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Its Origins, Development, and European Background

Lecturer in the Theory and Methods of Social Investigation and
Director ofthe Department of Social Research, TheGraduate
School for Jewish Social Work

Professor and Chairman of the Department of Sociology,
The University of Chicago





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No claim is made for exhaustiveness of treatment in any part of this survey and certainly not in the European background. along relevant national lines. as would any other method. especially the chapter by Kimball Young in The History and Prospects of the Social Sciences. has indicated the importance of the material and encouraged its revision and elaboration to its present form. in view of the very important role which personalities still play in the social-psychological movement. But since this subject could not be presented significantly in isolation. Also. some definite limita- tions. has been con- fined to the development of social psychology as social psychology. The study was begun in 1921 when the need for some such survey stood out glaringly. except for some necessary background. The method of presentation decided upon as being best adapted to the accurate handling of the task in hand. This consideration explains many details of emphasis and procedure which might otherwise come into question. PREFACE This work had its origin in the attempt to outline the development of social-psychological thought in this country. as a matter of convenience and in order to be able to reflect the development of American social psychology upon the background of European thought. the work has gradually assumed its present proportions. it also has. edited by Harry Elmer Barnes. the treatment has throughout been determined by the original interest in illuminating American social-psychological thought. Since that time. This method has certain obvious advan- tages in providing natural classifications. There are thus certain other possible approaches to the con- sideration of social psychology and especially of social psychologists. The treatment. the appearance of several shorter surveys. which to the author seemed determining in the present state of social-psychological development. The treatment has necessarily been selective. Others might have varied the emphasis . Professor Faris has undertaken to suggest in the Foreword how some of them might be followed out with profit in filling out the picture here unfolded. Hence no attempt has been made to extend the background survey beyond the nineteenth century crystallizations of social-psychological thought. However. and it was completed in its original form in 1925. is a modified form of biographical exposition organized broadly.

has likewise read the manuscript twice and he. For obvious reasons. but he also read the entire section in proof. especially in Part II of the survey. and others intimately connected with the work. Professor Louis Wirth of the University of Chicago has been very helpful in respect to the section dealing with German social-psychological thought. In Part I. Professor Faris. and Burgess of the Univer- sity of Chicago. Something remains to be said about the form of presentation adopted in this survey. it seemed highly desirable to present the crucial points in an author's position as far as possible in his own words. Small and Professors Faris. the author is under obligation to the late Dean Albion W. In the course of his contact with every phase of the work. In addition. since the limitations of space to a single volume have made it possible to deal only with the high spots of recognized lines of influence. has been intimately in contact with the work from the beginning. but not materially. but even there it was adhered to at especially important points. publishers. has made invaluable suggestions which have been incorporated in the completed work. Specific acknowledgments of indebtedness. Not only was the work in the first instance carried out under his guidance. especially in the first two connections. The superiority of this manner of presenting such material cannot be questioned and the method has been adhered to. The preparation of a work like this obviously places one under a many- sided obligation to authors. he has read the entire manuscript on two different occasions. editor of the series in which the work appears. in particular. But the author finds it neces- sary to make the following further acknowledgments: First and foremost. Professor Reuter of the University of Iowa. The author is particularly under obligation to him for his critical evaluation of parts of the material and for his expert editorial advice and assistance in the final preparation of the manuscript for publication. While he did not completely agree with certain points of evalua- .viii PREFACE and selection of material to be dealt with somewhat. all of whom have at one time or another offered valuable suggestions in respect to the preparation of the manuscript. too. in some instances even at the expense of smoothness and conciseness of exposition. he has made many invaluable suggestions which have in one way or another been adopted. Park. must necessarily be taken care of in the footnote and bibliographic references. it was naturally less feasible to follow out this manner of presentation consistently. He not only directed the author's attention from time to time to important source materials. but he has maintained an unfailing interest in the material ever since. The author welcomes this oppor- tunity to acknowledge the important part which he has had in the plan- ning of the work.

