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**7th International Pipeline Conference
**

September 29-October 3, 2008, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

IPC2008-64251

**SUBSEA PIPELAYING SIMULATION BY THE “SITUA-PETROPIPE”
**

SOFTWARE - A USER FRIENDLY ALTERNATIVE

**Danilo Machado Lawinscky da Silva Carl Horst Albrecht Breno Pinheiro Jacob
**

LAMCSO – Laboratory of Computer Methods and Offshore Systems – PEC/COPPE/UFRJ

Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

**Isaias Quaresma Masetti Claudio Roberto Mansur Barros Arthur Curty Saad
**

PETROBRAS – Petróleo Brasileiro S.A.

ABSTRACT

Currently, Petrobras (the Brazilian state oil company)

performs numerical simulations of pipelaying operations

employing commercial software, such as OffPipe [1]. However,

such tools presents restrictions/limitations related to the user

interface, model generation and analysis formulations. These

limitations hinder its efficient use for analyses of installation

procedures for the scenarios considered by Petrobras, using the

BGL-1 barge (owned by Petrobras) or other vessels,

considering for instance particular types of stingers depending

on depth and pipeline, with different lengths and geometries

adapted to certain laying conditions in S-Lay procedures.

Therefore, the objective of this work is to present the

development and application of a tailored, in-house non-

commercial computational tool in which the modules follow

Petrobras users’ specifications, in order to overcome the

limitations for specific needs and particular scenarios in the Figure 1 – S-Lay, J-Lay and Reel-Lay Methods.

simulation of several types of pipeline procedures. Such tool, In the S-Lay method, as the laying barge moves forward,

called SITUA-PetroPipe, presents a friendly interface with the the pipe is eased off the stern, curving downward through the

user, for instance allowing the complete customization of the water until it reaches the touchdown point. After touchdown, as

configuration of laybarge and stinger rollers. It also includes more pipe is played out, it assumes the “S” shaped curve. To

novel analysis methods and formulations, including the ability reduce bending stress in the pipe, a stinger is used to support

of coupling the structural behavior of the pipe with the the pipe as it leaves the barge. To avoid buckling of the pipe, a

hydrodynamic behavior of the vessel motions under tensioner must be used to provide appropriate tensile load to the

environmental conditions. pipeline [5]. This method is used for pipeline installations in a

range of water depths from shallow to deep.

INTRODUCTION In the J-lay method, the pipe is dropped down almost

Installation of pipelines and flowlines constitute some of the vertically until it reaches touchdown; after that it assumes the

most challenging offshore operations. The technical challenges “J” shaped curve. J-Lay barges have a tall tower on the stern to

have spawned significant research and development efforts in a weld and slip pre-welded pipe sections. With the simpler

broad range of areas, not only in studies regarding different pipeline shape, the J-Lay method avoids some of the difficulties

installation methods, but also in the formulation and of S-Laying such as tensile load forward thrust, and can be used

implementation of new computational tools required to the in deeper waters.

numerical simulation. This work addresses this latter issue. In the Reel-Lay method, the pipeline is installed from a

The most common installation methods are the S-Lay, J- huge reel mounted on an offshore vessel. Pipelines are

Lay, and Reel-Lay methods, schematically shown in Figure 1, assembled at an onshore spool-base facility and spooled onto a

and Towing methods, schematically shown in Figure 2 [2,3,4]. reel which is mounted on the deck of a pipelay barge.

