or waiting room. the outer or superficial part of an organ or bodily structure 46. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World VOCABULARY 24. Ludicrousness: amusing or laughable through obvious absurdity. or helplessness 33. that have been implicated as causes of certain cancers. Elucidating explain something 31. process. to reduce to chaos. 27. Cortex: a plant bark or rind (as cinchona) used medicinally. capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces or influences. a dull. Primal: original. a prefrontal part (as a bone) 45. 49. the anterior division of each cerebral hemisphere 47. 26. to make steadily less 39. Drab: slattern. symmetry. or subject. or fact of being prominent or conspicuous. pacify. a temporary oscillation that occurs in a circuit because of a sudden change of voltage or of load 32. Benevolent: marked by or disposed to doing good. giving the impression of being cut or broken off 48. lifeless. a mass of gas resembling a cloud that arises from the chromosphere of the sun Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 17 . to involve in disaster or ruin. a group of persons engaged in lobbying especially as representatives of a particular interest group. lacking in balance. to associate with prostitutes. or eccentricity. passing through or by a place with only a brief stay or sojourn. repressed. Asbestos: any of several minerals (as chrysotile) that readily separate into long flexible fibers. Pent: confined. Abrupt: characterized by or involving action or change without preparation or warning. damage. prostitute. or secondary to some activity. disorder. Appeasement: to bring to a state of peace or quiet. wildly foolish 25. incongruity. Legitimacy: the quality or state of being legitimate 30. Lobe: a curved or rounded projection or division. or foolish 43. quiver. primitive.

Frosting: to cover with or as if with frost. Culprit: one accused of or charged with a crime. Vulnerable: capable of being physically wounded. Furnace: an enclosed structure in which heat is produced. Replenish to fill with persons or animals. the source or cause of a problem 69. a person travelling about usually in search of work. Strides: to stand astride. to practice camouflage 63. one that is transient 70. to make into a terrace 68. a group of row houses. of or relating to empiricism 52. open something ceremonially 54. the greatest longitudinal stress a substance can bear without tearing apart 75. Fragile: easily broken or destroyed. one guilty of a crime or a fault. Exacerbated: to make more violent.S. or occur in a cluster VOCABULARY 65. conveying nerve impulses from the sense organs to the nerve centers 56. passage 77. to supply fully : perfect c : to fill with inspiration or power. Curator: one that has the care and superintendence of something 53. to grow. to move with or as if with long steps. Cradle: a bed or cot for a baby usually on rockers or pivots. Retrenchment: reduction. a member of a group of Indian peoples of the south western U. a relatively level paved or planted area adjoining a building. to injure or kill (as plants) by frost. lichens. and adjacent areas consisting of contiguous flat-roofed stone or adobe houses in groups sometimes several stories high. assemble. herbs. a raised embankment with the top levelled. Camouflaged: to conceal or disguise by camouflage. or involving tension. liable to increased penalties but entitled to increased bonuses after winning a game in contract bridge 67. Cluster: a number of similar individuals that occur together. a flat roof or open platform. curtailment 62.S. a cycle of locomotor movements (as of a horse) completed when the feet regain the initial relative positions 57. Elapses: to slip or glide away. Microfiche: a sheet of microfilm containing rows of microimages of pages of printed matter 79. Terraces: a colonnaded porch or promenade. Tensile: capable of tension : ductile. relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory. Perpetuate: to make perpetual or cause to last indefinitely 58. rear c : to support protectively or intimately 78. and has a dominant vegetation of mosses. o produce a fine-grained slightly roughened surface on. and dwarf shrubs 73. Repatriate: to restore or return to the country of origin. 74. to make angry or irritated 55. constitutionally delicate : lacking in physical vigor. relating to. Tundra: a level or rolling treeless plain that is characteristic of arctic and sub arctic regions. Aquaculture: the cultivation of the natural produce of water 60. bitter. a framework or support suggestive of a baby's cradle. affecting something or producing results beyond itself. a furnace in which combustion is forced by a current of air under pressure Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 18 . Transient: passing especially quickly into and out of existence. Invigorating: again : anew. of. capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment. back : backward 71. or citizenship 72. shelter. to take a very long step. make good : replace 59. to collect into a cluster. to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area 76. New Mexico. Sensory: of or relating to sensation or to the senses. allegiance. two or more consecutive consonants or vowels in a segment of speech.. open to attack or damage. an Indian village of the south western U. slight 66. Inaugurated: swear somebody formally into office. tenuous. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 51. Propagate: to cause to continue or increase by sexual or asexual reproduction. Desalination: desalt (to remove salt from) 61. consists of black mucky soil with a permanently frozen subsoil. Empirical: originating in or based on observation or experience. to fill or build up again. Pueblos: the communal dwelling of an Indian village of Arizona. or severe 64. to pass along to offspring.