and execution of the work. Percy E. . Frances Watson. Mr. Grateful acknowledgment of their assist- ance is hereby made. planning. has been similarly helpful in respect to the section dealing with French social-psychological thought. Lightman and Miss Ettarae Serlin. Illinois.. Evalyn Cohn. but the author feels this further acknowledgment is justified by the whole-hearted response of the pub- lishers and authors involved. in assisting in the early set-up of the material and in later taking over the task of preparing the Index. Bryan. Most of all the author is under obligation to Dr. Professor Moses J. P. No merely formal statement of indebtedness can possibly do justice to his contribution to the for- mulation. B. March. F. Research and Assistant Librarians at the latter institu- tion. 1932. Pardue. William S. have likewise been helpful in the preparation and checking of the bibliography. Clifford Manschardt. Celian Ufford. Appreciative acknowledgment is also made of the assistance of Mr. M. The following graduate students of the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago assisted in the collection of the original materials of this study during the early stages of the work: W. Y. Not only did he read the entire section in proof but his comments regard- ing various details of treatment proved to be exceptionally helpful and encouraging. PREFACE ix tion relevant to this section. Acknowledgment of this is made specifically in connection with the quotations used. Belle T. who has read the entire page proof and assisted in the preparation of the bibliography. J. formerly of The Sorbonne and now of The College of the City of New York. Regena Beckmire. his comments and especially references to the pertinent literature were extremely valuable. Lindley. George M. Meroney. Jacob B. NEW YORK. Research Assistant at The Graduate School for Jewish Social Work. Ada Davis. N. The author also wishes to acknowledge gratefully the help of Dr. Ruth Shonle Cavan of Rockford. Aronson. K. Wolfe. Hockman. Karpf for his invaluable aid in every phase of the work. Alison R. The author further wishes to acknowledge the courtesy of authors and publishers who have generously permitted the inclusion of quotations from their works.


F. Georg Simmel and More Recent Developments 75 CHAPTER III THE DHVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN FRANCE 89 I. Herbert Spencer 26 CHAPTER II THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN GERMANY 41 I. Ludwig Gumplowicz and Gustav Ratzenhofer 71 3. CONTENTS PAGE PREFACE vii FOREWORD BY ELLSWORTH FARIS xiii INTRODUCTION 1 PART I EUROPEAN BACKGROUND CHAPTER I NINETEENTH CENTURY PHILOSOPHICAL BACKGROUND 7 I. Auguste Comte 14 III. The Study of Culture History as an Approach to Social Psychology: Folk Psychology 42 1. Wilhelm Wundt 51 III. Social-psychological Aspects of German Sociology 66 1. Lucien Le>y-Bruhl 123 IV. The Study of Crowd Behavior as an Approach to Social Psychology: Crowd Psychology 134 1. Garbriel Tarde 93 III. W. The Study of Imitation as an Approach to Social Psychology: Inter- psychology 93 1. Gustave Le Bon 134 CHAPTER IV THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN ENGLAND 145 I. Introductory Statement 41 II. Emile Durkheim 108 2. Hegel 7 II. Albert Schaffle 67 2. G. Introductory Statement 89 II. The Study of "Collective Representations" as an Approach to Social Psychology: Collective Psychology 108 1. Moritz Lazarus and Hermann Steinthal 42 2. Introductory Statement 145 xi .

