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MATEMÁTICAS I. 1º BACHILLERATO.

UNIDAD 5: FÓRMULAS TRIGONOMÉTRICAS.

IDENTIDADES TRIGONOMÉTRICAS.
Demuestra las siguientes identidades.

cos α − cos3 α
= tan α
senα − sen3 α

cos α − cos3 α Sacamos factor comun a coseno


= 

(
cos α ⋅ 1 − cos2 α ) = cos α ⋅ sen2 α = senα = tan α
senα − sen3 α senα ⋅ (1 − sen2 α ) senα ⋅ cos α cos α
Sacamos factor comun a seno 2

Re cuerda la relación fundamental de trigonometría :


⇒ sen2 α + cos2 α = 1 ⇒ 1 − cos2 α = sen2 α
⇒ sen2 α + cos2 α = 1 ⇒ 1 − sen2 α = cos2 α

( senα + cos α )2 − tan α ⋅ cot α = sen2α

Desarrollamos el binomio y expresamos la tangente


y la cotangente en función de seno y coseno.
cos α
Recuerda que cot α =
senα

← 1 →
senα cos α
( senα + cos α ) 2 2 2
− tan α ⋅ cot α == sen α + cos α + 2 ⋅ senα ⋅ cos α − ⋅ == 1 + 2 ⋅ senα ⋅ cos α − 1 =
cos α senα
= 2 ⋅ senα ⋅ cos α = sen2α

1
− cos α − tg2 α ⋅ cos α = 0
cos α

2
1 1  senα  1 sen2 α ⋅ cos α
− cos α − tg2 α ⋅ cos α = − cos α −   ⋅ cos α = − cos α − =
cos α cos α  cos α  cos α cos2 α

=
1
− cos α − = =
2 2
sen2 α 1 − cos2 α − sen2 α 1 − cos α + sen α (
=
1− 1
=0
)
cos α cos α cos α cos α cos α

sen ( α + β )
tgα + tgβ =
cos α ⋅ cos β

sen ( α + β ) senα ⋅ cos β + senβ ⋅ cos α senα ⋅ cos β senβ ⋅ cos α senα senβ
= = + = + = tgα + tgβ
cos α ⋅ cos β cos α ⋅ cos β cos α ⋅ cos β cos α ⋅ cos β cos α cos β

1/2
2tgα
= 1 + tg2 α
sen2α

senα
2
2tgα cos α 1 sen2 α+cos2 α=1 sen2 α + cos2 α
= = → = =
sen2α 2senα ⋅ cos α cos2 α cos2 α
2
sen2 α cos2 α senα  2
+ =  + 1 = tg α + 1
cos2 α 2
cos α  cos α 

1 − 2 cos2α = 4sen2 α − 1

( ) sen2 α+cos2 α=1


1 − 2 cos 2α = 1 − 2 cos2 α − sen2 α =  → 1 − 2 1 − sen2 α − sen2 α =
Expresamos el coseno ( )
en funcion de seno

( )
= 1 − 2 1 − 2sen2 α = 1 − 2 + 4sen2 α = 4sen2 α − 1

sen3 α − sen α
⋅ tg α = −1
cos α − cos3 α

sen3 α − sen α
⋅ tg α =
Sacamos factor comun
→
(
senα sen2 α − 1 ) ⋅ senα = 
sen α+cos α=1
2 2

→
cos α − cos α 3 Expresamos la tang como
seno entre coseno cos α (1 − cos α )
2 cos α

=
(
senα − cos2 α ⋅ senα ) = −1
(
cos α sen α ⋅ cos α 2
)

sen α ⋅ cos α tgα


=
2 2
cos α − sen α 1 − tg2 α

senα senα
tgα cos α cos α
= → = =
1 − tg2 α Expresamos la tang como
 sen α 
2
cos 2
α − sen2 α
seno entre coseno 1−  
 cos α  cos2 α
senα ⋅ cos2 α sen α ⋅ cos α
= =
(cos 2
α − sen α ⋅ cos α2
) cos2 α − sen2 α