1 Copyright © 2008 by ASME

Obviouslyy the larger thhe force appliied by the prim marily used forr soft and flatt sea floor in shallow wateer. The mid-depth ttow requires fewer buoyyancy Figure 3 – The BGL--1 Pipeline Launching Barge modules. In the surface s tow appproach. buoyyancy modulees are added to the pipelline so that iti floats at thhe surface. Veertical reelss most commoonly do J-Lay. It iss then toweed to an offsh hore location where each end e is connected to pre-iinstalled faciliities [6. In n the bottom m tow. b buckling. REQUIREME R ENTS FOR P PIPELAYING G SIMULATION Inn order to preevent the pipee from bucklinng in the regioons of Traditionall analysis metthods for pipeeline laying co onsider an maxiimum bendingg. PIPE ELAYING IN N OFFSHORE BRAZIL Figure 4 – BGL-1 Tenssioner. As moving forward using its ownn mooring linnes. s it has been exterrnal coating as shown in Figgure 4. partiicularly in thee sag bend porrtion of the currve [8]. ass the pipe Towing T couldd be cheaperr than other methods thaat use w weight increasses it is necesssary to apply y a greater forrce to the laybaarges. the pipeline p is dewwatered and moved m into the water. a case-bby-case analy ysis is requirred to p pipe to mainntain the dessired bend raadius and soo prevent deterrmine the costt-benefit ratio.Horiizontal reels laay pipe with an a S-Lay connfiguration. thhe more gradu ual will be thee bending pipelline is towed along a the sea floor r radius in the S portion of the laying cu urve. and the pippeline settles to the sea floor. whhile being attaached to a tow w vessel. surroound the pipe and apply ann axial force to t the pipe thhrough For floatinng production systems (FPS) under the action of the friction geneerated betweeen the tensiooner and the pipe e environmental l loadings in deepwater scenarios. and bottom m tow (Figure 2). F Figure 2: Tow wing Methods. The tensioon is applied to t the pipe byy tensioners ono the o the pipelinne. so that the pipe actuallyy follows a ‘laazy S’ p previously dettermined withoout taking intoo account the influence shappe. Basicallyy. and the pipeline p settlees to the bottoom on its own when The force ono the pipelinne is reacted at a the seabed ende of the the forward f progrression ceases. Usual U pipelayiing operation in offshore Brazil are perfoormed by S-Lay S proceduures employinng the BGL-1 barge (Figuure 3) As individdual pipe lenggths are weld ded onto the growing owneed by Petrobrras. the barge b is winchhed forward anda the new section s of posittioned laybarrge that perfoorms installattion operation ns by p pipeline passes over the stinger tow wards the seaabed. but can also S-Lay. The BGL--1 is a second d-generation anchor a ppipeline. OnceO the pipelline is compplete and hyddrotested. where the motion ns of the barge b are pipe under tension n. the tensioners to the t pipeline. offf-bottom tow w. Onnce the pipelline is toweed on site by one or tw wo tugboats [7]. Towing T methoods basicallyy consists in weld the pippeline onshhore with an onshore o pipeline spread. Howev ver. tug m mentioned beffore.7]. the bend raadius is controolled by keepinng the u uncoupled m model. then the barge a anchors aheadd of the barge sso that it can keep k moving forward. itt and the seabbed. tugs are used to contiinuously repoosition the boatss drop anchorrs at some predefined positiions. mid--depth tow. and are tthen prescrib of bed at the toop of the barge which are usually u arrays of rubber whheels or belts which w p pipeline. The off-bo ottom tow invvolves ppipeline by thee dead weightt of the pipelinne and frictionn between buoyyancy modulees and chainn weights. There T are fourr variations off the towing method: m surfacee tow. Also.. f wincches release the stern moooring cabless. r recognized thaat the use off coupled dynnamic analysis tools is 2 Copyrright © 2008 by b ASME . the buoyyancy modules are remooved or floodeed. and collecct the mooring cables located at the boow.

