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# Theory of Structures

Mohr’s circle for principle moment of inertia:

y v y
u
x

φ
(Ix+Iy)/2 x

v
Ix

x
u

Ixy

Ixy
φ

u
x
Ix

(Ix+Iy)/2

Ix > Iy & Ixy is positive Ix > Iy & Ixy is negative

+ve -ve
Ixy Ixy

u u
y y
(Ix+Iy)/2

Iy
(Ix+Iy)/2
Iy

Iy > Ix & Ixy is positive Iy > Ix & Ixy is negative

Prepared by: Amr A. El-Sayed, Civil Eng. Dept., El-Minia Univ., Eg. 1

Theory of Structures

General form of Normal Stress:
For symmetrical section, Ixy = 0, but for general cases, if the cross section is
unsymmetrical, the product of inertia Ixy will have a value.

The general equation of stress is:

N M Y I X − M X I XY M I − M Y I XY
σ= + 2
X+ X Y 2
Y
A I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY

N ( N .e X ) I X − ( N .eY ) I XY ( N .eY ) I Y − ( N .e X ) I XY
σ= + 2
X+ 2
Y
A I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY

N N [e X .I X − eY .I XY ] N [eY .I Y − e X .I XY ]
σ= + 2
X+ 2
Y
A I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY

N ⎡ A[e X .I X − eY .I XY ] A[eY .I Y − e X .I XY ] ⎤
σ= ⎢1 + 2
X+ 2
Y⎥
A⎣ I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY ⎦

For the neutral axis, the stresses are equal to zero; i.e σ = 0.0

A[e X .I X − eY .I XY ] A[eY .I Y − e X .I XY ]
1+ 2
X+ 2
Y =0
I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY

To find the intersection of the N.A. with X-axis, put Y=0

A[e X .I X − eY .I XY ]
2
X = −1
I X I Y − I XY

2
I XY − I X I Y
X = ………. (1-1)
A[e X .I X − eY .I XY ]

2
I XY − I X I Y
Y= ………. (1-2)
A[eY .I Y − e X .I XY ]

Equations (1-1) and (1-2) give the intersection of the N.A. with the X and Y
axis respectively. By analyzing those two equations, one can notice that the position
of the N.A does not depend on the magnitude of the force, but on its position “ex &
ey”.

Prepared by: Amr A. El-Sayed, Civil Eng. Dept., El-Minia Univ., Eg. 2

Dept. (1-3) A.0 in both equations “for the case of sections have an axis of symmetry”. (1-4) A. Civil Eng.0 For unsymmetrical shape.A lies in the opposite quarter of the applied force.G of the section are the principal axes. The N. A The previous fact is valid for shapes with one or more axes of symmetry.eY eY Equations (1-3) and (1-4) are valid for sections having one ore more axis of symmetry. equations (1-1) and (1-2) will be reduced to − IY − i y 2 X= = ………. the position of the N. Prepared by: Amr A. As ix & i y are constants. the N.. Eg.A N N.eX eX − I X − ix2 Y= = ……….A depends only on the eccentricity of the force. 3 . such as L-sections.A may not lie in the opposite quarter to the external force. El-Sayed. Force Force . thus the two perpendicular axes X and Y though the C. El-Minia Univ.. and the product moment of inertia Ixy = 0.Theory of Structures If we but IXY = 0. as shown in the following figure.

My = N .0 7. Mx = N . 12 * 2 3 2 *12 3 Ix = 2656.0 5.0 *2 + + (12 * 2) * 7 2 * 2 =Cm4. ey = 3N -Ve.0 4. Civil Eng.0 Cm2. El-Minia Univ. (1) 5. ex = 4N +Ve.Theory of Structures EX. 12 12 Ixy = (2*12)*5*(-7) + (2*12)*(-5)*7 = -1680.0 Area = 12 * 2 * 2 + 12 * 2 = 72.. Dept. Eg..0 = *2 + + (2 *12) * 5 2 * 2 Cm4.0 7. El-Sayed. The general equation of stress: N M Y I X − M X I XY M I − M Y I XY σ= + 2 X+ X Y 2 Y A I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY − N 4 N * 2656 + 3N * (−1680) (−3 N ) *1784 − 4 N * (−1680) σ = + X+ Y 72 2656 *1784 − (−1680) 2 2656 *1784 − (−1680) 2 Prepared by: Amr A. 12 12 2 *12 3 12 * 2 3 Iy = 1784.0 Cm4.0 3. 4 .

