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L. Joni Polili

School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
Nayang Technological University
Hall 7 #40-1-746 Nanyang Link, Singapore 637717

Keywords: dynamic braking, two-quadrant chopper, functional blocks for simulating different type of dynamic
simulink model, speed-up time and braking time. systems. The very beginning step for using the simulink is to
model the system by either using mathematical expression or
circuit representation. In this project, both ways were used
Abstract complimentary to assist the design of the model.
Electric vehicle has become the major interest to replace
gasoline powered vehicle because the problem of ever 2 Objectives
decreasing gasoline resources. Simulink (one of Matlab
toolboxes) was used to model EV system. Permanent magnet One of the technical issues in the EV design is the dynamic
DC motor dynamic model was derived. Two-quadrant braking. In gasoline vehicles, mechanical brakes are used to
chopper model was developed. After combining both models, reduce the speed of the vehicle, resulting in a significant
simulation was conducted. Speed and current waveforms power loss. However, the EVs can be designed such that
were discussed. Control scheme was then designed and power loss due to braking can be converted to electric energy
implemented to the system, starting with current controller and then returned to the battery. In order to provide reverse
and following with speed controller. Optimization of current to flow back to the battery, known as charging
controllers following with verification would complete the process, a power electronic converter will be required. A two-
overall model. Dynamic braking was presented by simulation quadrant chopper will be a good choice to serve this purpose;
and waveform results were discussed. Reference speed and hence an effective and efficient dynamic braking will be
load torque were varied and simulated. Speed-up time and achieved. The research focus will be on developing a control
braking time were discussed. Conclusions were drawn at the scheme for an effective dynamic braking.
end of the paper.
3 Contributions
1 Introduction
In modelling of permanent magnet DC Motor, it is clearly
Facing the dilemma of decreasing of gasoline sources in the shown that a Simulink model of DC motor was derived. This
world, scientists and researchers have been trying very hard model is more suitable for Simulink analysis of system with
to find a new alternative energy source for vehicles. Between power electronic library block used. Furthermore, it is simpler
1832 and 1839, Robert Anderson of Scotland invented the and easier to understand than the model provided in the
first crude electric carriage. These two inventions started a library of Simulink under Additional Machines subfolder.
new era of Electric Vehicle (EV). EV is clean, emission free Moreover, it combines the method of mathematical
and environment friendly. These facts are the major factor for expression and circuit representation when modelling DC
automakers around the world to invest large amount of effort motor.
and capital in developing a new technologies for EV.
After system model was completed, it was proven that larger
Nowadays, EVs have been used widely in USA, but with
the reference speed larger the time taken to reach the required
limited production. In Singapore, EV is predicted to be an
speed. In addition, different type of speed response was
ideal market because of its geographic size and climate that
figured out for different type of load characteristic.
support efficient performance of the batteries.
During braking (sudden drop of reference speed), it was
In this project, a popular simulation tool, Simulink (one of the
clearly seen that current was flowing back to the DC source
MATLAB toolboxes), will be used to design and analyst the
(battery) by observing current waveform. This enables some
model for research objectives. Simulink is menu driven, user-
form of recharging process in regenerating mode. Speed
friendly simulation tool. Simulink is mostly used for
response during braking was faster because the ability of two-
simulating dynamic systems. Its library provides all the

