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EFFECT OF VARIATION OF ECCENTRICITY
AND VELOCITY ON THE PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF SAVONIUS ROTOR

A.AKHILESH GUPTA
06-05-701
B.ARUN KUMAR
06-05-705
M.PRADEEP CHANDRA
06-05-723

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
VASAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY
HYDERABAD.

March 2008

2
inner first page
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PROJECT REPORT ON
EFFECT OF VARIATION OF ECCENTRICITY
AND VELOCITY ON THE PERFORMANCE
CHARACTERISTICS OF SAVONIUS ROTOR

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
VASAVI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING :: HYDERABAD-31

Submitted by:
A.AKHILESH GUPTA 06-05-701
B.ARUN KUMAR 06-05-705
M.PRADEEP CHANDRA 06-05-723

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE
OF
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY
HYDERABAD.

March 2008

3

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis entitled “EFFECT OF
VARIATION OF ECCENTRICITY AND VELOCITY ON
THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF
SAVONIUS ROTOR” is a bonafide record of a project carried
out by

A.AKHILESH GUPTA - - - 06-05-701
B.ARUN KUMAR - - - 06-05-705
M.PRADEEP CHANDRA - - - 06-05-723

in the Department of Mechanical Engineering (Mechanical
/Industrial Production), Vasavi College of Engineering,
Hyderabad affiliated to Osmania University during July 2007 to
March 2008 in partial fulfillment for the award of Degree in
Bachelor of Production Engineering.

Mr. P Venkateshwar Rao Dr. A. Vishweshwara Rao
Project Guide Head
Associate Professor Mechanical Engg. Dept.

A. which led to successful completion of the project. for his encouragement. whose guidance has sustained the effort. Vasavi College of Engineering.Vishweshwara Rao.P.Venkateswara Rao. Professor and Dr. Department of Mechanical Engineering.G. Also. Assistant Professor(Sr. We are indebted to all those friends and well-wishers whose cooperation was invaluable in making our project a success.Subrahmanyam. with deep sense of gratitude we acknowledge the help and cooperation rendered by Dr. We are elated in expressing our sense of gratitude to Mr. Professor. Vasavi College of Engineering.).J.Venkata Rao. . HOD of Mechanical Engineering. We are grateful to him for his precious guidance and suggestions.V. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are obliged and indebted to our guide Mr.

Initially. The flow is assumed to be Incompressible and Steady. The present analysis deals with the study of performance characteristics of the rotor and the effect of variation of eccentricity and inlet velocity on its performance. the performance studies of Savonius wind turbine rotors have been carried out with conventional two bladed curved rotors. . GAMBIT is used to build and mesh the two dimensional geometric model for its application in Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD). fabrication and maintenance.ε model.The numerical scheme employs two equation classical K. and is suitable for small-scale rural application. 5 ABSTRACT Savonius rotor is a vertical axis wind turbine which is simple in design.

5 Using the Solver 4. 6 CONTENTS PRELIMINARIES Certificate Acknowledgement Abstract 1.4.3.2.4 Modelling Turbulence 4.0 NEED FOR CFD 4.5.3 Boundary Conditions 4.2 Program Solving Steps 4.0 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION 2.3 Savonius Rotor 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO GAMBIT AND FLUENT 4.1 Program Structure 4.2.6 Initialising the Solution 4.3.1 Overview of Numerical schemes 4.2 FLUENT introduction 4.1 Horizontal Axis wind Turbine 2.0 INTRODUCTION 2.7 Performing the Time Dependent calculations .2 Vertical Axis wind Turbine 2.1 GAMBIT introduction 4.1 Choosing a Turbulence Model 4.1 Types of Savonius rotor turbine blades 3.1 Flow Inlets and Exits 4.

0 MODELING OF SAVONIUS ROTOR USING GAMBIT 8.1 Assessment of Performance 5.3 Effect of Eccentricity on Velocity and Moment 9.8 Monitoring Results 5.0 REFERENCES .4 Power vs.0 TURBULENCE MODELS 5. and realizable k-epsilon Models 5.2.3 The Standard k-epsilon Model 6.0 CONCLUSIONS 11.0 ANALYSIS USING FLUENT 8.2 The Standard.1 Model Analysis 9.1 Effect of Eccentricity on Moment 9.0 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS 9.2. RNG. 7 4.2 Modeling turbulence in FLUENT 5.0 GRID INDEPENDENCE STUDY 7.0 FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK 12.2.1 Choosing a Turbulence Model 5.5 Amount of Overlap 10. Inlet velocity 9.2 Effect of Eccentricity on Maximum Pressure 9.

8 CHAPTER 1 .

9 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION .

10 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION In the present study an attempt has been made to understand the characteristic behaviour of various parameters like power. The second objective is to study the effect of eccentricity on various performance characteristics of the rotor. The first objective is to carry out the analysis of the rotor for various inlet velocities and Blade angular speeds.. efficiency etc. The power and efficiency of the Savonius rotor depends on both positive and negative wetted area. is to be determined. at which the power and moment are maximum. To increase power and improve efficiency of the rotor..of a Savonius rotor when placed in air which is moving with a certain velocity using FLUENT. The analysis is carried out on a two dimensional model of the rotor. The performance characteristics are studied for each case. The ideal eccentricity. Diameter of the rotor = D Diameter of the Blade = d x D Eccentricity = x d . positive wetted area should be maximised and negative wetted area should be minimised. Eccentricity is provided in order to achieve the above objective.

The fluid is assumed to be incompressible throughout the process. 25mm. 8m/s. 3. and the diameter (d) of each blade being 40cm. The effects at the bases of the rotor is neglected as analysis is carried out for a two dimensional model of the rotor. 75mm. 100mm and 125mm respectively and the velocities being 2m/s. 6m/s. 11 The above study is carried on a S-Savonius Rotor having a diameter (D) of 80cm.The eccentricities (x) are 0mm. 50mm. 4m/s. . 2. It is kept in a boundary region having diameter 600cm. The process is assumed as a steady state process. 10m/s. Assumptions: 1.

12 CHAPTER 2 INTRODUCTION .

propane. These energy sources are called non- renewable because their supplies are limited. natural gas. to move our cars. and to manufacture all kinds of products. Heating our homes. in the energy sources that we use every day. Without the continuous supply of energy that most of us take for granted.heat (thermal). transportation. electrical. . petroleum. light (radiant). We are dependent on energy for our very survival. things would quickly grind to a halt. They are used to make electricity. It comes in different forms -. 13 INTRODUCTION Energy is what makes the world go around. chemical. All forms of energy are stored in different ways. and nuclear energy.renewable (an energy source that can be replenished in a short period of time) and non-renewable (an energy source that we are using up and cannot recreate in a short period of time). communication. These sources are divided into two groups -. mechanical. health – even our daily food supply – all depends on energy. Renewable and non- renewable energy sources can be used to produce secondary energy sources including electricity and hydrogen. Energy is in everything. to heat our homes. Coal. and uranium are non-renewable energy sources.