the SITUA-Prosim system was developed by simulations of pipelaying operations employing commercial incorporating a graphical interface and adapting / specializing software. hinder its efficient use for analyses of installation procedures The SITUA interface is designed to work as a pre-processor for the scenarios considered by Petrobras. Another enhanced facility for the definition of lines for laybarge and stinger rollers. considering their installed and operational Traditionally. incorporate an analytical catenary solver. which has been employed by non-linear interaction of the hydrodynamic behavior of the FPS Petrobras since 1998 in several design activities related to hull with the structural/hydrodynamic behavior of the mooring floating production systems. LAMCSO (Laboratory of Computer Methods and Offshore A series of adaptations and enhancements had already been Systems. Details of such Also regarding pipelines in S-Lay installation operations. finite element model to represent the structural hydrodynamic It can intuitively be seen that the use of coupled behavior of the mooring lines. The system then automatically modules of the SITUA-Prosim system [13]. and design of FPS. Federal University of Rio de Janeiro)1. total top axial tension). which has been adjusts the laid length of the top segment of the mooring line to developed since 1997.mandatory for the accurate numerical simulation. represented by Finite Element models. such tool number. and It should be pointed out that the SITUA-Prosim and the PetroPipe modules are not commercial programs. referred as and different materials. and to provide facilities for of stingers depending on depth and pipeline. horizontal force. considering for instance particular types numerical analysis modules.12]. allowing database with several material types is incorporated in the for instance the complete customization of the configuration of system. and the structural response of the lines. This numerical solver comprises a time-domain nonlinear design [9. offshore operations. Interaction with Seabed The PetroPipe modules described here are based in the SITUA graphical interface. risers and pipelines. but also to the (hence its name. it coupled model are presented elsewhere [9. This formulations is important not only for the design of production coupled formulation allows the simultaneous determination of platforms. Coupled analysis formulations consider the dynamic analysis program. and in the Prosim numerical solver The computational tool is able to incorporate the correct definition of the seabed from bathymetric curves. in cooperation by Petrobras and comply with the given parameters. In the case of pipelines in S-Lay operations.14]. In the The coupled formulation of the Prosim program implementation of such analysis tools. with different statistical and graphical post-processing and visualization of lengths and geometries adapted to certain laying conditions in results. Petrobras has been performing numerical situations. actual operations of the BGL barge consists in the definition of two of the parameters that define a catenary (including anchor SITUA–PROSIM position. Later. the 6-DOF equations of incorporates. The model generation procedures of the interface S-Lay procedures. at the Civil Engineering Department of incorporated in the SITUA-Prosim system. in the same computational code and data motion of the platform hull are coupled with the equations of structure. such tools present the code for the analysis of installation and damage situations limitations related not only to the user interface. using the BGL-1 and model generator for the Prosim finite-element based barge or other vessels. length and type of segments that comprise the line. intended to COPPE/UFRJ. However. more details can be found in [15]. This specialize its use for simulation of the BGL-1 mooring system constitutes a computational tool that performs coupled procedures. SITUA-PetroPipe. of the model of a line. from the Portuguese SITUações de instalação model generation and analysis formulations. but also for the simulation of offshore installation the motions of the hull. even in Moreover. and will not be should be considered that the contact mechanism between the reproduced here pipeline and the launching structure is complex. such as OffPipe [1]. determine possible interferences between the mooring lines or 3 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . able to represent Therefore. The user needs only to specify the As will be described in the remainder of this work. specified only The original Prosim code was oriented towards the analysis in some points of the ramp and stinger. all rights are reserved to Petrobras. the objective of this work is to present the complex configurations such as lines with multiple segments development of a in-house computational tool. and addresses the requirements The interface allows a very simple and intuitive definition regarding the analysis formulations mentioned above.11. of pipeline procedures. are implicitly and automatically considered. that overcomes the limitations for specific and with flotation elements such as buoys or segments with needs and particular scenarios in the simulation of several types distributed floaters. in a The SITUA-PetroPipe tool may be seen as specialized “variable-length” procedure. These limitations e Avaria). connected to other lines or to platforms. the results will be more accurate since all dynamic shallow waters the motions of the laybarge can be significantly and nonlinear interaction effects between the hull and the lines affected by the structural behavior of the pipeline. operations. It can also 1 automatically consider the position of the subsea obstacles. analysis and [14]. Some highlights of these tools are described in the static and dynamic nonlinear analyses of a wide range of text that follows. A presents an extremely friendly interface with the user.10. lines and risers. a hydrodynamic model to represent the hull and a motion of the FEM model of the lines.