247 CHAPTER VI SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT AS AN EXTENSION OP PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY 269 I. Ellwood 385 II. Thomas. L. L. Emory S. John Dewey 327 IV. Charles A. Edward A. Baldwin 269 II.xii CONTENTS PAGB II. Graham Wallas. The Background of English Evolutionary Doctrine 147 1. Floyd H. . CHARLES H. . Bogardus 394 III. English Evolutionary Anthropology 165 III. Leonard T. and Others Associated with Their Social-psychological Viewpoints 351 CHAPTER VIII THE EMERGENCE OF A DIFFERENTIATED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY (CONTINUED)— ATTEMPTS AT SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 385 I. Lester F. James M. Walter Bagehot 158 3. The Study of the Instinctive Basis of Social Behavior as an Approach to Social Psychology: Instinct Psychology 173 1. William James and Other Early American Psychological Influences. Mead 318 III. William McDougall 176 2. William I. . George H. AUport 400 2. Other Recent Attempts at Systematic Treatment 400 1. Ellsworth Faris. Ross 308 II. Kimball Young and Others 413 CHAPTER IX SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 416 BIBLIOGRAPHY 431 INDEX 449 . . Ward and Other Early American Sociological Influences . 216 III. Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer 147 2. . Wilfred Trotter. 196 PART II THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT IN THE UNITED STATES CHAPTER V BACKGROUND AND BEGINNINGS 211 I. Bernard 407 3. Introductory Statement 211 II. COOLEY 291 CHAPTER VII THE EMERGENCE OP A DIFFERENTIATED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY 308 I. Hobhouse .

besides being of general interest to the intellectual reader. problems. which attempts to give the history of American social psy- chology. being particularly resistant to the assimilating influence of the rest. for there is not one but many. Social psychology has already accumulated a body of traditions. FOREWORD Social psychology is a vital and important subject of present-day discussion and investigation throughout the world. The present work of Dr. Nor is there any sign of a decrease in interest. in the highest degree. There are. and systems which form a broad stream whose tributaries can be traced far back in time and space. perhaps particularly in America. but since that time systematic treatments of it in books are found by the dozen. psy- chology. some channels have been cut out at an angle and by a divergent path have been flowing on until they have become lost in the desiccations of the desert sand. On the contrary. with its European background. and even literary men have all written important and significant books which must be classified as directly bearing on this field. workers in sociology. impos- sible. are numbered by the hundred. historians. timely. On the contrary. It is clear then that a historical guide like the present work ought to serve a very useful purpose. of course. Other books dealing with various aspects of the field. while articles and special researches of a briefer character carried in the learned journals of the world are to be counted literally by the thousand. The sources offer great variety. The attempt to understand social psychology is obviously greater every year. There are other muddy currents which have refused to mingle with the main stream. as the stream flows on. To trace them back to a single origin is. Moreover. and by copious quotation and sym- . is thus. psychiatrists. Karpf. more men are working in the field now than ever before. of course. Attempts to designate it by special terms and to give it systematic formulation began only a little over twenty years ago. and the student who tries to avail himself of the heritage is confronted with a laborious and confusing body of reading which soon makes him aware of the need of some guiding clew. economics. although not necessarily bearing the title. many ways of describing all this. The author has chosen a sort of modified biographical treatment inherited from the tradition of histories of philosophy. and political science. The interest in social psychology has not been confined to any one section of social science. explanations.

