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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY • Biology is the study of life or living organisms. • Nutrition: • -Sources of energy and growth -Repair dameged tissue • Locomotion: • Moving from place to place (only for animal) • Reproduction: • Reproduce offspring • Growth: • Increasing in size • Excretion: • Expelled waste from body CHAPTER 2 : CELL STRUCTURE AND CELL ORGANISATION .(original: logos) which means study. movement..life • logy . Charecteristic of Living Organism • Metapolism: • Obtain energy for life and activities • Respiration: • Breakdown food to obtain energy for growth... • bios .

g. spherical organelle enclosed by a nuclear membrane • vacuole: a fluid. or released intracellularly to undergo further processing .macrophage) to form a phagosome (or food vacuole). dense.CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION • cell: basic unit of living thing • organelles: cellular component that perform specific functions within the cell CELLULAR COMPONENTS OF ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS • plasma membrane: membrane at the surface which encloses the content of a cell • cell wall: a rigid outer layer that surrounds the plasma membrane of the cells • cytoplasm: region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane • nucleus: large. • phagocytosis: The process of engulfing and ingestion of particles by the cell or a phagocyte (e. which in turn fuse with lysosomeand become phagolysosome where the engulfed material is eventually digested or degraded and either released extracellularly via exocytosis.filled sac which is surrounded by tonoplast. a semi permeable membrane • mitochondria: small spherical or cylindrical-shaped organelles • ribsomes: compact spherical organelles found attached to the surface of rough endoplasmic reticulum or suspended freely in the cytoplasm • endoplasmic reticulum: consists of a network of folded membranes forming interconnected tubules or sacs • golgi apparatus: consists of a stack of flattened membraneous sacs • lysosomes: membrane bound sacs that contain hydrolytic enzymes • centrioles: a pair of small cylindrical structures located just outside the nucleus • chloroplasts: typically lens shaped CELL ORGANISATION LIVING PROCESS IN AMOEBA SP.

Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membranefrom an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. especially protozoa. or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration. and homeostasis. The spontaneous net movement of particles down their concentration gradient (i. reproduction. Tendency of water to flow from a hypotonic solution (low concentration of dissolvedsubstances) to hypertonic solution (higher concentration of dissolved substances) across a semipermeable membrane • Active transport: A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient. a more general and less rigorous term than ecosystem. 2. 3. • contractile vacuole: a specialized vacuole of eukaryote cells. which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. • System: (Science: biology. • Organism: Living things that are capable of reacting to stimuli. . difference in the concentrations of substances or molecules between two areas). Hence. this process will require expenditure of energy. a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming a unified whole.e. Net movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential. ecology) A group of related natural objects or forces within a defined zone.Function is probably osmoregulatory. The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient. • Osmoregulation: The process of regulating water potential in order to keep fluid and electrolyte balancewithin a cell or organism relative to the surrounding • Cell specialization: The cell performing a specific function for a larger organ or tissue • Tissue: An aggregate of cells in an organism that have similar structure and function • Organ: A group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. Simple diffusion: 1. and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein. 2. growth. Passive transport: A kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient. that fills with water from thecytoplasm and then discharges this externally by the opening of a permanent narrow neck. which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. CHAPTER 3: MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANES • Osmosis: 1.

The passive movement of molecules or particles along a concentration gradient. and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein. which means movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. (Cell biology): a type of passive transport.3. 2. it is a net movement of moleculesin and out of the cell across the cell membrane along a concentration gradient. Net movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from an area of higher water potential to an area of lower water potential. this process will require expenditure of energy. Hence. difference in the concentrations of substances or molecules between two areas). energy is not required • Active transport: A kind of transport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentration gradient. 2. therefore. Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration. (Cell biology): a type of passive transport. The spontaneous net movement of particles down their concentration gradient (i.e. 3. 3. • Osmosis: 1. which means movement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration. therefore. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT • Internal environment: interstitial fluid which bathes the cells • Hemostasis: maintenance af a relatively constant internal environment so that cells can function optimally • Passive transport: A kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients. it is a net movement of molecules in and out of the cell across the cell membrane along a concentration gradient. Tendency of water to flow from a hypotonic solution (low concentration of dissolvedsubstances) to hypertonic solution (higher concentration of dissolved substances) across a semipermeable membrane • Facilitated diffusion: Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. • Simple diffusion: 1. MOVEMENT OF SUBSTANCES ACROSS THE PLASMA MEMBRANE IN DAILY LIFE .