Current wind energy machines are called "wind turbine generators". "wind pumps". The transmission is attached to a high speed shaft which turns a generator that makes electricity. In order for a wind turbine to work efficiently. the electricity from the entire wind farm is collected together and sent through a transformer. and the rivers flow. Wind Energy: - Wind energy converts kinetic energy that is present in the wind into more useful forms of energy such as mechanical energy or electricity. . and it doesn’t produce toxic or radioactive waste. geothermal energy. Once electricity is made by the turbine. Wind energy is a pollution-free. "wind turbines". Wind Turbine: - The blades of the turbine are attached to a hub that is mounted on a turning shaft. Day after day. 14 Renewable energy sources include biomass. The turbines usually produce about 50 to 300 kilowatts of electricity each. They are called renewable energy sources because they are replenished in a short time. We use renewable energy sources mainly to make electricity. the wind blows. If the wind gets too high. Modern uses of wind energy include generation of electricity and pumping water. solar energy. wind speeds usually must be above 12 to 14 miles per hour. There the voltage is increase to send it long distances over high power lines. The shaft goes through a gear transmission box where the turning speed is increased. infinitely sustainable form of energy. the sun shines. or more generally. Wind has to be this speed to turn the turbines fast enough to generate electricity. and wind energy. It doesn’t use fuel. it doesn’t produce greenhouse gasses. the turbine has a brake that will keep the blades from turning too fast and being damaged. hydropower.

a difference in electrical charge. in their simplest form. rotational energy to the shaft. When the rotor spins. and one of those parts is rotating relative to the other. 15 Parts of a Wind Turbine The simplest possible wind-energy turbine consists of three crucial parts: • Rotor blades . the rotor transfers its mechanical. it induces voltage in the conductor. When the wind forces the blades to move. the shaft spins as well. • Shaft . a generator is a pretty simple device. it has transferred some of its energy to the rotor. • Generator .At its most basic. they act as barriers to the wind (more modern blade designs go beyond the barrier method). which enters an electrical generator on the other end.The blades are basically the sails of the system.The wind-turbine shaft is connected to the center of the rotor. In electromagnetic induction. In this way. if you have a conductor surrounded by magnets. When the rotor spins the . It uses the properties of electromagnetic induction to produce electrical voltage .

the lift force causes rotation about the hub.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine It is a wind turbine in which the axis of the rotor's rotation is parallel to the wind stream and the ground. HAWT Advantages: 1. Blades are to the side of the turbine's center of gravity. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine 2.e. This ratio can be varied along the length of the blade to optimize the turbine’s energy output at various wind speeds. or AC power) out through power lines for distribution. although some have fewer or more blades. A prime objective in wind turbine design is for the blade to have a relatively high lift-to-drag ratio. All grid-connected commercial wind turbines today are built with a propeller-type rotor on a horizontal axis (i. That voltage drives electrical current (typically alternating current. which gives the turbine blades the best angle of attack. the shaft spins the assembly of magnets. so the . Allowing the angle of attack to be remotely adjusted gives greater control. 16 shaft. In addition to the lift force. generating voltage in the coil of wire. Most horizontal axis turbines built today are two. a drag force perpendicular to the lift force impedes rotor rotation. Since the blades of a wind turbine are constrained to move in a plane with the hub as its center. The wind passes over both surfaces of the airfoil shaped blade but passes more rapidly over the longer (upper) side of the airfoil. a horizontal main shaft). helping stability. Ability to wing warp. The purpose of the rotor is to convert the linear motion of the wind into rotational energy that can be used to drive a generator. 2. thus creating a lower-pressure area above the airfoil. Wind turbines can be classified into two types based on their axis of rotation: - 1. The pressure differential between top and bottom surfaces results in aerodynamic lift.or three-bladed. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine 2.

Darrieus turbines .2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine It is a type of wind turbine in which the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the wind stream and the ground. 3. Tall tower allows access to stronger wind in sites with wind shear. 6. 5. VAWTs work somewhat like a classical water wheel in which water arrives at a right angle (perpendicular) to the rotational axis (shaft) of the water wheel. HAWT Disadvantages: 1. every ten meters up. the wind speed can increase by 20% and the power output by 34%. turbulent winds. 4. 4. The FAA has raised concerns about tall HAWTs effects on radar near Air Force bases. 17 turbine collects the maximum amount of wind energy for the time of day and season. 2. HAWTs have difficulty operating in near ground. Their height can create local opposition based on impacts to view sheds. to minimize damage. 3. Vertical-axis wind turbines fall into two major categories: 1. needing very tall and expensive cranes and skilled operators. Downwind variants suffer from fatigue and structural failure caused by turbulence. Tall HAWTs are difficult to install. Ability to pitch the rotor blades in a storm. Transportation can now cost 20% of equipment costs. 2. The tall towers and long blades up to 90 meters long are difficult to transport on the sea and on land. In some wind shear sites.

Easier to maintain because most of their moving parts are located near the ground. This is due to the vertical wind turbine’s shape. Savonius turbines VAWT advantages 1. reducing the need for this bearing and its cost. The airfoils or rotor blades are connected by arms to a shaft that sits on a bearing and drives a generator. . 18 2. 2. As the rotor blades are vertical. Vertical wind turbines have a higher airfoil pitch angle. a yaw device is not needed. 3. giving improved aerodynamics while decreasing drag at low and high pressures.

There may be a height limitation to how tall a vertical wind turbine can be built and how much sweep area it can have. ridgelines and passes can have higher and more powerful winds near the ground than up high because of the speed up effect of winds moving up a slope or funneling into a pass combining with the winds moving directly into the site. Thus reducing the need for such strong vertical support. 7. However. 6. VAWTs placed close to the ground can produce more power than HAWTs placed higher up. Low height useful where laws do not permit structures to be placed high. They can potentially be built to a far larger size than HAWT's . 9. Mesas. 5. 3. VAWT Disadvantages 1. 8. and allowing the turbine blades to be made much longer. can eliminate the need for a large and expensive bearing . Most VAWTS need to be installed on a relatively flat piece of land and some sites could be too steep for them but are still usable by HAWTs. Newer carbon composite blades are lightweight and easier to install. Most VAWTs produce energy at only 50% of the efficiency of HAWTs in large part because of the additional drag that they have as their blades rotate into the wind. 2. This can be overcome by using structures to funnel more and align the wind into the rotor or the "vortex" effect of placing straight bladed VAWTs closely together. . Does not need a free standing tower so is much less expensive and stronger in high winds that are close to the ground. In these places. for instance floating VAWT's hundreds of meters in diameter where the entire vessel rotates . hilltops. this can be overcome by connecting a multiple number of turbines together in a triangular pattern with bracing across the top of the structure. 19 4. It turns regardless of the direction of the wind.