for all these have left a tradition without which the views of the Americans could not be understood. French. Until the latter part of the work is reached the treatment of the Americans is roughly chronological. the student would like to know more about the place of a given author in his social and cultural setting. The choice of the plan must obviously be left to the author. just why one author or one group of authors should hold that fundamental in human life is a desire for exciting and thrilling experiences. A history of American social psychology might be written in one of two or three ways. while others. German. The answer to this demand would tend to add to the question of what the author teaches and what he advocates the more difficult question of why he taught and advocated those doctrines. and the result would be an interpretation so difficult to make objective that the success of such an effort would always be problematical. that must be set down to the necessities of literary choice. why one author's work breathes sympathy with the oppressed classes. If. while another's becomes a vade mecum for defenders of the status quo—all these questions are very difficult but not without their central importance. fur- nishes texts for economic radicals. Moreover. In the first place. so that the development can be seen and the influences traced. perhaps because their work is more interesting. To answer them would require a vigorous and persistent campaign in attempting to unearth the personal and biographical details of each man's life. find no truth in the doctrine. There is another and easier and less invidious aspect of the history of social psychology which it would be interesting to know. Obviously here anyone who tries to answer is treading on slippery ground. and English writers pass in review before the reader. We know already too much about the relation of thought and reflection to action and ambition to fail to realize that we must eventually psychologize the psychologist if we are to understand his psychology. therefore. with the clews here supplied these gaps can be filled in by sufficiently vigorous effort and sufficiently wide acquaintance with the literature. and political views. he is the exponent of a culture . social.xiv FOREWORD pathetic condensation has set for herself the task of giving the reader the teachings of the various authors on the questions that interested them most. just why the vigorous advocates of behaviorism should adopt a violently radical attitude toward religion and conventional morals with which the doctrine of behaviorism strictly defined has no more connection than it has with the politics of Mars. Each author is not merely the deliverer of a message. It would hardly be possible to write it in all three of these ways. Nevertheless the question is not out of order. many of them being avowedly vocal opponents of democracy. Just why the ardent and valiant defenders of instincts should be also in the main conservative in their philosophical. the reader finds certain gaps in it.

It is only in perspective. therefore. now rapidly dying out. A similar tracing of the doctrine of wishes or of the neglect of physiology by the psychoanalysts or of the rejection of mental elements by the Gestaltians on the one hand and by men like John Dewey on the other. and if she does. as we have been taught by Cooley. forces. and to make allowances for both theirs . to know what our friends' prejudices are. of some aspect of the culture of his people. it would be interesting and highly profitable to know what were the various influences. And there are many of these which it would be best fitting to have set forth in such a manner. For we are all social psychologists enough now to know that while it is not easy to get rid of our prejudices and predilections. The presentation of separate authors with their separate views. FOREWORD XV or. The extreme reflex doctrine. nor do we account for it adequately when we give the arguments and statements of any particular author who is an advocate of that definite system. the individual and society are twin born. perhaps. The social forces that made and are still making social psychology are not inaccessible. His ideas are generated in his group. Perhaps the author will be granted the leisure and have the impulse to make this account clear in a subsequent volume. it is possible sometimes to know what they are. did not come into existence full armed. quite different motives and quite different outcomes— all these and other questions like them would add greatly to the interest of the story of the development of social psychology. while interesting and quite necessary. even for those who had rejected the instincts and which caused them to substitute a set of definite reflexes instead—all of this would be illustrative of the point that is here made. it is. Each writer. an organic whole. with. not only writes about the group. The instinct doctrine of social psychology. For mind is not merely individual mind. does not give the connection between and relation to the various points of view out of which the doctrine grew or into which it merged or which it stirred up. that we can see how the various antecedent formulations were found increasingly difficult and how gradually this particular scheme came to be more advantageous. He is also a part of a group. Moreover. and weaknesses which finally brought about the transition to something which seems to be more satisfactory. to know that we have them. nor is it merely social mind. conspicuous among them the conflicts among the orthodox psychologies regarding the presence of imageless thought. It is to be hoped that she will. and the firm hold that the doctrine of elements had. starting in Russia and somewhat independ- ently in America with the study of animals and influenced by many other forces. in each case. in our day. and the trends of thought and sentiment if set alongside the expositions here would add much to that which we should like to know about the development of the science. she will put us all the more in her debt. when the doctrine began to lose its ascendency.