to overpower with light. to suppose to be true without proof 103. or content. Toddlers: one that toddles. kind. a piece of writing about travel 92. to move or proceed speedily. Insomniacs: prolonged and usually abnormal inability to obtain adequate sleep 90. also : a trainee for spaceflight 91. to lie dormant or latent 86. to arouse admiration by an impressive display. forced. and extravagant. sort. flowers.Incineration: to cause to burn to ashes 106. a woman who holds a baronial title in her own right 84. Horticulture: the science and art of growing fruits. the act of sipping 104. painting that depicts scenes or events from everyday life usually realistically Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 19 . Entail : an entailing especially of lands. a claim or an effort to establish a claim. opinion. an entailed estate. to fortify with palisades 95. Astronaut: a person who travels beyond the earth's atmosphere. or ornamental plants 83. smoothly. judgment 97. Benzodiazepines: any of a group of aromatic lipophilic amines (as diazepam and chlordiazepoxide) used especially as tranquilizers: 88.Sip : to drink in small quantities. to impress deeply. Genre: a category of artistic. to begin to grow 81. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 80. to restore to confidence. to travel without destination or purpose 96.Presume: to undertake without leave or clear justification. Cruise: to sail about touching at a series of ports. constructed with standardized units or dimensions for flexibility and variety in use 100. torpor. arbitrarily changed words. Palisades: a fence of stakes especially for defense. Slumber: to sleep lightly. an informal nonstandard vocabulary composed typically of coinages. directly under 87. a narrated motion picture about travel. Verdict: the finding or decision of a jury on the matter submitted to it in trial. Dazzling: to lose clear vision especially from looking at bright light. a small draft taken with the lips. especially : a young child 99. or contradiction). to come into being. a line of bold cliffs. Niggled: trifle b : to spend too much effort on minor details. or biographical incident 94. Slang: language peculiar to a particular group: as argot. form. overpower. something making person or animal 89. Somatotropin: hormone stimulating growth 85. to find fault constantly in a petty way 98. Germinate: to cause to sprout or develop. Beneath: in or to a lower position. or based on a module or a modulus. Anecdotes: a usually short narrative of an interesting. exhibiting tolerance 82. hindrance. something transmitted as if by entail 2. Tolerant: inclined to tolerate(to suffer to be or to be done without prohibition. or facetious figures of speech to abuse with harsh or coarse language 102. Modular: of. Baroness: the wife or widow of a baron. Travelogue: a talk or lecture on travel usually accompanied by a film or slides. to shine brilliantly. Tranquilisers: calming drug. Pretensions: an allegation of doubtful value : pretext. or effortlessly. a claim or right to attention or honor because of merit 101. or literary composition characterized by a particular style. Partite: divided into a usually specified number of parts VOCABULARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE 1. amusing. musical. to take sips from. vegetables. reinsure 105.Reassure: to assure anew. relating to. or confound with brilliance 93. to expect or assume especially with confidence. lethargy.