Most VAWTs have low starting torque. A VAWT that uses guy wires to hold it in place puts stress on the bottom bearing as all the weight of the rotor is on the bearing. which can make changing out parts near impossible without dismantling the structure if not designed properly. they are also located under the weight of the structure above it. Guy wires attached to the top bearing increase downward thrust in wind gusts. Darrieus Type Wind Turbine Blade . 20 4. 5. 6. and may require energy to start the turning. While VAWTs' parts are located on the ground. Solving this problem requires a superstructure to hold a top bearing in place to eliminate the downward thrusts of gust events in guy wired models.

Savonius turbines extract much less of the wind's power than other similarly-sized lift-type turbines. Savonius turbines are one of the simplest turbines. but it harnesses only a small fraction of the wind energy incident upon it. Much of the swept area of a Savonius rotor is near the ground. Because of the curvature. making the overall energy extraction less effective due to lower wind speed at lower heights. used for converting the power of the wind into torque on a rotating shaft. Because they are drag-type devices. these are drag-type devices. . 21 2. Looking down on the rotor from above. They were invented by the Finnish engineer Sigurd J Savonius in 1922. consisting of two or three scoops. the scoops experience less drag when moving against the wind than when moving with the wind.3 SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE Savonius Wind Turbines are a type of vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). a two-scoop machine would look like an "S" shape in cross section. The differential drag causes the Savonius turbine to spin. It is simple to assemble but requires a lot of material in its construction Aerodynamically. It can develop a relatively high torque at low rotational speeds and is cheap to build.

because efficiency is completely irrelevant for that application. which need small amounts of power and get very little maintenance. 22 Savonius turbines are used whenever cost or reliability is much more important than efficiency. Aerofoil Blade 4. Savonius and other vertical-axis machines are not usually connected to electric power grids. These turbines can accept wind coming from any direction.3. 2. Straight Blade 3. Curved Blade 2. the coefficient of performance is of the order of 15 %. thereby making it less efficient. weight and cost. Twisted blade .1 Types of Savonius Rotor Turbine Blades The blades can be mainly classified into:- 1. For example. most anemometers are Savonius turbines. Savonius rotor has the low power output per given rotor size. which can be improved by proper designing of blades. Much larger Savonius turbines have been used to generate electric power on deep-water buoys.

because of which the rotational speeds of the blades increase. • High torque at relatively low number of revolutions. 23 Of all the types of blades. • Hardly perceptible Disadvantages • High percentages by volume material are required. 2. For example. Twisted blades further increases the net force depending on the profile of the blade.3. twisted is preferred. the forces are distributed unequally resulting in an increase in the net force. should . • They are inefficient • Turbine needs a motor to start it moving • Needs guy wires that are impractical in heavily farmed areas • Replacing the main bearing requires taking the whole machine down. thus decreasing the net force. to which are mounted the buckets. when air flows on to the straight blades the force acts almost equally on both the blades. • Employment already with extremely low wind velocities off (2-3 m/s). In a similar situation when curved blades are placed.2 Rules for construction of a Savonius rotor with two blades:- a. The size of the end plates. • Independent of the wind direction. no wind adjustment necessary. • These are mounted close to the ground where wind speed is low. Advantages • Simple structure and simple assembly.

height to diameter. The aspect ratio. 6 to 8 gives a better performance. The use of augmentation devices such as concentrators or diffusers or combination of the two result in increased power coefficient. 24 be about 5% larger than the diameter of the rotor. The central shaft should be mounted to the end plates only. c. an aspect ratio of about 2 is desirable from the economic point of view. CHAPTER 3 NEED FOR CFD . b. d. However. and not through the buckets.

e. It is not possible to solve these equations analytically . computer simulations) in a ‘virtual flow laboratory’ The Need for CFD Applying the fundamental laws of mechanics to a fluid gives the governing equations for a fluid. pre. The conservation of mass equation is and the conservation of momentum equation is These equations along with the conservation of energy equation form a set of coupled.and post processing utilities) CFD enables scientists and engineers to perform ‘numerical experiments’ (i. mass transfer. It provides a qualitative (and sometimes even quantitative) prediction of fluid flows by means of • Mathematical modelling (partial differential equations) • Numerical methods (discretization and solution techniques) • Software tools (solvers. nonlinear partial differential equations. 25 COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the science of predicting fluid flow. chemical reactions. and related phenomena by solving mathematical equations that represent physical laws. heat transfer. using a numerical process.

. Applications • Aerospace and Defence • Automotive • Biomedical. 26 for most engineering problems. Healthcare & Pharmaceutical • Electronics • Fuel Cells • Marine and Off shore • Nuclear power • Oil & Gas • Mixing • Pumps • Turbo machinery etc. However.. it is possible to obtain approximate computer-based solutions to the governing equations for a variety of engineering problems. CFD Modelling Overview .

27 CHAPTER 4 .

28 INTRODUCTION TO GAMBIT AND FLUENT .

FLUENT also allows us to refine or coarsen our grid based on the flow solution. yet it is versatile enough to accommodate a wide range of modeling applications.2 FLUENT Introduction FLUENT is a state-of-the-art computer program for modeling fluid flow and heat transfer in complex geometries. Solution-adaptive refinement makes it easier to perform grid refinement studies and reduces the computational effort required to achieve a desired level of . and assigning zone types to a model simple and intuitive. solving our flow problems with unstructured meshes that can be generated about complex geometries with relative ease. and mixed (hybrid) meshes. such as free shear layers and boundary layers. FLUENT provides complete mesh flexibility. 29 INTRODUCTION TO GAMBIT AND FLUENT 4. GAMBIT receives user input by means of its graphical user interface (GUI). 3D tetrahedral/hexahedral/pyramid/wedge. This solution-adaptive grid capability is particularly useful for accurately predicting flow fields in regions with large gradients. 4.1 GAMBIT Introduction GAMBIT is a software package designed to help analysts and designers build and mesh models for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and other scientific applications. meshing. The GAMBIT GUI makes the basic steps of building. Supported mesh types include 2D triangular/quadrilateral.