I XY ] ⎤ σ= ⎢1 + 2 X+ 2 Y⎥ A⎣ I X I Y − I XY I X I Y − I XY ⎦ −N ⎡ 72[(−4) * 2656 − 3 * (−1680)] 72[3 * 1784 − (−4) * (−1680)] ⎤ σ = ⎢1 + X+ Y⎥ 72 ⎣ 2656 * 1784 − ( −1680 ) 2 2656 * 1784 − ( −1680 ) 2 ⎦ the equation of the neutral axis: 1 – 0.94 cm .I Y − e X .. θ = 37..0. I U 3955.727 cm . Dept.I XY ] A[eY .3469 2 iv2 = V = = 6.76 cm. 5 . Degree. Civil Eng.635 cm4.3469 cm4. El-Minia Univ.45 cm. El-Sayed. Eg.I X − eY .7258 0.Theory of Structures N ⎡ A[e X . & X = 4.A and the U-axis Eu eccentricity of the force with respect to the U-axis Prepared by: Amr A.21 X . 2 I + IY ⎛ I − IY ⎞ IU = X + ⎜ X ⎟ + I XY 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 I + IY ⎛ I − IY ⎞ IV = X − ⎜ X ⎟ + I XY 2 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ − 2 I XY tan(2θ ) = I X − IY Iu = 3955. The same problem could be solved by using the principle moment of inertia.0514 Y = 0 Y = 19. Iv = 484.635 2 iu2 = = = 54. A 72 U n * Eu = −iv2 Where Un length of intersection between the N. A 72 I 484. Where θ is the angle of the principal axis (U) with respect to X-axis.

Dept.33) = 5. Civil Eng.82) = -11.38 cm.Theory of Structures From the principles of axes rotation: Y V U U yc os V θ xs in θ θ Y θ X X θ in θ o sθ ys xc X U V Y Eu = X cos θ – Y sin θ = -1.82 − i2 Un = v Eu Un = -6.058 cm − iu2 Vn = Ev Vn = -54.94 / (4.. Eg. El-Minia Univ.33 Ev = X sin θ + Y cos θ = 4.727 / (-1. Prepared by: Amr A.. El-Sayed. 6 .

El-Minia Univ.76 2 11 U .00 37. we may conclude that the position of the N. Eg.A depends on the position of the external force with respect to the principal axes. 7 .00 3.8 4. Prepared by: Amr A.0 3 1...7 X X ° 4. Dept.3 4. Civil Eng.38 V Y From the above equations and figures.45 6 U 5. El-Sayed.Theory of Structures Y V 19.

0. Civil Eng. 8 . i. Prepared by: Amr A. thus. the equation of the N. 2 2⎛⎜ I Y ⎞⎟ iY ⎝ A⎠ 2 d . and eY are the co-ordinates of the external force.0 which represents the equation of the N. will be the line (ab). at which if the force is applied. and Y are the distances cutting X. And eX. Dept.A is: N ⎡ A[e X ] A[eY ] ⎤ σ= ⎢1 + X+ Y⎥ A⎣ IY IX ⎦ A.e X A. consider the member (ab) to be the neutral axis.eY 1+ X+ Y = 0 .A. Y = − X and at Y = 0. El-Minia Univ.0 . For example. For that rectangular section. and the minimum stress of the section will be zero. the equation of the straight line (ab) is: X = b/2 But. Y = ∞. the neutral axis will be tangent to the section boundary.e (tension or compression). iY iX 2 2 i i at X = 0.0 IY IX eX eY 1+ 2 X+ 2 Y = 0.d 6 and so on….. El-Sayed. To locate the core of symmetrical sections. If the external force is applied at the core boundary. Eg. the N. and Y axes by the neutral axis. and X = b/2. consider the rectangular section shown.Theory of Structures Core of Symmetrical Sections: The core of the section is defined as the enclosed area within the section boundaries where which if the external force is applied inside it.A. the whole section is subjected to one kind of stresses.. consider the external boundaries of the section as neutral axes. X = − Y eY eX where X. an then find the corresponding point of applied force.b 3 1 b eX = − =− =− =− X b b 12 b.