clump. Snobbery 24. periodically rising and falling or flowing and ebbing. or carelessness. weathered by or as if by winter : aged. relatively unknown: as a: remote. ignorance. or indistinct. Underpinned 22. : capable of winning favor : pleasing. to make a mistake through stupidity. dependent (as to the time of arrival or departure) upon the state of the tide 6. to restrain from expression : gag 8. any of the projections of yarns drawn through a fabric or making up a fabric so as to produce a surface of raised loops or cut pile. the open end of an implement. to poke or stir as if with a prod 7. Deconstruct 18. or course of action. to appear inviting : attract 9. Grappling 19. to utter stupidly. archaic : to advise against (an action). Sarcastic : having the character of sarcasm. Stern 21. careless. especially : the discharging end of a weapon. Ingratiating: to gain favor or favorable acceptance for by deliberate effort — usually used with. something (as censorship) that restrains normal expression. Pedestal Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 20 . a bunch of soft fluffy threads cut off short and used as ornament. Obscure: to make dark. to conceal or hide by or as if by covering. Prodded: to thrust a pointed instrument into : prick. Beckoning: to summon or signal typically with a wave or nod. not clearly seen or easily distinguished: faint. or thoughtlessly. to plead with : urge 13. chilling 10. Dissuade : to advise (a person) against something. to incite to action : stir. dim. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 3. Muzzle : the projecting jaws and nose of an animal : snout. caused by. to make a stupid. Toaster: one that toasts. Oxymoron 23. dim. to make (as a mattress) firm by stitching at intervals and sewing on tufts 12. also: mysterious. given to the use of sarcasm : caustic 15. dark. Wintry: of. Admiration 25. to turn from something by persuasion 14. intended or adopted in order to gain favor : flattering 16. a fastening or covering for the mouth of an animal used to prevent eating or biting. especially: an electrical appliance for toasting. Tuft: a small cluster of elongated flexible outgrowths attached or close together at the base and free at the opposite ends. to reduce. entreaty. Dismantle 17. to fit with a muzzle. Alleged 20. constituting the unstressed vowel 5. hoary. to make (a fabric) of or with tufts. relating to. or expostulation to a belief. shrouded in or hidden by darkness. mound. secluded b : not prominent or famous. a portable electrical appliance that can function as an oven or a toaster 4. Tidal: of. confusedly. Blundered: to move unsteadily or confusedly. especially : a growing bunch of grasses or close-set plants. or having tides. cluster. cheerless. Vanity 26. relating to. position. or characteristic of winter. or thoughtless mistake in 11. not readily understood or clearly expressed. to provide or adorn with a tuft. Persuade: to move by argument.

Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 27. Privilege 64. Fringe 62. Lanterns 31. Eloquence 38. Crunchy 37. Denied 47. Edifice 59. Splendour 61. Ululating Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 21 . Bygone 63. Snarled 49. Exaggerations 41. Anouk 55. Plosive 36. Similes 28. Presumably 45. Prolongs 35. Oysters 51. Strident 34. Reshape 43. Sprinkles 30. Lobster 53. Elms 58. Lavishness 52. Discrepancy 48. Armande 29. Catastrophe 54. Euphemism 46. Ambiguous 44. Alleyway 33. Maple 56. Onomatopoeia 32. Homicidal 39. Trellised 60. Brutal 40. Hyperbole 42. Treacle 50. Vividly 57.

Ineptitude 71. Assailants 102. Skunk 74. Tentacles 101. Inaugural 73. Exemplars 79. Rugged 97. Eternal 68. Pompous 70. Mongrel 96. Traumatic 88. Penultimate 78. Tabloid 86. Orator 76. Arrogance 69. Pretentiousness 72. Rancid 85. Admist 92. Navigationally 67. Tram 98. Arrogant 84. Quietening 89. Foetal 94. Fragile 99. Intrusive 90. Choir Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 22 . Sinister 100. Daintily 83. Underpin 75. Propeller 87. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 65. Scarily 81. Panic 80. Apartheid 77. Exhilarated 66. Swampy 93. Tranquilliser 95. Mediocre 91. Perspired 82.

Squabbling 125. Batty 108. Embodies 104. Crescendo 124. Derartu 111. Reckoned 117. Glitz 139. Tarmac 109. Shod 119. Guilt 105. Fiendish 121. Disgraced 126. Lynx-eyed 127. Weary 130. Chameleon 138. Tarmac 132. Tutu 112. Marathon 107. Escalators 133. Solidarity 129. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 103. Jig Getty 128. Clumsy 120. Plethora 114. Castanets 123. Idiotic 122. Cue 115. Bearish 136. Rye 110. Swiftly 131. League 140. Boorish 135. Camouflage Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 23 . Smug 116. Awed 113. Irresistible 137. Camaraderie 106. Incinerators 134. Disparaging 118.

Heralds 159. Homicidal maniac 165. Misted 142. Vaporetto 163. Clutter 151. Loch 148. Uncanny 145. Cliff-hanger 153. Scary 173. Claustrophobic 172. Futility 166. Zigzagged 174. Chisels 178. Remorse 167. Pluperfect 158. Exemplars 150. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 141. Sombre 149. Puissance 146. Insubstantial 152. Poignancy 168. Clairvoyant 161. Austere 147. Evoke 176. Tantalisingly 154. Mauve 143. Fastidious 160. Nostalgic 169. Seaweed 144. Menacing 171. Staccato 157. Debris 170. Souvenir Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 24 . Gibbering 164. Redundant 156. Squinting 175. Insane 162. Sparingly 155. Moored 177.