). gathered by a special vessel equipped with a ROV (Remote Operated Vehicle) [16]. to non-linear gap spring [20]. and also as contact springs on the vertical direction [17. The planning of such procedure consists in the definition and charting of a series of points on this route. of obstacles and distances from the line. During the simulation of such mooring operations by the SITUA interface. the buoys and the hull of the barge. contains frequently updated information about the bathymetry and position of subsea obstacles. the lines. including the coupling of the structural behavior of the more detailed visualization. pipelines) with views such as the depicted in Figure 6. the contact of lines (mooring lines.the pipeline with obstacles. during pipelaying the barge is moved periodically one pipe length ahead. and a vertical distance below suspended numerical models for the simulation of pipeline installation segments. a specialized interference management SITUA–PETROPIPE module can be employed to characterize interference situations. As mentioned before. including the definition of the types pipe with the hydrodynamic behavior of the vessel motions. “exclusion volume” defined around segments of a line laying These tools are intended to automate the generation of on the seabed. This system. the system is able to calculate the motions of the barge due to the operations performed with its mooring lines. allowing the complete customization the obstacle (a manifold. In these views the the platform can be rigorously modeled during a nonlinear interferences are indicated by red arrows. consisting of two nodes linked by a shows a configuration of a mooring line with two buoys. Once the possible interferences are identified. The contact is 4 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . specifying the positioning of the anchors. along a predefined route. Soil-pipe interaction effects are modeled through nonlinear scalar elements associated to each node that comprises the spatial discretization of the pipeline. a generalized elastic surface contact algorithm. the PetroPipe modules include new Such situations are detected when an obstacle falls into an tools developed following the Petrobras users’ specifications. lines or even the contact of one line with itself. Figure 6 – 2D View Detailing Interference. Here. Barge Motion and Interference Management Modules As mentioned before. In order to help the BGL-1 barge crew to develop safe mooring procedures and to define the sequence of mooring operations that leads to the barge motion. leading to changes in their catenary configuration (including placement of buoys. as well as the contact involving different corresponding distances. showing a possible regarding the analysis formulations mentioned in a preceding interference situation with a previously installed pipeline.18]. Figure 5 – 3D View of Exclusion Region with Interference. Figure 5 presents a 3D view where the exclusion region Moreover. representing the friction between pipe and soil. etc. Friction effects on the seabed are represented by an elastoplastic formulation that allows the consideration of anisotropic friction. with the dynamic analysis. the BGL-1 Modeling of Contact operator can take measures to avoid them. through the definition of distinct soil- resistance coefficients for the axial and lateral directions of the pipeline [19]. can be observed in 2D Also. another pipeline. including the Traditional contact models consider for instance a placement of buoys in given positions along the line. developed by Petrobras. and a tag defining the obstacle. the contact model consists of keep the line suspended well over subsea obstacles. This is performed through a specialized interface with the SGO (Obstacles Management System) database system. Such scalars act on the seabed. variation of the onboard/released cable lengths. risers. The seabed is modeled by a surface mesh in which the z- coordinate represents the depth. Figure 7 generalized scalar element. Figure 7 – 3D View of Mooring Lines with Buoys. of the configuration of the laybarge and stinger rollers). and relocating anchors). the PetroPipe modules address the requirements around one line is graphically displayed. A section. with risks of collision and damage to the line and/or procedures (for instance.

the tensioner is represented by a specialized generalized scalar element. which consists of two nodes linked by a The Lateral Deflection procedure. the facilities incorporated in the operation. The characterization of the deflection procedure To simulate the tensioner behavior in keeping the tension involves the determination of the better velocity and direction level at the defined range. Force-displacement or stiffness. by keeping it within a feasible operational range. Details of this algorithm are presented in [19. In this displacement functions associated to each local direction are context. • Response Delay – Whenever the pipe tension leaves the operational range. The tensioner model is schematically shown in Figure 9. when it effectively starts working. All main characteristics of the tensioner machine are incorporated in this model. The algorithm has been shown to be able of capturing the detailed characteristics of the interaction between mooring lines.21]. In the PetroPipe modules. A more detailed example will be presented in the application presented later.modeled by augmentation of the global stiffness matrix. • Displacement Limit – This defines the limit in which the Figure 10: Lateral Deflection Procedure tensioner can move the pipeline back and forth in order to compensate its tension level. risers. 5 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . • Response Velocity – After the tensioner effectively starts working. may be used to move the pipeline into the sea. Figure 8 – Contact Model. hulls. PetroPipe modules are illustrated by their application to real- case pipeline installation scenarios. including: • Operational Range – defines the range of desired tension values. but after a certain period defined by its design response velocity. the pipeline end moves back and forth. the axial stiffness of this element of the tug boat when the pipeline is leaving the shore in order to continually varies. leading to changes in the element length as minimize its efforts (especially due to the curvatures). depicting the contact between the pipeline and the rollers of the laybarge stinger. associated to towing nonlinear gap spring. it does not restore the tension level immediately. methods. in a sophisticated model such as the illustrated in Figure 8. a tug boat. the tensioner (Figure 4) is intended to control the tension level in the pipeline during the pipelaying In the following sections. Figure 9 – Tensioner Model. pipelines. Tensioner Model MODELING OF PIPELINE INSTALLATION PROCEDURES As mentioned before. based on the orientation and contact stiffness of the contact surfaces. it consists basically on deflecting the pipeline to the defined. and the local coordinates systems can also be updated sea (after assembled at the coastline) using a cable connected to at each simulation step. the tensioner is not activated whenever the pipeline end tension is within this range. It should be recalled that the pipeline end motions are induced by the tensioner behavior and by the barge motions applied at the tensioner. automatically added to Lateral Deflection Procedure the pipeline top end. the tensioner is activated but only after a given time delay.