Equation (1) was replaced by real circuit model to following figure shows the Simulink model of the chopper: provide current to flow in two way direction. step up chopper. ωr = (Te − TL ) (3) Js + Bm There are two switches S1 and S2 connected across a dc voltage source ES. When current is flowing to the load (positive). Diode connected parallel with the switch would block the From equations (1) to (4). model of shunt DC motor can be current to flow downward but provided flowing upward. found and therefore used in the model. S2 is open and vice versa. This gating signal is makes use of parameter called duty cycle to vary dc supply either on or off in a periodical manner. sometimes called chopper. IGBT and diode connected in parallel can be simplified and Figure 2 Shunt DC motor Simulink model. two-quadrant chopper and four- 4. From the above model. It is operated in two mode of operation. by a gating signal supply to the switch.quadrant chopper to let the current reach negative value in the percentage of time in one period where the current is allowed system. Hence. To serve this purpose. equations can be derived as shown: 1 / ra ia = (Va − k vω r ) (1) sL AA / ra + 1 Te = k v I a (2) 1 Figure 3 Circuit configuration of two-quadrant chopper. For torque.2 Modelling of DC to DC Converter The two switch used in two-quadrant chopper were controlled DC to DC switching converter. kv = Vf (4) Rf S1 and S2 turn on time contribute to one period of switching. Two-quadrant chopper would be used in In steady state. When current is flowing back to the supply (negative). The derived. 4. DC motor can be represented as shown below: the research. 4. it acts as a step up chopper.1 Modelling of Permanent Magnet DC Motor quadrant chopper. It is basically combination of step down and step up chopper. 50% of duty cycle will supply an average of half the dc supply level. Methodology Chopper is commonly divided into four types: step down chopper. Since the two switches were . IGBT provides the current to flow downward while diode provides The parameters of DC motor were chosen from design the current to flow upward. two-quadrant dc to dc converter will be used. From block required for simulation purpose were derived using equations diagram of Simulink library. For constant torque characteristic. In the research. Simulink model was then derived as shown in the following figure: Figure 4 Two-quadrant chopper Simulink model. Duty cycle is defined as the pulse generator block was used. the larger the load to flow into the load or the voltage is supply to the load. a bidirectional ideal switch the motor to run at required speed. The configuration of basic dc to dc converter is shown below: Figure 1 DC motor dynamic model. Additional parameters was chosen to model IGBT and diode in parallel. Turn on voltage for diode is small specification given such that it delivered required power for enough to be neglected. represented as a single bidirectional ideal switch. ideal switch block diagram was (1) to (4). the faster the speed response during braking. The switches open and close alternately in L AF such a way that when S1 is closed. it acts as a step down chopper. level and therefore output speed. example.

Value of constant chosen was slope of linear integral constant were defined. i.3 Modelling of System Figure 7 Model of PI controller Upon completion of motor and DC to DC converter.5 Application of Dynamic Braking in the System To observed application of dynamic braking. Waveform of to triangular waveform with upper limit 10. 1. Further tuning was made for connected to speed output. Two-quadrant chopper and DC motor model were grouped Figure 8 Model of close loop system with current and speed into one subsystem and represented as a box shown above. The controller was then modeled as shown below: . An inverter was designed to invert the gating signal supplied for second switch. Using practical rules of thumb that time constant for outer Output of two-quadrant chopper was then connected to input loop is 10 times greater than inner loop. the output of PI controller. Simulation was run and pulse generator as shown in the figure below: speed output was then observed. Input of the gating would be an integer in order to match with Timer was set to 10% of reference speed after 0. fan/pump torque characteristic. proportional loop system was simulated. Pulse generator was still used for open loop model.4 Implementing Different Torque Characteristic to the DC supply voltage was set to 1 pu and gating signal was set System to 50% duty cycle.e. there are two others kHz. The following figure shows the overall system after speed output and current output were fed back to the system: Figure 5 Model for open loop system with linear load torque. controller. Input of two-quadrant chopper was gating signal and DC source. it would be going through a PI controller. This block Figure 6 Model of gating circuit. 4.turned on alternatively. The same procedures were done for fan/pump torque characteristic. speed controller (armature field) of DC motor. can be set to different value at different simulation time.e. i. means one pulse generator.1106. It is more efficient to use only one gating circuit. 4. developed torque and rotor speed were observed. Torque input in the system Gating circuit was designed to accept control input replacing was changed to constant torque. 4. The open loop system was shown constant and integrator constant were set. This will create a square wave. reference input was changed to timer block from Simulink library. the open Using classical method of control system design.5 second. Simulation was run and the waveform of armature torque characteristic. A range of 0~10 was chosen. lower limit 0 and speed output was then observed. Simulation Result output. Before passing through the gating circuit. torque characteristic. for different integer value. Switching frequency was also set to 3 Besides linear torque characteristic. This was a model for linear torque optimization purpose and final value of proportional and characteristic. Load torque input was then constants were defined. frequency 3 kHz. Simulation was also conducted for different torque sequence block used in this model. This Simulation was conducted and output waveform was then range was used to specify the parameter of repeating observed. different duty cycle resulted in the 5. Further tuning was in the figure below: made until overshoot was low enough (< 5% overshoot). Hence. constant torque characteristic and current. Input was then compared characteristics with different reference speed.

