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Vibro-Acoustic Analysis of a

Distribution Power Transformer
Using the Finite Element Method

N. Vieira1, P. J. Antunes2, C. Martins3, G.R. Dias2, A.T.
Coelho3.

1 PIEP- Centre of Innovation in Polymers Enginnering,
Guimarães, Portugal
2 Institute for Polymers and Composites, University of Minho,

Guimarães, Portugal
3 ACC – Amorim Cork Composites, Santa Marta de Corroios,

Portugal

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites

INDEX

1. Introduction

 Project Description
 Power Transformer’s noise and vibration
 No-load noise and magnetostriction
 Damping and energy dissipation

2. FEM model description

 Main components and PT’s assembled structure
 Loads and Boundary Conditions

3. Dynamic analysis and simulation

 Natural shapes and frequencies analysis
 Dynamic simulation

4. FEA Results

 Description of relevant output signals both in time and
frequency domains
 Conclusions

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites

 Developed at PIEP .  Enabling the vibro-acoustics characterization of PT’s and the study of particular phenomena involved (damping mechanisms. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites . transmission paths. etc.in collaboration with ACC – Amorim Cork Composites. Portugal .).Introduction – Project description  Study and development of products and materials for noise and vibration control in Distribution Power Transformers (PT’s).  Making use of numerical methods and FEM/FEA tools for the simulation of PT´s dynamic behavior and mechanical response of several material formulations and design solutions.Innovation in Polymers. at Guimarães.

 Many improvements (materials. namely by means of more tight standards and legislation. which demands for controlled and lower sound emission. design and technologies) were already achieved.  These “source” vibrations are transmitted to PT’s surroundings either through mechanical connections and acoustic medium originating a complex vibro-acoustic response.Introduction – Noise and vibrations of PT’s  Environment quality is an actual concern. wich demands for damping and isolation solutions. but the vibrations of the core can’t be totally eliminated.  The main source (or the most difficult to eliminate) of noise and vibration is due to the magnetostrictive behavior of the core.  Noise levels generated by PT’s impose restrictions to their installation wich may conflict with the electric power needs. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

 Also damping and isolation requires a study and characterization of each case for the design of specific solutions.  Use of damping and isolation solutions.Introduction – Noise and vibrations of PT’s  Noise Reduction can be achieved by :  Reduction of the magnetostrictive and magnetic exciting forces. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites . offering tolls for the characterization and prediction of particular phenomena and helping to find solutions when significant noise level reduction is required.  Avoiding ressonance frequencies. common noise levels calculations are based in empirical/semi-empirical formulae defined for specific models or PT’s types.  Numerical methods are today an alternative for this studies.  Due to the complexity of the phenomena.

Magnetic induction vs. 1st and 3st dominate). Magnetostictive strain:  Magnetostrictive strain has the direction of the magnetic flux but is not dependent on its signal.  Magnetostrictive strain depends on the instantaneous magnitude of the magnetic flux and on the mechanical properties and orientation of the crystal oriented steel core laminations.  It is characterized by a fundamental frequency double of the input alternating current frequency (50 or 60 Hz).No-load Noise and Magnetostriction  Core’s motion and periodic mechanical deformation due to magnetostriction are identified as the primary font of noise and vibrations. and its harmonics (normally. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

Reference Flux Instantaneous Flux Flux Vectors Phasor: Vectors: Amplitude: (t=0) (t=0) in: Krondl.  For typical magnetic induction levels. the dimensional change per unit length is in the range of 1e-7 to 1e-5 (mm/mm). Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites . defining different deformed configurations over time. Bulletin Oerlikon  Inertia and core’s stiffness govern the dynamic stresses and strains originated by the magnetostrictive “loads”. M. and Kronauer. induced by the alternating current with diferent phase angles at it’s 3 windings. (1963) – Contributions à l’étude du probléme du bruit des transformateurs.No-load Noise and Magnetostriction  The behavior of a 3-phase 3-legged core is determined by the combination of the magnetic fluxes. E.

specifically.  dissipation intrinsic to it’s materials (material damping).Damping and energy dissipation  Damping is an energy dissipation phenomena. conversion of mechanical energy into thermal energy.  Modal damping ratios can be calculated as fractions of critical damping or using a Rayleigh formulation.  Material damping is the most common form of damping intentionally employed to reduce noise and vibrations through the use of passive- based materials.  it’s numerical calculation of Time response for diferent critical damping effects is limited to damping ratios models available usually through the definition of critical damping ratios based on empirical knowledge.  Every real structure has natural damping mechanisms:  at the connections between parts and at its surroundings (structural damping) . Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

Damping and energy dissipation  This work intends to study vibration damping solutions.Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. nominally through the inclusion of cork-rubber composite pads between the core´s assembled structure and the inner base of the tank.  The nonlinear elastic behavior of the cork-rubber material was modeled by a hyperelastic model (based on a strain energy function). Behavior of a purely elastic material: Behavior of a viscoelastic material: Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  Damping was introduced through the definition of critical damping coefficients calculated from results of DMA .

FEM model description . considering the following parts:  Tank’s cover  Core’s superior clamping  Magnetic core  3 windings and it’s supports  Core’s inferior clamping  Vibration-control pads  Tank with cooling fins Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .Parts 3D non-linear FEM model of a generic (630 KVA) 3 phase PT.