tow-in operations are performed in pipe is maintained under controlled tension within the allowed many situations to transport pipelines of several lengths. The Towing winch needs to keep adequate pulling force to ensure that the As mentioned before. were provided by Petrobras and employed to the pipe. The shore pull operation illustrated here consists in pulling the pipe from the BGL-1 barge onto the shore by a winch. before starting towing (2). Figure 13 shows snapshots from the animation of the numerical results. employing a smaller boat only to accompany the transport operation for safety reasons. and to perform the 6 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . The forces applied must be controlled such Usually. This configuration simulates a situation in which one of the tugboats loses control Laybarge Characteristics and its cable is disconnected. GENERATION OF A S-LAY MODEL Figure 12: Tow-in – Alternative Configuration. are illustrated in Figure 10: the pipeline is on shore (1). for a specialized interface of the SITUA-PetroPipe is described in situation in which the back tugboat is disconnected and only the the following sections. Petrobras performs these operations following a lateral that no damage to the pipeline anodes or coating occurs. friction and dynamic effects that may occur. The PetroPipe modules have been employed to model such maneuvers needed for the subsequent pipeline launching a procedure for an actual scenario. Smaller values of cable tension were obtained when the pipeline is nearly aligned with the direction of the resultant of the environmental loadings. where the tugboats are not aligned. shown in Figure 12. only one tugboat. in in configurations where the back tugboat is disconnected. Detailed actual data. forces in the pipeline and cable are analyzed including any overloading. During the operation.4) and is towed to the installation site. Figure 13 – Shore Pull Operation. or simply when it is not connected to the pipe. the pipe is towed using a within acceptable limits. front and a back tugboat aligned at the transportation route. as presented in [6]. Numerical simulations of actual operations were performed using the SITUA-PetroPipe system. stress/strain limits. from the results of the numerical simulations. all numerical predictions related steps of the results of numerical simulations for this procedure to the pipeline behavior were confirmed. front tugboat is pulling the pipeline. system. The results of the analyses Figure 14 and Table 1 illustrate the main geometric indicated that the smaller values of cable tensions were found characteristics of the BGL-1 barge. The complete generation of an S-Lay model using the A contingency procedure was also analyzed in [7]. deflection procedure such as the previously described. generate the model of the barge hull. In the Buoyancy aids can be used if required to keep pulling tension typical configuration for surface tow. at the Shore Pull coastline. as During the numerical simulation by the SITUA-PetroPipe shown in Figure 11. Some process. Therefore. terms of the geometrical and hydrodynamic characteristics of indicating that the best situation occurs when it does not tension the BGL-1 hull. The studies presented in [7] include an alternative configuration. represented in Figure 15. the The geometric data are used in the definition of the contact actual pipeline transportation was performed by Petrobras using surface of the barge hull. Figure 11: Towing – Typical Configuration. the pipeline leaves shore (3. as the pipeline is pulled from the barge and arrives on the shore. in order to assess the pipeline behavior under environmental loadings.