782 IV: 37565. the core of symmetrical section is symmetrical.218 i 486 eU = − V = − U 14.000 Moments of inertia: X: 12636.602 Principal moments of Inertia: IU: 11034. Core of Unsymmetrical Sections: Area: 486. Also.5416 I X − I Y 12636 − 35964 θ = -14. cosθ + Y .099 Y: 8. El-Minia Univ. cosθ 2 37565. eU eV 1+ 2 U+ 2 V = 0.Theory of Structures And you can conclude that each straight boundary of the section has its corresponding corner in the core. cosθ X . sin θ − Y ..0 Y: 35964.0 iV iU X .221 Degrees. sin θ U= + X . Civil Eng.. Dept. El-Sayed.445 Prepared by: Amr A. Eg.0 Product of inertia: XY: -6318.218 − 2 I XY − 2 * (−6318) tan(2θ ) = = = −0. 9 .0 Radii of gyration: X: 5. and every corner in the section has its corresponding straight boundary in the core.

we can apply the equations: Xn . Ex = -(iy)2 Yn .0 cm and 2 web plates 700x10 mm.175 Degree.40 t/cm2.. find: ne. Dept.0 cm The cross section is composed of: One plate 600x10 mm. Eg.3 The slope of the N.0 cm.Principle stress at point “n”. wo.000 Y: 43.032) = 76. El-Minia Univ. Theory of Structures For the cross section. 25. Civil Eng. 4.3/-97. El-Sayed. Q Area: 280. 20. Ex = 4. then draw the normal stress distribution.333 Radii of gyration: ix: 28.0 cm and Ey = 2.0 mm and pitch = 10 cm.082)2/(-2) = 394..0 hree. Ey = -(ix)2 Xn = -(19.032 Yn = -(28.0 cm N 23.0 cm 20. Prepared by: Amr A. 4 plates 200x10 mm.0 cm 20.821 Moments of inertia: X: 220804.701 to find the position of the neutral axis.A = tan-1 Yn /Xn = tan-1 (394. The maximum normal force N which gives maximum normal stress equals to 1.0 t.Shear stress in the rivets due to X X 2.082 iy: 19.701)2/4 = -97.000 Perimeter: 486. 10 .405 Y: 108678.000 Centroid: X: 30.0 shearing force Qy = 25. where Φ = 73.

0 t N ⎡ A[e X ] A[eY ] ⎤ σ1 = ⎢1 + X1 + Y1 ⎥ A⎣ IY IX ⎦ 275.0 ⎡ 280[4.0) + (29.33 220804.821)⎥ 280.0 − 275.0] ⎤ σ1 = ⎢1+ (−30.405 ⎦ The normal stress distribution is shown in the following figure.39 N/A Prepared by: Amr A.405 ⎦ N = 275.7511 t/cm 2 280.0 1 29.395 t/cm 2 280.0 5 -1..179)⎥ 280.821)⎥ = −1.0 ⎣ 108678.Theory of Structures N ⎡ A[e X ] A[eY ] ⎤ σ= ⎢1 + X+ Y⎥ A⎣ IY IX ⎦ N ⎡ 280[4.0 ⎣ 108678.33 220804. 30.0 ⎣ 108678.179 76 .0 σ1 = (0.765) = −0. El-Sayed.75 30.33 220804.0] ⎤ σ2 = ⎢1+ (30.821 2 1 -0.405 ⎦ − 275. 11 . Dept. Eg.4 = ⎢1+ (30) + (−43. El-Minia Univ.0] 280[− 2..0 ⎡ 280[4.0] 280[− 2. Civil Eng.0) + (−43.9966 = 275.17 X X 5° N 43.0] 280[− 2.0] ⎤ 1.