Encapsulating 196. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 179. Reinstate Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 25 . Anecdotes 199. Pity 216. Orator 198. Trauma 191. Reluctance 201. Deterrent 215. Unravel 190. Lurches 185. Outrageous 208. Humane 213. Ambiguous 193. Exemplars 200. Curiosity 197. Paradoxical 183. Immediacy 186. Controversial 211. Cluster 206. Pitfall 189. Censored 205. Piccolos 184. Chatty 195. Dealt 188. Recidivism 214. Persuasive 209. Furthermore 207. Miniature 180. Emulate 194. Slingshot 204. Scenario 187. Xhosa 203. Connotations 182. Outmoded 210. Instigated 212. Poignant 202. Interweave 192. Pram 181.

Clinking 240. Prose 220. Devilish 227. Fiend 226. Trivial 221. Seafarers 253. Caesura 244. Moums 228. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 217. Pedestal 247. Pedestal 251. adazzle 239. Robust 223. Ambiguous 219. Prosaic 238. Vulnerable 225. Treachery 222. Musty 235. Ozymandias 248. Tame 254. Laborious 218. Meek Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 26 . Brevity 252. Mown 232. Wreck 250. Enjambment 245. latch 241. Colossal 249. Frost 230. Latched 234. Snigger 236. Metaphor 224. Mooted 243. Duet 237. Eradicate 233. Fend 231. Weeded 242. Cultivating 246. Lair 229.

Emerald 264. Craggy 280. Mind. Harlot 288. Incongruous 263. Dismal 266. Cadences 258. Spruce 259. Groan'd 268.starred 287. Hedgehog 284. Swaddling 269. Poignant 282. Drifts 265. Wind-warped 286. Sennacherib 262. Ivies 279. Forsaking 256.Forg'd manacles 289. Abad 275. Invasion 277. Newfangled ness 257. Fidelity 274. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 255. Sheen 267. Meadows 283. Orisons 271. Mundane 281. Fabric 292. Far-fetched 278. Balsam 260. Full. Rehearsing Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 27 . New-spun 285. Plagues 291. Assonance 276. Perceptible 261. Para rhyme 273. Mockeries 272. Blighted 290. Monstrous 270.

Clusters 304. Stoep 300. Recess 305. Omniscient 294. Whipcord 308. Poignant 317. Pines 311. Chesterefield 307. Bickering 315. Ebb 298. Aslant 312. Norfolk 310. Veranda 303. Smashing 318. Culminate 316. Exaggerated 324. Idiosyncrasies 295. Gatsby 297. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 293. Faded 314. Delicacy 327. Biased 322. Moors Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 28 . Cobwebs 299. Ambiguity 329. Patina 309. Caricatures 325. Austen 330. Clenched 320. Dwelt 328. Fiercest 302. Delineate 323. Health cliff 319. Hazel 326. Mercifully 306. Depict 313. Clergyman 296. Juxtaposed 321. Intrigue 301.

Scrutinising 339. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 331. Bizarre Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 29 . Choppy 349. Intrinsically 352. Wrath 355. Scullery 344. Starches 346. Blonde lace 345. Inexorable 348. Loquacious 334. Dilemmas 359. Cleopatra 368. Relentless 350. Antipolice 364. Presumptuous 336. Enthralling 357. Ibo 338. protruding 343. Unmelodious 335. Inevitable 351. Subtle 361. Derogatory 354. Unoka 337. Nagging 365. Juxtaposition 367. Soliloquy 340. Tranquilly 341. Wizened 342. Bickers 366. Underpinning 363. Crippled 360. Reinforcement 333. Dreaded 356. Witty 362. Altruistic 332. Stinted 347. Patriarchal 353. Envisage 358.

Education Department-Centre For Excellence Studies 30 . Acquainted 378. Abigail 382. Promiscuity 387. Gesture 391. Affluent 388. Shipwreck 380. Shrewdly 371. Stenography 383. Aggrandise 373. Chaos 374. Patriarchal 372. Grotesqudy 392. Treacherously 375. Rupture 389. Hypocrisy 377. Vulnerability 370. Deceitfulness 376. Syracuse 379. Unrequited 386. Triumph 381. Modesty 390. Quo 385. Applauding 384. Shaping Minds Group Social Welfare-The Human World 369.