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What is HIV?
• A Retrovirus is a ribonucleic acid
(RNA) virus that must reverse to the
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) before
• It is the DNA gene that enables the
Virus to replicate.

Simian immune deficiency viruses. Characterized by a long interval between infection and development of disease. Models for Research. Feline immune deficiency virus. • Examples of Naturally Occurring Slow viruses. • HIV belongs to the subclass of lentiviruses OR Slow viruses.. What is HIV? Cont.d. .

Show 40% to 60% amino acid homology. HIV types and sub-types  2 types of HIV: HIV-1 and HIV-2. . M and O show 55- 70% similarity/homology. N clade is a new group recently reported.  HIV-1 is subdivided into subtypes or clades designated “A to K”(M Clades) and “O”.

• Less transmissible(5-8fold less than HIV-1 in early stage disease and in MTCT). • Viral load tests are not generally available.Africa. . HIV-2 • Human retrovirus. • 20-30% of HIV-2 patients have negative antibody tests. • Slower rate of CD4 decline and disease progression. Mainly in W.

Structure of HIV .

Description-cont.d • VIRAL ENVELOPE.Diameter of 1/10000 of a millimeter.Outer coat of the virus . called lipid. . Composed of 2 layers of fat. Recent evidence suggests HIV may Enter or exit cells through LIPID RAFTS present on cell membrane. Spherical in shape..

. • ** Primary focus of VACCINE dev’t. Description-cont.This protein is called ENV made of a Cap of Glyco protein 120 and a stem of GP41. .d • 72 spikes on average made of complex protein protrude from the virion surface.

• Capsid protects 2 single strands of HIV RNA. Gag.E.d • Viral Core. Description-cont.Bullet shaped core called Capsid made of 2000 copies of a protein called P24. .g.each with a copy of 9 genes.. Pol and Env gene encode for structural proteins. that is broken down to GP120 and GP41. Env gene encodes for GP160.

Nef. integrase. Rev. and 3 enzymes- Protease.Vpr.d • 6 regulatory genes control viral replication.HIV nucleocapsid protein. • P17 matrix protein lies between the Core and the envelope.Tat.. Description cont. • Other core protein include: p7.Vpu. . Include. Vif. Reverse transcriptase.

Description of HIV structure .


Stages of HIV life cycles 1. 2.9 out of the 15 drugs act here. Entry into the Cell. .T20 Penta fuside.reverse transcriptase converts HIV RNA to Pro viral drug. Reverse transcription. Involves 2 steps: a) Binding b) Fusion.

Stages of HIV lifecycle- cont..d 3. 4. .mediated by Integrase enzyme. Proviral DNA spliced into Human DNA. Integration.mRNA will use the body’s protein making machinery to make viral proteins. Transcription-process of making new HIV RNA copies called mRNA.

long chain proteins formed.Processed HIV mRNA copies acts as a template .Stages of HIV cycle-cont. . 6. Translation. Assembly and budding. Cleavage of long chain proteins by protease.Making of HIV structural protein using the host’s protein making machinery.d 5. Occurs in the cytoplasm..

HIV Life Cycle .

Infected white blood cell .

OS etc. • Mother to child transmission. Transmission of HIV • Unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person: HST. sharing contaminated needles. Before. blood transfusion. during birth and after birth through breast feeding. • Contact with infected blood. . MSM.needle stick injury.

8years Symptomatic HIV/AIDS Av. Natural history of HIV Viral transmission(2-3weeks) Acute retroviral syndrome 2-3weeks Recovery and seroconversion Asymptomatic chronic HIV infection Av.3 years Death .1.

This eventually leads to CD4 recovery and reduction of HIV RNA to a low “SET POINT”.occurs 2- 3 weeks after acute HIV infection. Early Events in HIV progression • Acute retroviral syndrome. 70-80% suffer flu like symptoms. Immune system fights back with killer cells (CD8) and later B cells produce antibodies. .

Later Course of Infection • Asymptomatic chronic stage. • There is clinical latency while Asymptomatic. • CD4 counts-Where you are. • Viral load determines rate of disease progression-Velocity of progress. .Correlates with risk of opportunistic infections. Average of 8 years before progression to AIDS.

median survival is 1. . Advanced HIV/AIDS disease stage • Defined by CD4 count less than 200/mm3. selected tumors/cancers. • After AID defining complication. • Characterized by opportunistic infections. Median survival 3.wasting and neurological complications.3years.7years.

OHL. .oral Cervical cancer. cardiomyopathy. Pneumonia.HZ. >500 syndrome Aseptic meningitis Candida vaginitis TB. cryptosporidiosis mononeuronal simplex PCP.KS.extra.GBS.dementia. Wasting. Correlation of complications with CD4 CD4 cell Infection Non.PML. assoc. 200-500 thrush. anemia.NHL.pulm.TB.infectious count complication complication Acute retroviral PGL. HIV Histoplasmosis. myopathy. peripheral <200 neuropathy.lymphoma.

Toxoplasmosis.candidias s Disseminated CMV.Correlation of complications with CD4 counts CD4 Cell Infectious Non-infectious Count complication complication Disseminated Herpes <100 simplex.micr osporidiosis. CNS lymphoma <50 MAC . Cryptosporidiosis.