Theory of Structures b.b Sn = (20.15 = 117.) = = 4.74 cm3.0 * 1. / cm2.321 + 24. Q.0 * 1.3 cm diam.826 * 10/4 = 487.821) * 2.74 τ= = 194.405 * 2./cm 220804.405 force = shear flow * pitch force/rivet = 194. Eg.Shear stress at point (n): Q.Shear stress in rivets The rivets transfer the load between the upper flange plate (600x10 mm) and the two flange plates of the composed I beams. 25 *1000 * 1720.065 kg π 2.15cm 2 4 shear stress in rivet = force / area = 487.5) = 1720.0 qn = = 181.S n qn = I X . Dept.. 25.0 = 3212.826 kg. Civil Eng.0 * 43. El-Minia Univ. El-Sayed.0 Prepared by: Amr A.0 * 1 * (29..849 kg/cm 2 220804.231 kg. 12 .0 * 30.179-0. Four.S Shear flow at this section = IX S = 60.0 *1000 *1556.248 cm3.065 / 4.3 2 area of a rivet (circle of 2.

El-Minia Univ. 1 and I XY = + for the bar in Fig. 1 Fig. 1 a 2 .h22 IX = and IY = for both bars shown in figures 1 and 2 12 12 A. Civil Eng. Dept. 2 For the two triangles shown in Fig. to find the inertia of a thin inclined bar shown in the two figures: A. 13 .. El-Sayed.h2 I XY = − for the bar in Fig.. Eg.b 2 I XY = − for a single one 72 and the two triangles shown in Fig.h1 . 2 a 2 .h2 A.b 2 I XY = + for a single one 72 thus.Theory of Structures Note Y Y X h1 X h1 h2 h2 b a a b Fig.h1 . 2 12 12 Where A is the cross sectional area of the bar Prepared by: Amr A.h12 A.

C = 3. and the part C..5 t/m’ L = 8.For the cantilever beam shown in Fig.156 − 1. El-Minia Univ. 14 .0 m EI = 2500 m2. Eg. Dept.5)/8 = 11. w t/m' L C w = 1.5*11*2.344 t Equation of shear at a distance = x from the left support: Q = 5.Theory of Structures Deflection 1.t Solution: Reactions: R left = (1.156 t R right = (1.0 m.156-1.5)/8 = 5.5 x M = ∫ Q.75 x2 + const.. El-Sayed.M.5*11*5.5 x). Civil Eng. and also find the maximum deflection for the part L.156 x – 0.dx M = 5. find the position of maximum positive B.dx M = ∫ (5. (1). Prepared by: Amr A.

Eg.D. El-Minia Univ. substituting x = 3.dx Slope = 0. Dept.. is considered as an elastic load.0 Point of Max. We = 5.156 x – 0.0. B.0.2. then the const.156/1.167 x3 . = 0. At x = 0..5 x2 Slope = ∫ − We ..2.t w t/m' L C 27.75 2.0 Slope = 0.0 To find the maximum deflection for the part L.4375)2 = 8.0.Theory of Structures At x = 0.4375 – 0.5 = 3. Q = 0. equation M max.670 12. x = 5.M.75 (3. 15 .M.167 x3 .4375 in the B.8623 m. occurs at the point of zero shear.000 64. El-Sayed.M. M = 0. the slope equals to the ( Elastic Reaction ) Const. the B.0 6.4375 m Max.M. = 23.156 * 3.0 4.578 x2 + 23.0 23. = 5. Civil Eng.578 x2 + const.0 Prepared by: Amr A. B.