Perhaps he is the very voice of his time speaking for his group. The compulsive nature of social or collective thought is a factor of which we can always take account for the correcting of our data. Here the alliances are across jurisdictional boundaries.xvi FOREWORD and ours. and the savage battle cries which show how human scholars are. Indeed. our sectarian champions. When a science is sufficiently mature and advanced to have a clear conception of its problems and is able to organize its forces so as to attract them effectively. the groups and classes can be related to each other. For the partisan leader of a school of thought there is little hope. however. surely a truly scientific psychological mind. Social psychology as a definite discipline known by distinctive terms is relatively young. often also satisfying a certain welcome notoriety. since the search for truth is suspended by the necessity for fighting. furnishes a pleasant excitement. Gestaltism. and neither they nor their work shall endure. But the friends of science need not be disturbed. but they are also in danger of losing their scientific temper. and the crowd enjoyed it most when the slaughter was most fierce." We have our partisans. . but it is old enough already to have many "schools. Leaders of the schools perform the same function as fanatics in any sphere. what their claims are. the scholar not least of all. Schools of psychology are the growing pains of the science. He usually digs into a "well-prepared position in the rear" from which security he defends himself according to his resources. the annihilating phrases. our orthodoxies. There are far more books than there are classes of books. And even in this little arena the student can witness wars of words. whether of attack or of defense. This. and behaviorism. and the rest seek their allies in any camp. but their real significance requires most careful interpretation and insight. For we are all children of our time. it might be contended that the scholar is most of all a child of his time. The fanatic in religious or political or social life is one who calls attention to a neglected truth or duty by a strident exaggeration of its importance. instinctivism. They not only tend to become extremists. and the scholars and authors may be grouped and classified. Warfare. Moreover. The extremists. have received their reward. Indeed a truly scientific mind. and what shibboleths are required to membership within the company are matters not hard to learn. and our heresies. an increase in loyalty. for there are not so many kinds of system as there are men who write about them. cannot allow itself to be disturbed. there are no schools. task of relating the author to his time and to his group inside the time is not so great as it might seem. The ancient Romans used to find amusement in making their captives fight real battles. like the Pharisees in the Testament. no less satisfying for being short-lived. Fortunately life is short. It is the time become articulate in a single point. What these schools are.

The answers to the questions that it asks are urgently needed. Karpf's book tells what men have declared when they came back from spying out the land. and how may these be best conceived and best directed? We have discovered a new world. Dr. but we do not understand what it is. the problem of inefficiency. it is also vitally important. How does our human nature come to be? Is it unchangeable. Nowhere is there available any comparable survey of the contributions of modern scholarship in this field. The unity of our culture is broken. They will see the few grains in the heap of chaff and salvage what they can. listening to the confusing voices. and a thoroughness of competent scholarship which will be appreciated by all who will have the privilege of reading her work. Even the disciples and students of a pundit have been known to question his claims of infallibility in his own lifetime. and our peace and success demand that we know it well. Social psy- chology is a name we give to this task. Although this book was not written as a college textbook. our ambitions. we are becoming aware of human nature. Karpf gives meaning and significance to what might otherwise seem unrelated and isolated. vigorous. . rapidly growing. March. how? Whence come our motives. 1932. The general reader who is interested in modern thought will par- ticularly appreciate the way in which the various trends are traced out and finally brought together in the concluding chapters. the discipline called education. Here the critical comment and comparison throw the views into sharp relief. In addition to such a use. the control of vice. ELLSWORTH FARIS. and the historical perspective of the various authors as treated by Dr. Social psychology is not only new. like any thoroughly comprehensive and scholarly work in the field it will admi- rably serve such a purpose. UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO. The training of children. and war—these problems are present in a new and dreadful form. the work will certainly find an eager audience in students of social science. a high and unwavering enthusiasm. The author has brought to her task an exceptionally adequate training. the confusion of tradition is by now proverbial. FOREWORD xvii The future is with the young who. and greatly confused. particularly those interested in economics and politics who wish to understand what is going on in this field and what characterizes the leaders of thought today. will not be able or willing to continue the one-sided emphases. but we have not explored it yet. crime. poverty. and if it can be altered.