NASTRAN. executing the solution. and viewing and post processing the results. • prePDF. In addition. true dynamic memory allocation. interactive control.2. defining fluid properties. and complete flexibility of machine or operating system type. . which allows it to run as separate simultaneous processes on client desktop workstations and powerful compute servers.1 Program Structure FLUENT package includes the following products: • FLUENT. These include setting boundary conditions. I-DEAS. • Filters (translators) for import of surface and volume meshes from CAD/CAE packages such as ANSYS. the preprocessor for modeling non-premixed combustion in FLUENT. and others. 30 accuracy. The following Figure shows the organizational structure of these components. an additional preprocessor that can generate volume meshes from existing boundary meshes. the solver. for efficient execution. Consequently. • GAMBIT. Once it is read into FLUENT. and flexible solver control are all made possible. A grid is created using various softwares like GAMBIT. TGRID. 4. FLUENT uses a client/server architecture. all remaining operations are performed within the solver. since mesh refinement is limited to those regions where greater mesh resolution is needed. refining the grid. the preprocessor for geometry modeling and mesh generation. PATRAN. • TGrid. FLUENT is written in the C computer language and makes full use of the flexibility and power offered by the language. efficient data structures.

4. Create the model geometry and grid. Start the appropriate solver for 2D or 3D modeling. 5. 3. . 1. Select the solver formulation. Check the grid. 2.2. we will follow the basic procedural steps shown below. Import the grid. 31 GAMBIT Other CAD/CAE Geometry Packages setup 2D/3D mesh generation prePDF Calculation of PDF look-up tables TGrid 2D triangular FLUENT mesh Mesh import and 3D tetrahedral adaptation mesh Physical models 2D or 3D Boundary conditions Material properties hybrid mesh Calculation Post processing Fig 4.1 Basic program structure 4.2 Problem Solving Steps Once we have determined the important features of the problem we want to solve.

If necessary. we will start the 2D or 3D solver. 10. 32 6. Adjust the solution control parameters. heat exchangers. Choose the basic equations to be solved: laminar or turbulent (or inviscid). Identify additional models needed: fans. etc. We can use GAMBIT or a separate CAD system for geometry modeling and grid generation. Specify the boundary conditions. Grid menu 5. Calculate a solution. Select the solver Define menu formulation. Import the grid. porous media. Define menu 8. Define menu . 12. 9. 6. The menu we need to use for each solution step is shown in Table 3. Boundary conditions. In Step 2. File menu 4. Choose basic equations. 11. 7. Step 1 of the solution process requires a geometry modeler and grid generator. 14.material properties. Alternatively. Examine the results. Specify. Check the grid. heat transfer models. Save the results. etc. we can use supported CAD packages to generate volume grids for import into TGrid or into FLUENT. Define menu 7. refine the grid or consider revisions to the numerical or physical model. 8. We can also use TGrid to generate volume grids from surface grids imported from GAMBIT or a CAD package. Initialize the flow field. chemical species or reaction.1. Solution Step Menu 3. Material properties. 13.

1Flow Inlets and Exits FLUENT has a wide range of boundary conditions that permit flow to enter and exit the solution domain. this section includes descriptions of how each type of condition is used. mass flow inlet. . File menu 14. Adapt the grid. Display menu Plot menu Report menu 13. inlet vent. Solve menu 12. Calculate a solution. FLUENT provides 10 types of boundary zone types for the specification of flow inlets and exits: velocity inlet. pressure inlet. Save the results.3.3 Boundary Conditions This section describes the boundary condition options available in FLUENT. Recommendations for determining inlet values of the turbulence parameters are also provided.1 Overview of the FLUENT Menus 4. To help us select the most appropriate boundary condition for our application. pressure outlet. outlet vent. pressure far-field. Adapt menu Table 4. Solve menu 11. Solve menu 10. Details regarding the boundary condition inputs we must supply and the internal treatment at boundaries are provided. Examine the results. and what information is needed for each one. Initialize the flow field. outflow. 33 9. and exhaust fan. intake fan. 4. Adjust solution controls.

the no-slip boundary condition is enforced at walls by default. The total (or stagnation) properties of the flow are not fixed. We should also be careful not to place a velocity inlet too close to a solid obstruction. but using a symmetry boundary will apply symmetry conditions for all equations. since this could cause the inflow stagnation properties to become highly non-uniform. (We can also model a slip wall with zero shear using the symmetry boundary type. In viscous flows.) In such cases we must ensure that overall continuity is maintained in the domain. so they will rise to whatever value is necessary to provide the prescribed velocity distribution. or model a "slip" wall by specifying shear. at flow inlets. (b) "Wall" Boundary Conditions Wall boundary conditions are used to bound fluid and solid regions. a velocity inlet may be used in FLUENT to define the flow velocity at flow exits. We will enter the following information for a wall boundary: . In special instances.) The shear stress and heat transfer between the fluid and wall are computed based on the flow details in the local flow field. This boundary condition is intended for incompressible flows. and its use in compressible flows will lead to a nonphysical result because it allows stagnation conditions to float to any level. 34 The inlet and exit boundary condition options used for present problem in FLUENT are as follows: a) "Velocity Inlet" Boundary Conditions Velocity inlet boundary conditions are used to define the flow velocity. but we can specify a tangential velocity component in terms of the translational or rotational motion of the wall boundary. (The scalar inputs are not used in such cases. along with all relevant scalar properties of the flow.

ε models • Standard k. and species concentration.ε model . the instantaneous (exact) governing equations can be time-averaged. Since these fluctuations can be of small scale and high frequency. Walls are. These fluctuations mix transported quantities such as momentum. and cause the transported quantities to fluctuate as well. the DO model. or otherwise manipulated to remove the small scales. not moving. or the surface-to-surface model) • Discrete phase boundary conditions (for discrete phase calculations) • Multiphase boundary conditions (for VOF calculations. optional) • Species boundary conditions (for species calculations) • Chemical reaction boundary conditions (for surface reactions) • Radiation boundary conditions (for calculations using the P-l model. energy. Instead. and turbulence models are needed to determine these variables in terms of known quantities. However. optional) • Wall roughness (for turbulent flows. ensemble-averaged. the DTRM. the modified equations contain additional unknown variables. resulting in a modified set of equations that are computationally less expensive to solve. 4. 35 • Thermal boundary conditions (for heat transfer calculations) • Wall motion conditions (for moving or rotating walls) • Shear conditions (for slip walls. optional) The default thermal boundary condition is a fixed heat flux of zero.4 Modeling turbulence Turbulent flows are characterized by fluctuating velocity fields. they are too computationally expensive to simulate directly in practical engineering calculations. FLUENT provides the following choices of turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k. by default.

w models • Standard k. the available computational resources. 36 • Renormalization-group (RNG) k.5 Using the Solver 4. the level of accuracy required. the established practice for a specific class of problem.w model • Reynolds stress model (RSM) • Large eddy simulation (LES) model 4. 4. and the amount of time available for the simulation.w model • Shear-stress transport (SST) k.4.ε model • Realizable k. FLUENT will solve the governing integral equations for the conservation of mass and momentum.1 Choosing a Turbulence Model It is an unfortunate fact that no single turbulence model is universally accepted as being superior for all classes of problems. and (when appropriate) for energy and other scalars such as turbulence and chemical species. we need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the various options.ε model • k. To make the most appropriate choice of model for our application.5. The choice of turbulence model will depend on considerations such as the physics encompassed in the flow.1Overview of Numerical Schemes FLUENT allows us to choose either of two numerical methods: • segregated solver • coupled solver Using either method. . In both cases a control-volume- based technique is used that consists of: • Division of the domain into discrete control volumes using a computational grid.