00 Roller Box 2 9.574 0.078 0.094 -5.361 -15.714 4.75 Roller Box 4 -9.00 Figure 16 illustrates the configuration of the ramp and Roller Box 8a 29.882 -11.75 Roller Box 2 -26.950 -- ramp-stinger coordinate system has its origin on the stern shoe.275 -10.00 Roller Box 3 12.768 2.182 m Height 9m Beam 30 m Length 120 m Figure 17 – Ramp/Stinger.00 Ramp and Stinger Data Roller Box 7 27.00 Figure 15 – SITUA-PetroPipe BGL-1 Model Roller Box 4 16.581 0.856 -7. respectively.905 1.443 -13. as indicated in Figure 17.156 0. Figure 14 – BGL-1 Geometry Figure 16 – BGL-1.919 -- stinger considered for the application described here.770 0. Table 2 – Ramp – radius 150 m Element X (m) Z (m) Length (m) Tensioner -56.586 -8.277 -4. Figure 18 shows typical configurations for roller boxes on the laybarge stinger and ramp.694 4.75 Roller Box 3 -18. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the stinger are incorporated at the barge hull model by its hydrodynamic coefficients.00 Roller Box 6 23.687 4.432 -3.157 3. During the finite element analysis the stinger is considered a rigid body connected to the barge hull and all contact forces acting on it are transferred to the barge.687 4.748 4.099 0. respectively.883 -15.75 Roller Box 5 -0.793 4.00 Table 3 – Stinger – radius 150 m Element X (m) Z (m) Offset (m) Length (m) Roller Box 1 5. Figure 18 –Configuration of Rollers (Stinger and Ramp) 7 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . The local Roller Box 8 30. The geometric data of ramp and stinger are summarized in Tables 2 and 3.198 0.00 Roller Box 5 20.241 2.094 2.034 2. Ramp and Stinger Geometry Table 1 – Main geometric characteristics of BGL-1 Propriety Values (real scale) Drought 5.850 4.550 - Roller Box 1 -38.292 -1.835 0. X-axis positive direction from bow to stern and Z-axis vertical with positive direction upwards.632 0.335 1. Local Coordinate System.825 0. The geometric data of the stinger structure are also used in the definition of its contact surface.555 0.

and 21. and the Field Joint Length 0. All mooring lines Density of steel 77 kN/m3 Corrosion Coating Thickness 0. A database with common material properties and usual pipeline characteristics. Modulus of Elasticity of steel 207000 MPa Axial Stiffness (EA) 2859694. as presented in [15]. A general view of the generated model for the BGL-1 is shown in Figure 21.0032 m are composed by two segments.3 - only nine or ten mooring lines are connected.065 kN/m3 Weight in Air 2.255935 kN/m several possible interferences with obstacles.6 m interference management module allows the identification of Joint Fill Weight Density 10. such as wall thickness and coating.489 m The catenary solver provides the results defining the Tube Length 12 m equilibrium configuration of the mooring system.974 kN/m3 varies during the mooring operations. 20 can be found in [15]. The model generated here considers a typical 16-in pipeline. Figure 21 – General View of the Generated Model Figure 19 – Ramp Configuration. The length value for segment 2 corresponds to the Concrete Coating Thickness 0.368493 kN/m 8 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . Coating Weight Density 9.011125 m Yield Stress 414000 kN/m2 Figure 20 – Stinger Configuration. Detailed tables indicating position in the line measured customized by the new modules of the graphical interface of from the anchor. Hydrodynamic Diameter 0. Table 5 – 16-in Pipeline data Parameter Value Unit Outside Diameter 0. with physical and geometric properties presented in Table 5.5” Pipeline All pipeline characteristics can be defined by the user. is incorporated in the system. the released length Concrete Coating Weight Density 21. as illustrated in Figures 19.14 kN Mooring Lines Flexional Stiffness (EI) 55894. As mentioned before. and the length of the pendant for each buoy. with characteristics presented Corr. but in usual operations Poisson Coefficient 0. All interferences Weight Submerged 0.90 kN*m2 The BGL-1 has eleven fairleads. Table 4 – Characteristics of Mooring Line Segments Segment Length (m) Material 1 (anchor) 150 R3S Stub Chain 3” 2 1780 (max) EEIPS Steel Wirerope 2. this configuration of the laybarge are successfully avoided by placing two buoys on most of the ramp and stinger roller boxes can be easily and completely lines.0381 m total length available on the winch drum. the SITUA-PetroPipe system.32 kN/m3 in Table 4.40640 m Wall Thickness 0.