Having equal tension.• Hypertonic solution : A solution that has higher osmotic pressure (or has more solutes) than another solution to which it is compared. has a lower concentration of solutes than another solution • Isotonic solution: . • Hypotonic solution: refers to any solution which has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution (that is. .

sugar andnitrogenous base. and expression ofhereditary information in every living cell • Enzymes: A catalyst or a chemical produced by cells to speed up specific chemical reaction. starch.g water). sulphur. and sometimes phosphorus.g. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen. and cell signaling • Proteins: A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds.CHAPTER 4: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE CELL CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS • Carbohydrates: Any of the group of organic compounds consisting of carbon. Other components include carbon. hence the general formula: Cn (H2O) n. hydrogen. and involved in the preservation. hydrogen. structural component of cell membrane. oxygen. cellulose and gums • Lipids: A fatty or waxy organic compound that is readily soluble in nonpolar solvent (e. Examples includesugar. replication. Its major biological functions involve energy storage. usually in the ratio of 1:2:1. ether) but not in polar solvent (e. . • Nucleic acids: Any of the group of complex compounds consisting of linear chains of monomericnucleotides whereby each monomeric unit is composed of phosphoric acid. and oxygen.

each containing one of every pair of homologous chromosomes (that is.CHAPTER 5: CELL DIVISIONS • Mitosis: The process where a single cell divides resulting in generally two identical cells. leading to the production of four haploid gametes (sex cells). each having its own nucleus and cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane . with the maternal andpaternal chromosomes being distributed randomly between the cells) • Synapsis: The pairing of homologous chromosomes during the meiotic phase of cell division • Cytokinesis: The division of the cytoplasm and the plasma membrane following the division of thenucleus resulting into two cells. each containing the same number of chromosomes and genetic content as that of the original cell • Meiosis: A form of cell division happening in sexually reproducing organisms by which two consecutive nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II) occur without the chromosomalreplication in between.

for growth. Under nourishment. either from food or dissolved in drinking water MALNUTRITION • Malnutrition: Faulty or inadequate nutrition. This results in anaemia. maintenance and repair of damaged tissues • Nutrients: substances that are required for the nourishment of an organism • Autotrophs: A organism capable of making nutritive organic molecules from inorganic sources viaphotosynthesis (involving light energy) or chemosynthesis (involving chemical energy) • Heterotrophs: An organism that is unable to synthesize its own organic carbon-based compounds frominorganic sources.CHAPTER 6: NUTRITION TYPES OF NUTRITION • Nutrition: process by which organisms obtain energy and nutrients from food. or available in. • Vitamins: a group of complex non. poor growth. feeds on organic matter produced by.A balanced diet is one that contains all the ingredients needed for ourbody to healthily continue its day to day functions in the most efficient way.protein organic compounds which are needed in relatively small quantities by living organisms • Minerals: simple inorganic nutrients which must be obtained through the diet. hence. absorbs or grows on decaying organic matter • Parasite: An organism that obtains nourishment and shelter on another organism A BALANCED DIET • Balanced diet: A diet that contains adequate amounts of all the necessary nutrients required for healthygrowth and activity. • Kwashiorkor: A nutritional deficiency illness in children who are not getting enough protein. otherorganisms • Saprophytes: (botany) An organism (especially a plant or plant-like) that feeds. .

Horns or antlers are usually present. water. PHOTOSYNTHESIS • Photosynthesis: The synthesis of complex organic material using carbon dioxide. this is because they no longer get their source of protein. • Marasmus: general wasting of the body due to protein deficiency combined with a lack of energy providing nutrients • Osteoporosis: A disease of bone in which the bones become extremely porous and are subject to fracture FOOD DIGESTION • Digestion: process that breaks down complex food substances to simpler. inorganic salts. soluble molecules small enough for the body to be absorb •Ruminants: A suborder of the order artiodactyla whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four- chambered stomach. and oedema (which is particularly characterised by a pronounced pot belly). such as chlorophyl land other accessory pigments . children typically develop kwashiorkor right after they are weaned. The word is derived from the Ghanian term meaning the sickness the baby gets when the new baby comes. All ruminants share an even number of toes. In famine-stricken regions. mothers milk. at least in males. and light energy (from sunlight) captured by light-absorbing pigments. weakness.