however. It may on the one hand be viewed as a very old subject with a history extending back into remotest antiquity. Consult. But certainly. social psychology may be thought of as being both a very old and a very new field of endeavor. The very conception of social psychology as a distinctfieldof scientific investigation is comparatively recent as scientific development goes. I-IX. I. only with those aspects of the move- ment which have had a more or less direct bearing on the development of social psychology in this country. or at any rate into the earliest period of systematic philosophical inquiry. it hardly extends back beyond the middle of the nineteenth century. the very conception of social psychology as a dis- tinct field of scientific investigation is a comparatively recent develop- 1 Surveys of earlier thought which have an historical interest for the social psychologist are available in the histories of both psychology and social thought. A History of Social Thought. introductory sections. LICHTENBERGER. RAND. and maxim have stored down the ages of human history and the reflective theorizing about these matters which the centuries of philo- sophical thought record are eloquent testimony of this fact. For certainly man has always concerned himself. A History of Psychol- ogy. The Classical Psychologists.1 As stated above. There is evidently ground for both of these views. social psychology viewed as a specialized field of scientific endeavor corresponding to the other modern psychological and social sciences is a very new development and it has as yet little to commend it that is comparable to that which the better established sciences have to offer. Chaps. only with the development of social psychology in this more specialized sense that this survey is to be concerned and. Chaps. II. BBETT. In fact. and on the other hand. It is. more specifically. It is necessary to bear this limita- tion of treatment in mind from the outset. again. for instance. SOBOKIN. precept. in one way or another. legend. it may be looked upon as one of the most recent and least qualified claimants to recognition among the sisterhood of the modern sciences. 1 . as is more frequently the case. The Development of Social Theory. I-X.AMERICAN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY INTRODUCTION Like most of the modern sciences of human behavior and social life. The practical wisdom regarding human nature and social life which custom. Contemporary Sociological Theories. with the field of inquiry with which modern social psychology seeks to deal systematically and scientifically. vols. BOGABDUS.

as we are to be concerned with it here. II. the need for a social psychology still remained obscured for a long time. it was not until. . During all this time there was. 366-360. vol. 126jf. This situation. of course. modern social-psychological thought got its first 1 See BRETT. the study of mental and social life remained subordinated to other than scientific interests—metaphysical. Chap.also MCDOUGALL. that the essential setting for the modern social-psychological movement was completed. History of Psychol- ogy. too.. social psychology. For this conception had to await not only the emergence of modern naturalistic and scientific thought generally as applied to the study of human behavior but also the modern sociological movement. pp.2 Because of the background of individualistic thought upon which it began to take form. A History of Psychology. BALDWIN. but no social psychology in the sense of modern thought. Ill. The resulting intellectual unrest and widespread groping after more adequate conceptions and methods in the investigation of human nature and social life are well-known background in the development of modern psycho-social science. by the development of psychology and psychological thought generally along introspective and decidedly individualistic lines. An Introduction to Social Psychology. is to be associated with the early stages of the modern social-psychological movement as well as with related nineteenth century scientific develop- ments. And naturally enough.2 AMERICAN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY ment. and sociology likewise began to define its interest in terms of the study of objective social organization. II. it gradually became increasingly apparent that the conventional individualistic interpretation of human behavior was inadequate and even wholly unadapted for the explanation of the socially most significant aspects of human nature. As the sociological point of view gained ground. political. pp. in its general aspects. vols. were preparing the setting for the modern sociological movement that the need for a social psychology began to make itself felt. with the progress of events. For centuries. mental and social philosophy. ethical. modern psychology set about to ally itself definitely with physi- ology and to take over the point of view and experimental technique of biological science as defined in distinctly individualistic terms. * See ibid.1 It was only as positivism and modern comparative and evolutionary thought. I. With this turn of events. But more specifically. as reflected upon the background of nineteenth century demo- cratic tendencies. religious.. I. And even after the study of mental and social life began to take form as distinct fields of scientific investigation within the modern scientific era. II. however. began definitely to emerge alongside of general psychology on the one hand and general sociology on the other. vol. vol. pp. Such was the nature of theory concerning the subject matter of social psychology in the Greek period and throughout the middle ages. 286-296. as we know.