Therefore. as shown in Figures 23 and 24. considering all mooring lines also modeled by Finite Elements. Views of Initial Configuration stinger rollers. In order to comprise an accurate and user-friendly alternative for the analysis of pipeline installation procedures. making the simulations more realistic. these latter facilities (regarding J- Lay and Reeling procedures) could not be presented here. b) Inclusion of generalized scalar elements to represent the tensioner.Visualization of the Complete Model Besides typical results in terms of tension and Von Mises The initial equilibrium configuration of the pipeline is stresses along the pipe length. Due to limitations in space. The top tension in the pipeline is the parameter that supports as well as the reaction at each roller box are generated defines the “S” shape. generated using dynamic relaxation techniques as proposed in information about distances between the pipeline and its [22]. As the result of the recent implementations described in this work. Specific reports are automatic generated for relevant The actual bathymetric data and soil properties are information such as distance from the laybarge stern and the considered for the pipeline behavior on seabed. Figure 24 – Von Mises Stress (dynamic). including: a) Generation of initial finite-element meshes for the S-laying configuration of the pipeline by a dynamic relaxation procedure. the SITUA-PetroPipe system now comprises a computational tool intended to improve the applicability and accuracy of analysis of pipeline installation operations. this work described some of the recent implementations that comprise the SITUA-PetroPipe modules. e) Generation of finite-element models for other types of laying operations that may eventually be considered for the BGL-1 or other laybarges. 9 Copyright © 2008 by ASME . It was also able to couple the structural behavior of the pipe with the hydrodynamic behavior of the vessel motions under environmental conditions. The system has been shown to be able to calculate the motions of the barge due to the operations performed with its mooring lines (including placement of buoys. The generated S-Lay configuration is during static and dynamic analyses. some adaptations in the SITUA interface and in the Prosim numerical solver were needed. FINAL REMARKS The in-house computational system described in this work has already been employed by the BGL-1 crew in the simulation and planning of actual mooring procedures for pipeline laying operations in Campos Basin. and Figure 23 – Von Mises Stress (static). will be demonstrated in future works. the Prosim finite-element numerical solver already included a 3D frame element that can account for all material and geometrically nonlinear effects that arise in the pipeline behavior during the laying operation. Regarding the simulation of the actual pipeline launching process. c) Implementation of automatic customization facilities for the definition of the ramp and Figure 22 –S-Lay Model. Information pipeline touchdown point. including J-lay and reeling methods. and variation of the onboard/released cable lengths). Reports for all relevant information about free-spans is then available during analysis. taking into account general seabed data and interferences with subsea obstacles. which in itself is a step further over traditional methods for the numerical simulation of pipelaying operations. shown in the figures that follow. about the mooring lines are also automatic generated. d) Development of a rigorous contact algorithm to represent the variable contact between the pipeline and the Typical Results rollers.