Because the governing equations are non-linear (and coupled). in order to update the velocity field. but the approach used to linearize and solve the discretized equations is different.e. v. a "Poisson-type" equation for the pressure correction is derived from the continuity equation and the linearized momentum equations. several iterations of the solution loop must be performed before a converged solution is obtained. • Linearization of the discretized equations and solution of the resultant linear equation system to yield updated values of the dependent variables. 37 • Integration of the governing equations on the individual control volumes to construct algebraic equations for the discrete dependent variables ("unknowns") such as velocities. the governing equations are solved sequentially (i. (If the calculation has just begun. The two numerical methods employ a similar discretization process (finite-volume). pressure.3 and outlined below: 1.. Each iteration consists of the steps illustrated in Figure 3.) 2. . and w momentum equations are each solved in turn using current values for pressure and face mass fluxes. based on the current solution. and conserved scalars. Fluid properties are updated. temperature. The u. This pressure correction equation is then solved to obtain the necessary corrections to the pressure and velocity fields and the face mass fluxes such that continuity is satisfied. 3. segregated from one another). Using this approach. (a) Segregated Solution Method The segregated solver is the solution algorithm previously used by FLUENT. Since the velocities obtained in Step 2 may not satisfy the continuity equation locally. the fluid properties will be updated based on the initialized solution.

the unknown value in each cell is computed using a relation that includes both existing and unknown values from neighboring cells. The segregated approach solves for a single variable field (e. 38 4. Where appropriate. Explicit In both the segregated and coupled solution methods the discrete. the unknown value in each cell is computed using a relation that includes only existing values. 5. The resultant linear system is then solved to yield an updated flow-field solution. By implicit or explicit we mean the following: - • Implicit: For a given variable. and these equations must be solved simultaneously to give the unknown quantities. energy.. A check for convergence of the equation set is made. These steps are continued until the convergence criteria are met.g. • Explicit: For a given variable. and radiation are solved using the previously updated values of the other variables. When interphase coupling is to be included. Therefore each unknown will appear in only one equation in the system and the equations for the unknown value in each cell can be solved one at a time to give the unknown quantities. It then solves for the next variable field by again . (b) Linearization: Implicit vs. The manner in which the governing equations are linearized may take an "implicit" or "explicit" form with respect to the dependent variable (or set of variables) of interest. equations for scalars such as turbulence. the source terms in the appropriate continuous phase equations may be updated with a discrete phase trajectory calculation. 6. p) by considering all cells at the same time. non-linear governing equations are linearized to produce a system of equations for the dependent variables in every computational cell. Therefore each unknown will appear in more than one equation in the system. species.

. etc. There is no explicit option for the segregated solver. Update pressure. and so on. are linearized and solved implicitly using the same procedures as in the segregated solution method. turbulence.3 is followed. the solution procedure shown in Figure 3. Regardless of whether we choose the implicit or explicit scheme. radiation.3 Overview of the segregated solution method If we choose the implicit option of the coupled solver. Governing equations for additional scalars that are solved segregated from the coupled set. species. such as for turbulence. each equation in the coupled set of governing equations is linearized implicitly with respect to all dependent . and other scalar equations Converged? Stop Fig 4. Update Properties Solve Momentum Equations Solve Pressure-correction (continuity) equation. face mass flow rate. In the coupled solution method we have a choice of using either an implicit or explicit linearization of the governing equations. 39 considering all cells at the same time. This choice applies only to the coupled set of governing equations. Solve energy.

z-momentum. Because there are N equations per cell. x-. y-. v. and when we may wish to change them. The default settings for the first three items listed above are suitable for most problems and need not be changed. Choose the discretization scheme and. linearization of the coupled continuity. (c) Overview of How to Use the Solver Once we have defined our model and specified which solver we want to use we are ready to run the solver. u. Set the under-relaxation factors. Monitor convergence. Make any additional modifications to the solver settings that are suggested in the chapters or sections that describe the models we are using. this is sometimes called a "block" system of equations. (coupled explicit solver only) Turn on FAS multigrid 5. 4. 8. the pressure interpolation scheme. A point implicit (block Gauss-Seidel) linear equation solver is used in conjunction with an algebraic multigrid (AMG) method to solve the resultant block system of equations for all N dependent variables in each cell. Initialize the solution. (segregated solver only) Select the pressure-velocity coupling method. 2. 40 variables in the set. and T are the unknowns. where N is the number of coupled equations in the set. w. 9. 3. . 7. Start calculating. 6. The following steps outline a general procedure we can follow: 1. and energy equation set will produce a system of equations in which p. This will result in a system of linear equations with N equations for each cell in the domain. Enable the appropriate solution monitors. for the segregated solver. For example. The following sections outline how these and other solution parameters can be changed.

) Before patching initial values in selected cells. 41 4. 4. we must provide FLUENT with an initial "guess" for the solution flow field. • Patch values or functions for selected flow variables in selected cell zones or "registers" of cells. (Registers are created with the same functions that are used to mark cells for adaption.7 Performing Time-Dependent Calculations FLUENT can solve the conservation equations in time-dependent form. for example. the flow will choke at the tunnel throat and will not transition to supersonic. to simulate a wide variety of time-dependent phenomena. In many cases. we must take extra care to provide an initial solution that will allow the desired final solution to be attained. such as • vortex shedding and other time-periodic phenomena • compressible filling and emptying problems . We can then patch the new values over the initialized values for selected variables. There are two methods for initializing the solution: • Initialize the entire flow field (in all cells). we must first initialize the entire flow field. will not "start" if the back pressure is simply lowered to its operating value. The same holds true for a numerical simulation: the flow must be initialized to a supersonic flow or it will simply choke and remain subsonic.6 Initializing the Solution Before starting our CFD simulation. A real-life supersonic wind tunnel.

8 Monitoring Residuals At the end of each solver iteration. residuals can drop as many as six orders of magnitude before hitting round-off Double precision residuals can drop up to twelve orders of magnitude. thus recording the convergence history. . The residual sum is defined below. For "single precision" computations (the default for workstations and most computers). This history is also saved in the data file. On a computer with infinite precision. these residuals will go to zero as the solution converges. 42 • transient heat conduction • transient chemical mixing and reactions 4. On an actual computer. the residuals decay to some small value ("round- off') and then stop changing ("level out"). the residual sum for each of the conserved variables is computed and stored.