as will appear in the early part of this survey. quite naturally. as we shall see. too. together with the intensely nationalistic character of nineteenth century thought generally and of psycho-social thought in particular. the modern social-psychological movement was at first. it began increasingly to appear. So far. So far. pp. once recognizing the inadequacy of its purely individualistic approach for the study of the more complex aspects of mental life. see Ellwood. closely connected with such other related fields of thought as social anthropology. vol. which was its chief concern in the first instance. We 1 For an early statement on this point. it was to be expected also that psychology itself. and culture history. which today define the field of social psychology. History of European Thought in the Nineteenth Century. though social-psychological thought has spread out from the first from both psychological and sociological sources. should attempt to extend and modify its point of view and methods in accordance with the new insight. 429-430. but a particu- lar aspect of the larger sociological movement. social organization in its deeper human meaning is so intimately related. Accordingly. social psychology has continued to remain. Intern. In fact. especially during its early history. The development of social psychology. has in some instances amounted to the practical identifica- tion of social psychology with portions of these relatedfieldsof endeavor. 5. modern social psychology is found developing from both of these directions and. with which it was on common ground in its protest against psychological individualism. evolutionary biology. INTRODUCTION 3 impulse from the side of the study of social life. Proc. Congress Arts Sci. On the other hand. 859. vol.. also with certain aspects of anthro- pology and folk psychology. p. IV. 1904. which. is thus intimately bound up during the early period with the development of sociology itself. * See MBRZ. most intimately bound up with sociology. with which. from the nature of its historical problems and its theoretical background. in addition. . sociology should attempt to extend its scope from the study of the objective side of social organization. 447-448. It was natural that in the general groping for a more adequate approach to the study of the social aspects of human behavior. to the extent even of having fairly shifted the weight of emphasis in the latter science to the consideration of its own problems.2 has been favorable for the more or less particularistic cultiva- tion of distinct angles of approach in the field and for the crystallization of those differentiated tendencies of social-psychological development. these several directions of social-psychological development have remained largely uncoordinated from the social-psychological standpoint. This interlinking of social psychology with related fields of scientific investigation. to the study of the personal side.1 But this fact has not inter- fered with its natural association all along also with psychology and.

Ross* Social Psychology and McDougall's. Dewey. as the social psychology. are frequently at a loss to make out the connections between them and to explain their diversity of conception and material. to be concerned with the same subject matter. In particular. and in fact continues to be held up. It is hoped that the survey of social-psychological thought which is to be followed out here will help to meet this need in a preliminary way. and Thomas. that each of them has been held up. especially to the interested general reader in the field and the beginning student. in the light of which the various current treatments and conceptions of the subject may be given place in relation to each other and to the field in its larger outlines as it has developed in its several aspects up to the present time. This situation. at least in so far as social-psychological endeavor in this country is concerned. when confronted with the several current treatises. It has been considerations of this nature and the consequent con- viction that there is at the present time an urgent need in the field of social psychology for some sort of general survey. . seem hardly. is frequently confusing. as may be readily imagined. to mention only the older and more widely recognized attempts to formulate social- psychological theory in this country. the two best known and probably most popular works. and upon which the further advance of such a scientifically applicable social psychology as has been the objective of American social-psychological thought from the beginning must from now on squarely rest. more or less without regard or relation to the other claimants for this designation. Ellwood. each of them pur- porting to deal with the subject of social psychology without modification. it will help clear the ground for those more positive tendencies in the field which are today variously beginning to get under way here. Thus. know that each of these is again essentially distinct from both of the above as well as from each other.4 AMERICAN SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY find. Mead. And those who are acquainted also with the conceptions of Cooley. it is hoped that the development of American social-psychological thought will appear in significant per- spective in this treatment of the subject and that. who. in this country. that have prompted this work. An Introduction to Social Psychology. as it has frequently been pointed out. therefore.