It was understood from the waveform above that current and From three different responses. Armature current went through some overshoot before it stabilized at 1 pu. it was necessary to provide a feedback loop accompanied by a controller to achieve a stable and reliable system. This was due to supply voltage chosen in order to have precise speed output and faster passing through two-quadrant chopper with very fast response. 5. Figure 11 Critically damped response of speed output waveform. With same reference speed. The current was forced to be increasing are 100 (proportional constant) and 15. This was unacceptable since it will damage the motor.1 Open Loop System After optimisation. Figure 12 Under damped response of speed output waveform. torque developed (Nm) and speed (rad/s) waveforms.2 Close Loop System . In order to overcome this problem.5. figure 17 above. constant torque Another phenomenon appeared in the observation of current simulation result was shown in figure 18 and fan/pump torque waveform was that it went through a very large overshoot simulation was also shown in the next figure.45 (integral constant). before stabilized. three different type of response was observed as shown in the figure below: Figure 10 Slow Response of speed output waveform. and decreasing as fast as the switching speed. Since armature current and developed torque is linearly proportional to each 5. Figure 9 Armature current (A).1. developed torque would have the same ripple Linear torque characteristic simulation has been shown in characteristic as armature current waveform would have. critically damped system was torque waveform has ripple. Maximum overshoot were calculated and it was 606%. The values of controller constants for this response switching frequency.3 Load Torque Characteristic other. proportional constant and integral constant of current controller were found to be 10 and 0. The result of open loop system simulation was shown below: During speed controller optimization.

load torque would For different reference speed. without two-quadrant Figure 14 Speed response of fan/pump torque system with chopper. negative direction. at highest value. If no limit was implemented. At this point of time. current would suddenly decrease very sharp to the lowest value it could reach. different braking time was stay constant during simulation. observed. Esaved = Power × tbrake = Ia2 × Ra × 0. saturation block would take a role in limiting the lowest value of armature current can reach. current and speed waveform were shown below for different reference speed. current would decrease to ωr*=50 rad/s. by means of two-quadrant chopper. After braking speed was reached. This is to ensure fast increase of speed. current input to the motor was different reference speed. Hence. But. Figure 17 Output waveform of linear torque system with During the increase of speed.4 Dynamic Braking higher energy saved and therefore recharge back to the The result of simulation (armature current and rotor speed) battery. was shown in the following figure: energy saved can be calculated as shown below.8s = (177A)2 × 0. Longer braking time would mean 5. Higher reference speed would have higher value. Once brake was applied and reference speed was reduced to 10%. . current would go back to certain value in order to maintain braking speed. For linear torque characteristic. [2] Steady state current was higher for have increased uncontrollably and therefore damaged the increase of reference speed. If braking speed was zero. It would stay at the limit as speed increased. increase of reference speed. For simulation result shown in figure 19 above.1228 J. a certain value such that speed can be maintained. Higher reference speed before braking would result in longer braking time.5 Reference Speed Variation Figure 15 Current waveform for linear torque system with ωr*=50 rad/s and braking at 0.0415Ω × 0. current would go back to zero and motor would then stop rotating. 5. This value would be different for different torque characteristic and different reference speed. Figure 13 Speed response of constant torque system with After reference speed was reached. some energy would be saved and braking response It was shown that speed response was faster for fan/pump would be faster. current would reference speed.8s = 1040. [3] Braking time was slower for motor.3s. torque system because speed was squared and input to the load torque. While for constant torque. Figure 16 Reference speed and speed output waveforms with waveform for linear torque system. armature current would not be able to flow in ωr*=50 rad/s. This limiting There were three phenomenon observed from the above current was resulted from application of saturation block in figures: [1] Speed-up time was slower for increase of the controller.