43 CHAPTER 5 TURBULENCE MODELS .

zero equation model .1 Common Turbulence Models Classical models Based on (time averaged) Reynolds equations 1 . For most engineering purposes it is unnecessary to resolve the details of the turbulent fluctuations.ε models are presently by far the most widely used and validated. . 44 TURBULENCE MODELS A turbulence model is a computational procedure to close the system of mean flow equations so that a more or less variety of flow problems can be calculated.two-equation model. simple and economical to run.Reynolds stress equation model 4. For turbulence model to be useful in a general purpose CFD code it must have wide applicability. They are based on the presumption that there exists an analogy between the action of the viscous stresses and the Reynolds stresses on the mean flow. The most common turbulence models are classified in the following table. be accurate. We always need expressions for the Reynolds stresses in equations and the turbulent scalar transport terms in equation.algebraic stress model Large eddy simulation Based on space-filtered equations The classical models use the Reynolds equations and form the basis of turbulence calculations in currently available commercial CFD codes. Only the effects of the turbulence on the mean flow are usually sought in particular. Of the classical models the mixing length and k.ε model 3. TABLE 5.k. Both stresses appear on the right hand side of the momentum equation and in Newton's law of viscosity the viscous stresses are taken to be proportional to the rate of deformation of fluid elements.mixing length model 2.

extra strains (e. Secondary flows in long non-circular ducts.ε model is given below. Advantages • Simplest turbulence model for which only initial and/or boundary conditions need to be supplied. which are driven by anisotropic normal Reynolds stresses. • Excellent performance for many industrially relevant flows. can also not be predicted owing to the efficiencies of the treatment of normal stresses within the k.ε model is the most widely used and validated turbulence model. which explains its popularity. rapid. Versions of the model are available which incorporate effects due to buoyancy. the most widely validated turbulence model. Disadvantages • More expensive to implement than mixing length model (two extra PDEs) • Poor performance in a variety of important cases such as (i) Some unconfined flows. The model performs particularly well in confined flows where the Reynolds shear stresses are most important.ε model.1 Assessment of performance The k. . Such models are used to study environmental flows such as pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere and in lakes and the modeling of fires. the model is oblivious to body forces due to rotation of the frame of reference. The model also has problems in swirling flows and flows with large. highly curved boundary layers and diverging passages) since it does not contain a description of the subtle effects of streamline curvature on turbulence. It has achieved a notable success in calculating a wide variety of thin shear layer and recirculating flows without the need for case-by case adjustment of the model constants. A summary of the performance assessment for the standard k. 45 5. Finally.g. This includes a wide range of flows with industrial engineering applications. • Well established.

the instantaneous (exact) governing equations can be time-averaged. resulting in a modified set of equations that are computationally less expensive to solve. However. swirling flows). 46 (ii) Flows with large extra strains (e. and species concentration.g.ε models • Standard k. Instead. they are too computationally expensive to simulate directly in practical engineering calculations. and cause the transported quantities to fluctuate as well. and turbulence models are needed to determine these variables in terms of known quantities. FLUENT provides the following choices of turbulence models: • Spalart-Allmaras model • k. curved boundary layers. the modified equations contain additional unknown variables. (iv) Fully developed flows in non-circular ducts.w models • Standard k. ensemble-averaged. energy. 5.w model • Reynolds stress model (RSM) • Large eddy simulation (LES) model . Since these fluctuations can be of small scale and high frequency.ε model • k. or otherwise manipulated to remove the small scales.ε model • Renormalization-group (RNG) k. These fluctuations mix transported quantities such as momentum.w model • Shear-stress transport (SST) k.ε model • Realizable k.2 Modeling turbulence in FLUENT Turbulent flows are characterized by fluctuating velocity fields. (iii) Rotating flows.

generation due to buoyancy.1 Choosing a Turbulence Model It is an unfortunate fact that no single turbulence model is universally accepted as being superior for all classes of problems. 47 5. and model constants are separate for each model.2. The choice of turbulence model will depend on considerations such as the physics encompassed in the flow. including turbulent production. with transport equations for k and ε . accounting for the effects of compressibility. and Realizable k.ε Models All three models have similar forms. methods of calculating turbulent viscosity.ε Model The simplest "complete models" of turbulence are two-equation models in which the solution of two separate transport equations allows the turbulent velocity and length scales to be independently determined. and the amount of time available for the simulation.2 The Standard. 5. The major differences in the models are as follows: • the method of calculating turbulent viscosity • the turbulent Prandtl numbers governing the turbulent diffusion of k and ε • the generation and destruction terms in the ε .2. To make the most appropriate choice of model for our application.2. 5.ε model in FLUENT falls within this class of turbulence model and has become the workhorse of .3 The Standard k. and modeling heat and mass transfer. The standard k. we need to understand the capabilities and limitations of the various options.equation The transport equations. the level of accuracy required. the available computational resources. The features that are essentially common to all models follow. RNG. the established practice for a specific class of problem.

ε model have become known. Robustness. and the effects of molecular viscosity are negligible. improvements have been made to the model to improve its performance. 48 practical engineering flow calculations in the time since it was proposed by Launder and Spalding.ε model is therefore valid only for fully turbulent flows. The standard k. and the derivation of the model equations relies on phenomenological considerations and empiricism. The model transport equation for k is derived from the exact equation. and reasonable accuracy for a wide range of turbulent flows explain its popularity in industrial flow and heat transfer simulations. it was assumed that the flow is fully turbulent. Two of these variants are available in FLUENT: the RNG k. economy.ε model and the realizable k- ε model.ε model is a semi-empirical model based on model transport equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (k ) and its dissipation rate (ε). It is a semi-empirical model. In the derivation of the k. while the model transport equation for ε was obtained using physical reasoning and bears little resemblance to its mathematically exact counterpart. The standard k.ε model. As the strengths and weaknesses of the standard k. .

49 CHAPTER 6 GRID INDEPENDENCE STUDY .

defined as the difference between the exact solution of the conservation equations and the exact solution of the algebraic system equations obtained by discretising the governing equations. and that the order of the approximation is a measure of accuracy. Both interior and exterior faces are meshed with same type of element in all cases. 50 GRID INDEPENDENCE STUDY Numerical solutions of fluid flow and heat transfer problems are only approximate solutions. numerical solutions always include discretization errors. Then the simulation is grid independent. A systematic search for grid independent results forms an essential part of all high quality CFD studies. The only way to eliminate errors due to the coarseness of a grid is to perform grid independence study. which is a procedure of successive refinement of initially coarse grid certain key results do not change. which decrease as the grid is refined. Interior mesh Exterior mesh 1 3 3 2 2. Mesh no.5 5 1 1 . in programming or setting up boundary conditions. In addition to the errors that might be in the course of development of the solution algorithm. Discretisation approximations of governing equations introduce errors.5 2.5 3 2 2 4 1 1. All the meshes are used to solve the same case and the maximum pressure is plotted and the mesh with less than 2% error is selected. Grid Analysis: - The model is designed in GAMBIT and with this same model different meshes are created by varying the Interval size of the element.