0 * 8.0.04167 x4 – 0.0 x + const. Eg.0 x + const.04167 x4 – 0. then the const.Theory of Structures This third degree equation could be solved by iteration using Newton’s method. At x = 0.0 * 4. Frame Deflection 2.0 * 4 + 2.0 a 8. 16 .97 / (EI) = 1.dx δ = 0.0 ) .998 Cm.0 t/m 3 b 4. Σ M at a = 0.86 x3 + 23. Civil Eng.578 x 2 + 23.0.dx δ = ∫ α .378 m Deflection = ∫ Slope .0 First we determine the reactions at (a and b).0 = 8.0 3.378 in the deflection equation: δ = 49.0 δ = 0.167 x 3 ..86 x3 + 23.2.50 t Σ X = 0.dx δ = ∫ ( 0. Dept.0 Prepared by: Amr A.. x = 3. the deflection equals to 0. Substituting x with 3. El-Minia Univ. By iteration. = 0.0 * Yb Yb = 9. El-Sayed.

0 2.0 2.area of triangle (2) = 12.5 = 48.0 6.area of parabola (3) = 2/3 * 16. The second step is to find the elastic reactions for the elastic loads by applying the equilibrium equations for both the elastic loads and reactions. We find the area of each shape and concentrate it in its C.0 3.0 * 4. 17 . which are the rotation at a ( φ a ). 1.0 Then we have to determine the unknown displacements at the supports. The bending moment diagram is displayed in the next figure.0 Prepared by: Amr A.0 * 4.area of triangle (1) = 12.0 * 8. and the rotation at b ( φ b ). Civil Eng.0 – 3.50 t.0 = 8.. Eg.Theory of Structures Xa = 3. the displacement at b ( δ b ). Dept.0 * 8.33 12. El-Minia Univ.0 12.0 Σ M at b = 0.0 = 85.0 * 0.0 16.5 = 24.0 * 8.0. El-Sayed.the vertical movement at b = 0.0 22.G 1.0 * 4..0 * 0. thus Σ M “for vertical elastic loads” at b = 0.0 * Ya Ya = 6.

66 a 98.33 24.0 * 8.0 98.0.33 = δ b δ b = + 362. El-Sayed.0 φ a = .0 * 2.626 cm Prepared by: Amr A. Eg.0 = 0. thus Σ M “for horizontal elastic loads” at b = 0.66 + 85.0 φ b = .0 85.the vertical movement at a = 0.33 + 24.0. 18 .0 58.. Theory of Structures 5.98.58. Civil Eng.0 * 5. Dept.0 = 0.66 * 4.0 – 24.33 48. the horizontal movement at b = 0.03626 m = 3.0 48.0 b 1. 2.33 * 4.66 / EI.66 85.0 + φ a * 8.33 4.66 /EI 4.. thus Σ M “for vertical elastic loads” at a = 0.66 / EI = 363.0 * 1. El-Minia Univ.33 * 4.0 + 48.0 + φ b * 8.66/10000 = 0.

66 42.0 18 18 90.00 1 2.0 t 6.00 2.0 1 4 16. draw the normal force.33 Prepared by: Amr A.0 42. shearing force and bending moment diagrams for the closed frame shown in the Fig. Eg.0 t/m' 4 8. Dept. El-Minia Univ.00 3.Theory of Structures Equation of 3-moments Ex-1 Using the method of the three moments’ equation.0 t 2 3 3.0 45. 19 .66 85. Civil Eng.. 6.00 The loading of the frame is symmetrical. so the bending moment is symmetrical also.00 6. EI = constant. 2 3 45. El-Sayed. M1 = M4 and M2 = M3..