CHAPTER 7: RESPIRATION RESPIRATORY PROCESS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION • External respiration: a mechanical process that maintains a continuous exchange of gases between the respiratory surfaces of an organism and its environment • Internal respiration: biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cells • Aerobic respiration: (1) A form of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to generate energy.(2) The process of generating energy by the oxidation of nutrients and using an externalelectron acceptor other than oxygen REGULATORY MECHANISM IN RESPIRATION Ventilation rate: rate of gaseous exchange between the alveoli and blood capillaries RESPIRATION IN PLANTS • Compensation point: light intensity at which the rate of carbon dioxide production during respiration is equal to that of carbon dioxide consumption during photosynthesis .(2) The process of generating energy by the full oxidation of nutrients through Krebs cycle where oxygen is the final electron acceptor • Anaerobic respiration: (1) A form of cellular respiration that occurs when oxygen is absent or scarce.

CHAPTER 8: DYNAMIC ECOSYSTEM ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC COMPONENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT • Biotic: living organism • Abiotic: non. gradient and aspect of a region INTERACTION BETWEEN BIOTIC COMPONENTS IN RELATION TO FEED • Symbiosis: A close relationship between two or more different species which live closely together and interact with each other • Commensalism: A form of symbiosis between two organisms of different species in which one of them benefits from the association whereas the other is largely unaffected or not significantly harmed or benefiting from the relationship • Mutualism: A symbiotic relationship between individuals of different species in which both individuals benefit from the association • Parasitism: A form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). The association may also lead to the injury of the host • Saprophytism: type of interaction which living organism obtain food from dead and decaying matter • Competition: an interaction between organism living together in a habitat and competing for the same resources that are limited supply • Intraspecific competition: competition between individuals of the same species • Interspecific competition: competition between individuals of different species COLONISATION AND SUCCESSION IN AN ECOSYSTEM • Ecosystem: a community of organisms which interact with their non.living organism • Humidity: amount of water vapour present in the air • Topography: physical features of the land which concern the altitude.living environment and function as a unit .

3. naturally or artificially • Succession: (ecology) The progressive replacement of one dominant type of species or communityby another in an ecosystem until a stable climax community is established POPULATION ECOLOGY • Population ecology: a branch of ecology that studies the structure and dynamics of populations • Population density: the number of organisms per unit area of the habitat BIODIVERSITY • Biodiversity: diverse species of plants and animals interacting one another on Earth CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS • Taxonomy: a branch of biology concerned identifying.• Habitat: a natural environment where organism live • Species: a group of organisms that look alike and have similar characteristics. e. genetic colonization. as thecolonies that develop when a bacterial cell begins reproducing. and naming organisms • Monera: kingdom composed of prokaryotic organisms • Protista: kingdom which includes a variety of unicellular and a few multicellular eukaryotes • Fungi: heterotrophic multicellular eukaryotes • Plantae: kingdom which includes all land plants • Animalia: multicellular heterotrophics eukaryotes IMPACT OF MICROORGANISMS ON LIFE • Microorganisms: tiny organism that can only be seen clearly under the microscope • Bacteria: unicellular organisms which have a basic cell structure that includes a cell wall. propagation of a gene by a host into which the gene has beenintroduced. mental patients. shares the same roles in an ecosystem and are capable of interbreeding to produce fertile offspring • Population: a group of organisms of the same species living in the same habitat at the same time • Community: several populations of different species living in the same habitat in an ecosystem • Colonisation: 2. describing. lepers. in community groups.. The care of certain persons. and DNA that is not enclosed in a membrane .g. plasma membrane. The formation of compact population groups of the same type of microorganism.

• Algae: photosynthetic eukaryotic plant like organism in the kingdom of Protista • Fungi: heterotrophic multicellular or unicellular eukoryotes which do not have chlorophyll • Protozoa: unicellular organism • Viruses: smallest microorganisms which can only be seen under an electron microscope HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS • Pathogens: microorganism that can cause diseases CHAPTER 9: ENDANGERED ECOSYSTEM HUMAN ACTIVITIES • Deforestation: permanent removal of trees from the forests • Pollution: any undesirable change in the physical. chemical or biological characteristics of the natural environment. brought about when harmful substances or energy are released by human activities • BOD: amount of dissolved oxygen taken up by microorganisms that decompose organic waste matter in water .