The mesh with interval size of 1 shows the satisfactory results. Hence the mesh with Interval size of 1 is chosen and analysis of all other cases is done with this mesh. 51 Case: Inlet Velocity = 2m/s Blade Angular Velocity = 5 rad/s Eccentricity = 0mm The plot of Maximum velocity and mesh is shown below. .

52 CHAPTER 7 MODELING OF SAVONIUS ROTOR USING GAMBIT .

-19.0). • The vertices are created according to the required geometry.39. (-20.0). (0. 53 MODELING OF SAVONIUS ROTOR USING GAMBIT Dimensions: Diameter of single blade = 40 cm Diameter of complete blade = 80 cm Diameter of boundary = 600 cm Thickness of blade = 2cm Eccentricities = 0 mm. (300.0).-300. (0. (-300. (20. (18. (18.-19. (0.1. 0. (0. 0).0). • Vertices for the geometry with 0mm Eccentricity. 0). Blade : (0.0). 300.0).0) Boundary: (0. (-20.-37. 125mm Designing of Blade : • GAMBIT is opened and the solver is selected as FLUENT5/6. 0). 75 mm. (-18. (0.0).0).-19.-39.0). 25mm. 0) .37. (20.-19. 50mm. (0.19.0). 0.19.0). 0).-1.18.

All the edges are created and from these wireframes faces are created. 54 • Arcs are created using three vertices method. The blade faces are subtracted from the interior face. . The edges of the blade are grouped together as ‘Blade’. The boundary face is split into two faces with help of interior face.

a. • The boundary types are specified by selecting the edges and assigning proper boundary conditions to them as specified below. Interior : Interior • Continuum is specified as two different fluids for interior face and boundary face. Outlet : Pressure Outlet c. The Outer boundary face is meshed with ‘Quad’ element with ‘Map’ type meshing with interval size of 1. • Finally the mesh file is exported for the analysis to FLUENT. Blade : Wall d. 55 • Meshing of the model is done in two steps. The interior face is meshed with ‘Quad’ element with ‘Pave’ type meshing with interval size of 1. . Inlet : velocity inlet b.

56 .

57 CHAPTER 8 ANALYSIS USING FLUENT .

58 ANALYSIS USING FLUENT • FLUENT is initialised in 2D mode. • The mesh file generated in GAMBIT is imported and the Grid is checked for any faults. As the model is created in cm in GAMBIT. it is scaled into Metres (m) in FLUENT. • K-epsilon model is selected as the Turbulence model. .

Outlet (Pressure Outlet): Enter the same conditions as Inlet. • In Solve option Control> Solutions is selected.Select Momentum> Motion>Absolute>Rotations>rad/s b. • Enter the boundary conditions as follows: a. 59 • A segregated 2D implicit model is used and fluid is selected as air in Materials option. Blade (wall): . d.Velocity specification method > components>reference frame >m/s>Turbulence Specification method>Intensity and hydraulic Diameter>Turbulence Intensity>2%>Hydraulic Diameter >6m. c. F1 (fluid 1): Select the reference frame as Stationary. Inlet (velocity inlet): . e. F2 (fluid 2): Select the reference frame as Stationary. Pressure is set as Standard and .

6m/s. and eccentricity and the results are compared. Max Pressure. The similar analysis is carried out for various values of velocity. and Max Velocity are noted down using the reports option. after the solution gets converged. . Inlet Velocities: 2m/s. The pressure and velocity contours are plotted using the Display>Contours option. turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate are set as First order Upwind • The analysis is initialised by computing the values from Inlet boundary condition. iterations are performed. 8m/s. • The values of Moment. 4m/s. • • • • • • After completing the analysis. 10m/s. The iterations stop. Min Pressure. 60 momentum. • After initialising the solution. the case and data files are saved for future reference.

Eccentricities: 0mm. Scaled Residuals Graph . 15rad/s.as 8. 100mm. 75mm. 10rad/s. 61 Blade Velocities: 5rad/s. 50mm.125mm. 25mm.1 MODEL ANALYSIS: Eccentricity = 0 Velocity = 6m/s Rotation of Blade = 5rad/s The various graphs and values considered are: 1.

Contours of Velocity • Display>Contours>Velocity Max Velocity= 8. 62 2. Contours of Static Pressure • Display>Contours>Pressure Max Pressure= 41.732244 .2549 3.84454 Min Pressure= -41.

8109 0.3315 6 41.8009 8 74. and to vies the picture. 63 4.5 2.3248 14.3498 -118.7322 0.1756 5. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) .6292 -18.To view the animation click on pulse.8445 -41. Select step size as 0.4191 11.01 and steps as 500. 0. Pressure Max. Enter the moment centre as (0. 0) Moment = 0.5229 2.0789 4 18.3869 10 116.2549 8. The Analysis Results for some of the Eccentricities are tabulated below: Eccentricity = 0mm Blade Angular velocity = 5 rad/s Blade Angular velocity = 10 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max.793 5. Pressure Min. click on display.6516 -4.80094216 N-m. Pressure Min.4957 -75. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 4. Path Lines Click on Display>Path lines.9091 0. Inlet Velocity Max.6268 1. Pressure Max. Moment Click on Report>Forces>Moment.

9869 -118.3069 -19.2634 -76.7110 -43. Pressure 11.6036 8. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 4.0483 2.9571 14. Pressure -73.5078 8.1626 (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 4.6697 .7149 8 74.6539 -4.6473 -18.6976 -44.9565 5.9718 4.4348 8. Pressure Min.8116 0. Pressure Max. 64 2 4.3663 -73.4241 0.4775 0.7401 6 36.4251 3.4780 5.2815 -20.1361 0.4626 11.5760 -4.5631 0.5448 -18.2971 -116.3117 -20. Pressure Min.7516 6 36. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 4.2097 -77.5132 0.0218 10 101.7063 8 65.6943 Blade Angular velocity =15 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max.1753 13.3561 11.3777 8.1816 4 16.7277 14.3408 1.1065 5.3846 1.5572 Min.0636 -5.9585 -120.6377 Max.7435 0.6976 8 65.5297 2.3906 Max.3095 6 41.3772 5.5362 2. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 4. Velocity 1.899 0.2987 -116.3927 Moment 10 116.8910 -14.0606 -5.5913 5.0286 4 18.1713 4 16.0160 10 101.7072 0.4997 11.1007 Eccentricity = 75mm Blade Angular velocity = 5 rad/s Blade Angular velocity = 10 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max.6902 -44.8486 0.7431 Blade Angular velocity =15 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max.6387 5.0592 4 18.1945 3.3485 10 116.9745 14.7147 0.9871 8.7316 8 Inlet Velocity 74. Pressure Min.4085 3.0185 4.1575 4 16.8838 -42. Pressure Max.6256 1.2798 6 41. Pressure Max.8189 0.2929 1.7157 6 36.0720 -5.1536 3.5312 5.