C. to the source. . G. three common type of load torque characteristic would share almost the same speed response. braking was introduced by a sudden reduce in the reference [8] Slemon. Figure 18 Output waveform of constant torque system with different load torque. : Prentice Hall. It would have and the output waveforms were shown below: reduced the amount of reduced current by more than 50% and the braking response would be very slow. [5] Ogata.J. As model in the system. Upper Saddle River. Drives. N. This can be achieved because two-quadrant chopper provides a negative current to flow back to the battery. 1995. Upper gasoline powered vehicles. In other words.R. dynamic Reading. N. system. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. 1998. the (current before braking).J. 2002.about. Inc. This was due to non-linear relationship between speed and load torque. K.1 second for 50% rated speed). lower limit of armature current would be zero since For constant torque characteristic. It was also shown in the research that braking time would also depend on reference speed before braking happened. . Straunghen. G. N. but brake time was a bit faster for bigger load torque. speed-up time was slower for bigger load torque. Electric Machines and Drives. [2] Krause.J. P. Labrique. : Prentice Hall. [3] MathWorks. 2002. This would not be very significant compared to one-quadrant 5. braking was L. and Power quadrant chopper. If one-quadrant chopper were implemented in the System. Upper 6 Conclusions Saddle River . Power speed. Co. New York : Wiley. T. By means of two. The electric power generated was actually the power loss during mechanical brake. : Prentice Hall. [6] Ong. Inc. load torque can be varied no negative current would be able to flow. For higher steady state current . : Prentice Hall PTR. Fan/pump load torque characteristic would have a little bit faster speed-up response. electric power generated was returned back Systems. EV system has been successfully modelled using Simulink and dynamic [7] Slemon. Analysis of Electric Machinery. New York : McGraw-Hill. Chee-Mun. R. 1993. and SIMULINK. it would have larger amount of same phenomenon appeared. reduce current. [9] Wildi. Hence. htm “The history of electric vehicles” It was also shown that the time for the speed to reduce to the desired speed was very fast (around 0. Power electronic converters : DC-DC conversion. New York : E. although reference speed was same. One of its technical issues in the Saddle River. The speed of braking actually depends on how large the armature current can reduce and it was limited by lower limit of rated current the DC motor can take. : Addison-Wesley Pub. The source was actually a rechargeable battery [10] Websites: therefore electric power generated was charged back to the http://inventors. This would alter the DC motor to operate as a semiconductor drives. 1984. to brake from higher speed would take longer time. G. generator. Seguier. Electric Machines. Advanced Control with MATLAB higher moment of inertia for big load torque. The student edition of Simulink : dynamic system simulation for MATLAB : user's From figure above. the braking response would be faster. Dynamic simulation of electric EV has become more and more popular alternative for non- machinery : using MATLAB/SIMULINK. EV design is the electronic dynamic braking. Upper Saddle River. 1998.J. Basically. 1986. A. Horwood. N. battery. References [1] Bausiere. Mass. 1992. guide. Modern Control Engineering. This was due to [4] Mościński. J.For constant torque and fan/pump torque characteristics.R.6 Different Load Torque value in Constant Torque chopper. Speed response for different type of load torque implemented in DC motor was presented in this research.