869 340 0.850 .29 (clamping + Hhf cl.8 support) “Equivalent isotropic 1.50 0.FEM model description .140 1. Cover Steel Bolts DIN-ISO 898 7.29 Clamping.Materials  Materials Properties Definition: Density Elastic Poisson’s Material x103 Modulus Component Ratio (kg/m3) x103 (MPa) Core.869 210 0.35 supports Cork Rubber .50 VC2100 control pads Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .29 Windings Hf definition” Hhf Windings Nylon 66 1. Hhf Tank .870 160 0. Vibration - 0. Steel 7. 0. 4.

FEM model description . and Inf. 50 3% clamping Windings 3 x 80 16% Cover 40 3% SubTotal (Main 1200 82% body) Tank 280 28% Total 1480 100%  The half symetric model represented here has 186.000 elements in a total of 380.000 degrees of freedom.Weights and elements  Distribution of mass is very important in a dynamic system due to inertia effect: Weight - Kg % Total Part (full weight model) Core 870 58% Sup. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

FEM model description – Loads and boundary conditions  Our FEM considers a single solid part core model and the periodic positive strain variations are introduced by means of a directional thermal expansion coefficient.5 Tesla. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  A maximum strain amplitude of 3e-06 mm/mm was considered corresponding to a typical induction level of 1. Core’s deformed configurations in Periodic strain variation time: at the center of each core leg:  The tank was fixed to ground with encastre boundary conditions at its base beams.

 This are low frequency modes (5 to 40 Hz). this modes concentrate their natural frequencies around 30 Hz reducing their original natural frequencies.  Pads affects mainly the mode shapes developed in vertical translaction (or rotation about the horizontal axis)  With the pads.  We verify that the most important modes (with greater energy participation) correspond to the principal rigid body motion shapes of the main body.Natural mode shapes and frequencies  A modal (eigenvalue) analysis was performed for individual components and full assembled PT model enabling the study of the influence of many design parameters on the structure response. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  Modes depend mainly on the stiffness of the tank and how the main body is settled (with or without vibration-control pads).

Dynamic analysis  To minimize the calculation effort. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  The results presented correspond to a damping ratio ξ of 9% at the lowest most significant vibration modes (from 12 to 14 Hz) calculated using the Rayleigh model.  Dynamic (time based) implicit analyses of half symetric full assembled model were performed for the first 50 magnetostriction cycles. simetry boundary conditions were used.

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .Projection of B at tank’s supporting beam.  These are described for specific points:  Reaction forces :  Vertical aceleration: D and E . C . B .FEA Results  Relevant output signals (Reactions Forces and Accelerations) were monitored for solutions with and without vibration-control pads.Base of core’s inferior Encastre points: support.

FEA Results  Reaction forces at D encastre point (time domain):  Solution with pads presents:  Larger initial amplitudes (enabled by pads deformability) quickly damped indicating a faster amplitude decay. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

FEA Results  Relevant output signals (Reactions Forces and Accelerations) were monitored for solutions with and without vibration-control pads.Base of core’s inferior Encastre points: support.  These are described for specific points:  Reaction forces :  Vertical aceleration: D and E .Projection of B at tank’s supporting beam. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites . C . B .

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .FEA Results  Reaction forces at D encastre point (time domain):  Solution with pads presents:  Larger initial amplitudes (enabled by pads deformability) quickly damped indicating a faster amplitude decay.

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  Smother response with more clear periodic cycles.  More stable structure motion .FEA Results  Reaction forces at D and E encastre points(time domain):  Solution with pads presents:  Almost coincident evolution with time for both encastre points.

 Most significant component at the lowest frequency achieved (around 30 Hz).FEA Results  Reaction forces at D encastre point (frequency domain):  Solution with pads presents:  Reduction in the number of frequencies with significant contribution. lowering all frequency components. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  Shift to the left.

Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .FEA Results  Vertical aceleration at B (core’s inferior support ) and C (tank’s supporting beam):  Solution with pads presents:  Reduction of the acelleration amplitude at both points B and C.

FEA Results  Vertical acelleration at point B (frequency domain):  Solution with pads presents:  An increase of the lowest frequency participation (also shifted to the left). Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites . diminishing the amplitude of the 100 Hz component.

 Characterization of the structural dynamic performance of a typical PT using the Finite Element Method.  The main concerns in this initial step involved:  The study of principal phenomena involved.  Like any numeric model for the simulation and prediction of real physical phenomena.  Definition of an analysis methodology and corresponding procedures.  decreasing the acelleration amplitudes. also for this model and it’s future developments it is foreseen experimental validation.  This preliminary results indicate that the overall structural response is affected by the inclusion of the vibration-control materials.Conclusions and future work  The numerical study of such complex vibro-acoustic behavior requires a step-by-step approach with intermediate validations.  More stable structure motion. namelly:  shifting the principal frequency components towards lowers frequencies. Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .

Portugal 3 ACC – Amorim Cork Composites. Antunes2. University of Minho. Guimarães. Vieira1. Coelho3. A. Guimarães. J. Martins3. Portugal Innovation in Polymers Amorim Cork Composites .Centre of Innovation in Polymers Enginnering. Santa Marta de Corroios. P. C.T.R. Portugal 2 Institute for Polymers and Composites. G. 1 PIEP. Vibro-Acoustic Analysis of a Distribution Power Transformer Using the Finite Element Method N. Dias2.

5 Innovation in Polymers Cork Composites .  Density = 850 kg/m3.  Poisson’s Ratio = 0.VC 2100 Stress / Strain curve  Thickness = 10 mm.