6976 -75.1586 4 15.2139 2.1695 3. Pressure Max.3981 1.1741 0.3638 1.2059 2.4324 1.0731 4.5526 Eccentricity = 125mm Blade Angular velocity = 5 rad/s Blade Angular velocity = 10 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max.6093 8 63.2237 -78.6435 11.7192 6 35.7698 13. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 3.0374 11.7612 0.5796 -119.9281 -19. 65 8 65.6221 8 63.5603 0.3373 8.9736 -5.6949 6 35.0372 4.2764 2.8043 14.6906 -116.8996 -19.8472 -42.2105 8.0881 8.6925 11.7321 -75. Pressure Min.1753 4 15.8678 10 99.5197 0.2042 14.6328 -117. Pressure Min.8552 -44.6045 0. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 3.5020 .7003 -77.0224 10 101.1728 5.5292 Blade Angular velocity =15 rad/s Inlet Velocity Max. Pressure Max.8490 -43.1012 4.9335 4. Pressure Min.9715 2.8094 4.1522 4 15.8635 10 99.6532 5.9132 10 99.7014 6 35.8911 -121.7064 Inlet Velocity Max.9717 -5.9821 -4. Velocity Moment (m/s) (Pa) (Pa) (m/s) (N-m) 2 3.3092 5. Pressure Max.7705 0.1383 3.2045 14.0802 11.5975 8 63.9368 -20.

66 CHAPTER 9 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS .

Moment for various velocities: .1 Effect of Eccentricity on Moment The graphs for Eccentricity vs. 67 RESULTS OF ANALYSIS 9.

68 .

. 69 It is observed from the graphs that for velocities in the range 2m/s to 6 m/s. then it’s better to go for rotor with eccentricity 75mm. otherwise eccentricity of 100mm can be used. and for velocities in the range 8m/s to 10 m/s Eccentricity 100mm gives Maximum Moment. So. if the velocity of air is in the range 2m/s to 6m/s. Eccentricity 75mm gives Maximum Moment.

eccentricities and rotational speeds of blades. the graphs are plotted for different inlet velocities between Maximum Pressure and Eccentricity. Similar is the case with other inlet velocities. 70 9. It is clearly evident from the data that as eccentricity increases.2 Effect of Eccentricity on Maximum Pressure For a rotational speed of 10rad/s. . Maximum Pressure decreases for a given inlet velocity and rotation of 10rad/s to the blade.

It is observed that Moment obtained for Eccentricity of 75mm is more than that of Eccentricity 0mm and Eccentricity 125mm. 125mm and rotational speed of blade as 10rad/s. 75mm. 71 9. .3 Effect of Eccentricity on Velocity and Moment Following is the graph between Velocity and Moment for eccentricities of 0mm.

28% . 72 9. The behaviour is the same for all the other cases.34% For 100 mm eccentricity: x=10 cm Percentage overlap = 10/(80-10)*100 = 14. 9.5)*100 = 10. It observed that as inlet velocity increases Power increases.5 Amount of Overlap : Percentage overlap = x/(D-x)*100 x=eccentricity in cm D=Diameter of Rotor without For 75 mm eccentricity: Eccentricity in cm =80 cm x=7.4 Power vs.5/(80-7. Inlet velocity: The following graph is for blade with eccentricity 75mm.5 cm Percentage overlap = 7.

73

CHAPTER 10

CONCLUSIONS

74

CONCLUSIONS
In the present work, the effect of eccentricities on the moment is analysed for
various inlet air velocities and rotational speed of blades. It is observed that as the
inlet velocity is increased the moment obtained increases for a particular rotational
speed, given to the blade. Pressure and velocity also follow a similar of pattern.

It is also observed that for a particular inlet velocity and Rotational speed, when
eccentricity is varied, moment increases up to a certain eccentricity and then again
starts decreasing. The eccentricity for which the moment is maximum is ideal for
that inlet velocity. For a particular eccentricity and inlet velocity, if we compare the
velocity obtained and Moment obtained for different rotational speeds of the blade,
it is evident that as the angular velocity increases the moment decreases. From the
results of analysis it is observed for the velocities up to 6m/s 75mm is the ideal
eccentricity and for higher velocities 100mm is the ideal eccentricity.
The suggested amount of overlap is :
For velocities 0-6 m/s = 10.34 %
For velocities >6 m/s = 14.28 %

It is observed that as the eccentricity of the rotor is increased, the reverse flow of
the air near the blade decreases and the maximum pressure (near the stagnation
point) also reduces. This in turn increases the power of the rotor as the pressure at
the stagnation point is acting against the net positive generated moment. With
change in eccentricity, the change in maximum velocity is negligible. But with
increase in eccentricity the distribution of flow is more uniform throughout the
region.

75

CHAPTER 11

FUTURE SCOPE
OF WORK

 Analysis of a 3D model can give more accurate results as the end effects at the bases are taken into account. like using twisted blades. aerofoil blades etc..Its performance can also be improved by using multi stage Savonius rotor. 76 FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK  The performance of the rotor can be improved by changing the geometrical shape of the blade.. so as to understand the variation of characteristics of rotor at different geographical places.  Effect of operating temperatures on the performance of Savonius rotor can be studied for better analysis. .  Dynamic study of the flow will give a better picture which can be done with the help of Dynamic mesh analysis in FLUENT.

77 CHAPTER 12 REFERENCES .

Suresh Kumar. P. Guwahati. Ratna Rao and G. National Institute of Technology. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF SAVONIUS WIND TURBINE ROTOR WITH TWISTED BLADES by A. S. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF A SAVONIUS. Veda Bhanu. Saha.cfd-online. Mahanta. www. Grinspan. V. Das & K. P. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Silchar. U.DARRIEUS WIND MACHINE by R. Department of Mechanical Engineering. 78 REFERENCES 1. Gupta.K. Indian Institute of Technology. Institute of Applied Mathematics. D. Assam India 2. University of Dortmund . DESIGN. FLUENT Help Document 3. India. K.com 5. R. 4. Sharma. Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics. Instructor: Dmitri Kuzmin.