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1.1 Introduction

A major concern of designing digital data transmission and

storage systems is the control of errors so that reliable

reproduction of data can be obtained.

In 1948, Shannon demonstrated that, by proper encoding of the

information, errors induced by a noisy channel or storage

medium can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing

the rate of information transmission or storage.

A great deal of effort has been expended on the problem of

devising efficient encoding and decoding methods for error

control in a noisy environment.

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1.1 Introduction

Block diagram of a typical data transmission or storage system

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1.2 Types of Codes

There are three different types of codes in common use

today:

Block codes

Convolutional codes

Turbo codes

Block codes

The encoder for a block code divides the information sequence

into message blocks of k information bits each.

A message block is represented by the binary k-tuple

u=(u1,u2,…,uk) called a message.

There are a total of 2k different possible messages.

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Block Codes

Block codes (cont.)

The encoder transforms each message u into an n-tuple

v=(v1,v2,…,vn) of discrete symbols called a code word.

Corresponding to the 2k different possible messages, there are

2k different possible code words at the encoder output.

This set of 2k code words of length n is called an (n,k) block

code.

The ratio R=k/n is called the code rate.

n-k redundant bits can be added to each message to form a

code word.

Since the n-symbol output code word depends only on the

corresponding k-bit input message, the encoder is

memoryless, and can be implemented with a combinational

logic circuit.

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Block Codes

Binary block code with k=4 and n=7

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Convolutional Codes

Convolutional code

The encoder for a convolutional code also accepts k-bit

blocks of the information sequence u and produces an

encoded sequence (code word) v of n-symbol blocks.

Each encoded block depends not only on the corresponding

k-bit message block at the same time unit, but also on m

previous message blocks. Hence, the encoder has a memory

order of m.

The set of encoded sequences produced by a k-input, n-

output encoder of memory order m is called an (n, k, m)

convolutional code.

The ratio R=k/n is called the code rate.

Since the encoder contains memory, it must be implemented

with a sequential logic circuit.

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Convolutional Codes

Binary convolutional encoder with k=1, n=2, and m=2

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Convolutional Code Structure

1 2 K

1 2 k 1 2 k 1 2 k

k bits

+ 1 + 2 + n-1 + n

Output

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Turbo Codes Basic Concepts

Turbo coding uses parallel or serial concatenation of two

recursive systematic convolutional codes joined through

an interleaver.

Information bits are encoded block by block.

Turbo codes uses iterative decoding techniques.

Soft-output decoder is necessary for iterative decoding.

Turbo codes can approach to Shannon limit.

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Turbo Codes Encoder – An Example

X(t)

Y(t)

X(t)

Interleaver

Y’(t)

X'(t)

When the switch is placed on the low position, the tail bits are feedback

and the trellis will be terminated.

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1.5 Types of Errors

On memoryless channels, the noise affects each transmitted

symbol independently.

Memoryless channels are called random-error channels.

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1.5 Types of Errors

On channels with memory, the noise is not independent from

transmission to transmission.

Channel with memory are called burst-error channels.

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1.6 Error Control Strategies

Error control for a one-way system must be accomplished using

forward error correction (FEC), that is, by employing error-

correcting codes that automatically correct errors detected at the

receiver.

Error control for a two-way system can be accomplished using

error detection and retransmission, called automatic repeat

request (ARQ).

In an ARQ system, when errors are detected at the receiver, a request is

sent for the transmitter to repeat the message, and this continues until the

message is received correctly.

The major advantage of ARQ over FEC is that error detection

requires much simpler decoding equipment than does error

correction.

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1.6 Error Control Strategies

ARQ is adaptive in the sense that information is retransmitted

only when errors occur.

When the channel error rate is high, retransmissions must be sent

too frequently, and the system throughput, the rate at which newly

generated messages are correctly received, is lowered by ARQ.

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