El-Minia Univ..M1 + 6. Civil Eng.6 Prepared by: Amr A.M2 = 256 -210.M2 + 28.66 16. (1) 85. (2) which is the same equation as (1) Applying the 3-moment’s equation for the joints 3.33 42.0 1 2 3 4 1 45. (3) solving equations 1 and 3 together -36. 20 .. M4 = -270 but M4 = M1 and M3 = M2 6M1 + 36M2 = -270 ……….M2 = 256 ………. M1 = 256 but M4 = M1 and M3 = M2 36.66) 6.Theory of Structures The bending moments and the elastic reactions are shown in the previous Fig. Eg.M1 – 216.M2 = 1620 36.9 Substituting this value into equation 1 M1 = 8.M3 + 28. Dept.4 and 1 M3 (6) + 2 M4 (6+8) + M1 (8) = -6 (-42.0 Applying the 3-moment’s equation for the joints 2.M2 = 1876 M2 = 8.. Applying the 3-moment’s equation for the points 1.66 42.M1 + 28. M2 + 8..3 and 4 M2 (8) + 2 M3 (6+8) + M4 (6) = -6 (45) 8. M3 = -270 but M2 = M3 6M1 + 36M2 = -270 ………. El-Sayed. M4 + 8.2 and 3 M1 (6) + 2 M2 (6+8) + M3 (8) = -6 (45) 6.0 18 45. M3 + 6.0 18 90..M1 + 6.

Prepared by: Amr A.85 9.0 12.85 -8.51 -8.Theory of Structures -8.F diagrams for the fixed frame shown in the figure.15 9..51 8. El-Sayed. 21 .Draw the B.M and S. El-Minia Univ.0 t 2.0 t 2.85 -8..85 -8.0 I I 3.0 The relative moments of inertia of the members are as indicated. Dept.15 -8. Eg.0 t/m' 2I 6.0 3.51 8.51 7.49 2. Civil Eng. 2.

Theory of Structures This frame could be solved in three different ways leading to the same results: 1. Then the moment of the cantilever is not taken into account in calculating of elastic reaction. i.0 m.t is negative.e the external moment 6. El-Sayed. Dept. (1) One has to note that the external moment must be taken with its sign. 22 . that is because the resulting moment from the equation of three moments is sign scribed.satisfy the equilibrium condition at the cantilever joint as follows: 6.0 ………. b c 36. (1) Prepared by: Amr A.the outer moment of the cantilever is applied to the beam 2. El-Minia Univ.0 2 Ma + Mba = 0...0) ……….the outer moment of the cantilever is applied to the column 3. Eg.0 a 288 d Equation of three moments at point (a) 2 Ma (6) + Mba (6) = 0.0 Mbc = Mba + (-6.0 Mbc b c Mba Mbc M ba a 6. Civil Eng.

98 J=6.98 0.0 t 6.t BENDING MOMENT -17.0 ………. Dept.97 STRUCTURE DATA 3.93 -5.0 – 6. Mba = -54.Theory of Structures Equation of three moments at point (b) Ma (6/I) + 2 Mba (6/I) + 2 Mbc (12/2I) + Mcb (12/2I) = -6(144/2I) Mbc = Mba .t Mbc = -12.50 Mba = -54.0 NL = 1 XMAX= 18.Mba + 12.5 Mba = 0. El-Minia Univ. Civil Eng..00C -2 -2 2.0a) DATE: DEC 8.0 3.02 6. (1) 4.0 m.0 2. Mba = -324.0 -6.0.0 Mba = -12.0) + 6 (Mba – 6.(Mba – 6. 23 .0 12.M=5 UNIT MET MTO COMPANY: Research Engrs.. Eg.0 m.Inc S T A A D P L .98C 0.P L O T (REV: 19..93 NE = 0 NS = 2 3.0 t/m' 2I 11.98 2.0 Ma + 5.0) = -6(72) 6.00C 14.0 ZMAX= 0.97 2.Ma + 12. El-Sayed.0 ……….6 and Mcb = Mbc 6.0 I I TYPE = PLANE 18. 1998 TITLE: TEST Prepared by: Amr A.0 12 SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM NORMAL FORCE 2 2 -2.00C -2.Ma + 30.00T 2. (2) -Ma .97 17.98 -12 14.03 NJ = 6 NM = 5 5.0 YMAX= 6.0 = -18.0 t 2.