M.Q. on Marine Pipelines in Contact with the Seabed”.. E. and Explicit Implemetation of the Dynamic Relaxation Oslo. Masetti.S. Procs of the 23st Int.. D. 2007. “Prediction of Janeiro. Weede. the Mooring Procedures of the BGL-1 Pipeline Launching Elsevier. B. Procs of the 25st Int..N.R. R. A. Britain. Y. Lisbon. B. F. 2002.G. on a Semisubmersible Platform”. C.E. Jacob. Levold. Conf. Japan. Germany. B.. “Prosim Program: Coupled Numerical [1] Malahy Jr.. B. E.P.Version 2. Method for the Definition of Initial Equilibrium [10] Ormberg. Corrêa..Q.M. “Submarine Pipeline Installation Joint in Contact Modelling for Simulation of Deepwater Industry Project: Global Response Analysis of Pipeline pipeline Installation”.. I. Procs of the 25st Int. S. Rio Pipeline Conference & During S-Laying”. J. Limiting Sea States for Pipelaying Operations”.P.N. on Offshore Exposition. Theoretical Manual. System Dynamics”. R. Canada. B. 2006. Medeiros.. E. Corrêa.. B. Procs of the 16th Int. ver. [21] Silva.V. Canada.Q. 3. 2005. 2007. B. Analysis of Vessel Motions and Mooring and Riser Conf.Le.. Procs of the 25th Int. Cunff. Rodrigues. Barge”. B.P... Jacob. Jacob... Elsevier Science. Conf... “Nonlinear Random Response of Deflection Procedure”. “A Contact 2006. R. S. Rio de Janeiro.. scenarios including shallow to deep waters. 2006. Biolley.. Jacob. The results of these studies will also allow the Mooring Lines and Risers on the Design Values for a precise assessment of the influence of the application of the Turret Moored FPSO in Deep Water of the Gulf of coupled model (barge + mooring lines + pipeline) on the Mexico”. M. A. Oil Exploitation”. 1997.N. [16] SGO User Manual (in Portuguese) – Petrobras... Bai Q.V.M. Stavanger. Buhan. Bahiense.. COPPETEC-Petrobras Internal Report. The authors would like to acknowledge the members of the Norway. Volume 1: Buckling and Collapse. R. C. H. traditional uncoupled analysis. Operations Specialty Symposium. I. Vitali. Brazil. E. 1997. on Offshore Mechanics [4] Bai. D.. Simulation of the Behavior of Moored Floating Units – 1996.. Design of Mooring Systems and Risers: Part I — Studies Port. Portugal. [8] Torselletti. H. Torres. 2007. 2d Ed edition. J. Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Germany. San Diego. Larsen K. on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering.. E. on Offshore Mechanics USA. G. 2008.S. Offshore and Polar dynamic pipeline-laybarge behavior in such different scenarios...R. Sparano. C. F. Conf. 2004. “Advances Collberg.S. 2002. “Implicit Conf. V.V. Offshore LAMCSO/PEC/COPPE. B. [2] Guo. Conf. J. Subsea Pipelines and Risers. D. Proceedings of the 5th Int.. A. Procs of the 23rd Int.. “Numerical Vancouver. Stavanger. “Towards the Integration of Analysis and Congress on Computational Methods in Engineering. with Rough Seabed Topography”. on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic and Installation Analysis of Pipelines in Congested Areas Engineering. A..L. Engineering Conference.. A.C. Great and Arctic Engineering. F..M.. 2005. P. rather than a [12] Heurtier.. I. J.L. Bahiense.M. Simulation of Offshore Pipeline Installation by Lateral [18] Michalopoulos. Sodahl N. “Analysis of an Alternative Pipeline Contact Model for Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Installation Procedure that Combines Onshore Deflection Floating Offshore Systems”. Ghalambor.V. Conf. Germany. Bruschi. M. Procs of [17] Saevik. Lane. 2001.H.M. Fontaine. L.. F. S. “Numerical Simulation of Pipelines. is required. Slovenia. [15] Masetti.05". S. Jacob. 10 Copyright © 2008 by ASME .F. considering the described modeling facilities. C... P. Torres. Vancouver.. D..P. Jacob. Barros. F.. 1998. Devlin. and Arctic Engineering. 2005. “A Generalized Medeiros. “Coupled Dynamic Response of Moored FPSO with Risers”.G. Yokohama. F.A.. Pereira. United States. Lang.A. C. Rio de [5] Clauss.L.0” (in Portuguese).. Procs of the 26st Int. on Hamburg.L. 2001. Elsevier.. M. Song.W.. “Prosim: Coupled Numerical the SITUA-PetroPipe software. J. Norway.D. Norway. of the 11th Intl. Model for the Simulation of Line Collision in Offshore [9] Senra....R. Hamburg. A. Berhault. Procs.P.P. [19] Silva. for different Japan.P. "OffPipe User's Guide . 2005. [20] Grealish.. Saroukh... L.M. “Advances in Design the 17th Int. D. Hamburg. of the 11th Intl ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference... on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering.P. “Coupled Configurations of Flexible Lines”. Connolly..P.F. [3] Kyriakides. [22] Silva.L.. Rio de Janeiro. Mechanics of Offshore Lima.. Conf. Procs.. Portugal. with valuable comments and Simulation of the Behavior of Moored Units” (in suggestions.M. Chacko. indicating where a coupled pipelay analysis.L.. Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. 2004. Mourelle. Albrecht.M.. Procs of the Marine Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering... and different [11] Wichers.C.. Singapore.. Tokyo.L. 1986. on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Several parametric studies are currently being performed Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. B. “Effect of Coupling of pipeline sizes.. Procs of the XXVIII Latin American Masetti... Portuguese).P.P.. BGL-1 crew that actively contributed with the development of [13] Jacob. Jacob. Conf. Procs of the 21st Int. [6] Silva. Bernten. D.. B. Conf. Costa. Fylling I. Giertsen.. REFERENCES [14] Jacob. [7] Silva. Pipelines. Rio de Janeiro. on and Offshore Transportation”. Corona.

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