which have. Analytical method The equations obtained in this method are driven from the method of three- moments..Theory of Structures Fixed points for indeterminate continuous beams: The fixed points are the points.. El-Sayed.. The fixed points could be determined analytically or graphically.. Civil Eng.. M2 2(L1 + L2 ) ⎡ L ⎤ =− = − ⎢ 2 + 1 ( 2) ⎥ = − K 2 M1 L2 ⎣ L2 ⎦ where K2 is called “the left hand focal factor of the second span”. El-Minia Univ. M3 ⎡ L ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ = − ⎢2 + 2 ⎜⎜ 2 − ⎟⎥ = − K 3 M2 ⎣ L3 ⎝ K 2 ⎟⎠⎦ M4 ⎡ L ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ = − ⎢2 + 3 ⎜⎜ 2 − ⎟⎟⎥ = − K 4 M3 ⎣ L 4 ⎝ K 3 ⎠⎦ . Eg. 24 . zero bending moment along the continuous beam when one span is loaded. . Dept. . Mn ⎡ L ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ = − ⎢2 + n −1 ⎜⎜ 2 − ⎟⎟⎥ = − K n M n −1 ⎣ L n ⎝ K n −1 ⎠⎦ where K1 = ∞ the right hand focal length is determined using the same procedure M n −1 ⎡ L ⎛ 1 ⎞⎤ − = ⎢2 + n +1 ⎜⎜ 2 − ⎟⎥ = K n Mn ⎣ Ln ⎝ K n +1 ⎟⎠⎦ Prepared by: Amr A. ..

which means that the line of support “b” is named “Ib”. and so on.K n − 1) where Lel is the left elastic reaction of the nth.Divide each span into three equal distances.K n − Lel ) Mn = − Ln (K n .draw a line connecting x and z to intersect with the center line of the continuous beam in f.Rel Mn = − L n . Civil Eng. Eg.with any inclination to intersect with Lb and Ib in x and y. draw a line to the support “b” and extend it to meet Rb in z.from the point of intersection with Lb “x”.. 25 .K n Graphical determination of Fixed points Steps of the method: 1. 3. El-Minia Univ. 6(Rel .Draw vertical lines between each “right and left” lines of each span that divide the distance between them reversibly.K n − Rel ) M n −1 = − Ln (K n . Prepared by: Amr A. Dept. Span. which is the right fixed point of the support “b”.Draw vertical lines from these points to the left and right of the supports.. and the line to the right of support b is named “Rb”. And Rel is the right elastic reaction of the nth. El-Sayed.Theory of Structures the connecting moment at the left and right supports of a loaded span is given by: 6(Lel . These lines are named “I support”. draw a line from the first left fixed point –which is the left support “a”.to determine the left fixed points. 2. Span. the line to the left of support b is named “Lb”. 6. 4. 5.K n − 1) if the continuous beam is loaded over the left first span. then 6.

repeat the three previous steps from point “f” instead of point “a” to determine the remaining right fixed points of the supports. El-Minia Univ. 8.Theory of Structures 7. Eg. Civil Eng. The fixed points Prepared by: Amr A. 26 .To find the left fixed points repeat the previous steps starting from the first left fixed point which is support “f”. Lb Ib Rb Lc Ic Rc Ld Id Rd Le Ie Re y x a b f c d e f z L1/3 L2/3 L2/3 L3/3 L3/3 L4/3 L4/3 L5/3 L2/3 L1/3 L3/3 L2/3 L4/3 L3/3 L5/3 L4/3 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Fig.. Dept.. El-Sayed.

Dept.Theory of Structures Connecting Moments: Uniformly distributed load: a b c d e f Single concentrated load: L L a b c e d f L Prepared by: Amr A.. Eg.. El-Sayed. 27 . El-Minia Univ. Civil Eng.