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# Tool What does it do? Why use? When use? Data Type P < .

05 Picture Reference
indicates

## The 1-sample t-test is useful in identifying

a significant difference between a sample The 1-sample t-test is used with continuous
mean and a specified value when the data any time you need to compare a sample
Continuous Y,
1-Sample t-Test Compares mean to target difference is not readily apparent from mean to a specified value. This is useful when Not equal 1
graphical tools. Using the 1-sample t-test you need to make judgments about a process Discrete Xs
to compare data gathered before process based on a sample output from that process.
improvem

## ANOVA tests to see if the difference between the means

Use 1-way ANOVA when you need to compare At least one group
of each level is significantly more than the variation
One-way ANOVA is useful for identifying a three or more means (a single factor with three
within each level. 1-way ANOVA is used when two or Continuous Y, of data is different
1-Way ANOVA more means (a single factor with three or more levels)
statistically significant difference between or more levels) and determine how much of the 0
means of three or more levels of a factor. total observed variation can be explained by the Discrete Xs than at least one
must be compared with each other.
factor. other group.

## The 2-sample t-test is useful for identifying

When you have two samples of continuous There is a
a significant difference between means of
A statistical test used to detect differences between data, and you need to know if they both come Continuous Y,
2-Sample t-Test means of two populations.
two levels (subgroups) of a factor. It is also
from the same population or if they represent difference in the 0
extremely useful for identifying important Discrete Xs
two different populations means
Xs for a project Y.

## p-value < 0.05

indicate the data
is not normally
distributed.
A goodness-of-fit test that closely resembles the Anderson-Darling
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, except that it weights the Used to test the goodness-of-fit of a given Use this test when you need a better fit at the
Anderson-Darling Test differences between the two distributions at their tails distribution through a set of data. extreme tails of the distributions. Continuous Y value < 1.5
greater than at their mid-ranges. indicates a close
fit. A-squared
value will increase
for poorer fits of
data

## The General Linear Model allows you to

You can use ANOVA GLM any time you need to
ANOVA General Linear Model (GLM) is a statistical tool learn one form of ANOVA that can be used
identify a statistically significant difference in the At least one group
used to test for differences in means. ANOVA tests to for all tests of mean differences involving
mean of the dependent variable due to two or Continuous Y & all of data is different
ANOVA GLM see if the difference between the means of each level is two or more factors or levels. Because
more factors with multiple levels, alone and in
0
significantly more than the variation within each level. ANOVA GLM is useful for identifying the X's than at least one
combination. ANOVA GLM also can be used to
ANOVA GLM is used to test the effect of two or more factors (independent
quantify the amount
other group.
variable

## Tool used to determined opportunities for non-conformity

and estimated rework cost and hours per nonconformity;
Attribute Matrix This ultimately drives control charting because attribute 12.178
matrix helps determine where to look for potential non-
conformances

## Benchmarking is an important tool in the

Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a improvement of your process for several
company: Measures its performance or process against reasons. First, it allows you to compare Benchmarking can be done at any point in the
Benchmarking other companies' best in class practices, Determines your relative position for this product or Six Sigma process when you need to develop a all N/A 1
how those companies achieved their performance levels, service against industry leaders or other new process or improve an existing one
Uses the information to improve its own perf companies outside your industry who
perform simi

## Best Subsets is an efficient way to select a

group of "best subsets" for further analysis Typically used before or after a multiple-
Tells you the best X to use when you're comparing by selecting the smallest subset that fulfills regression analysis. Particularly useful in
Best Subsets multiple X's in regression assessment. certain statistical criteria. The subset model determining which X combination yields the Continuous X & Y N/A 0
may actually estimate the regression best R-sq value.
coefficients and predict future re
The goodness-of-
fit tests, with p-
values ranging
from 0.312 to
0.724, indicate
that there is
Binary logistic regression is useful in two
applications: analyzing the differences insufficient
Binary logistic regression is useful in two important Defectives Y / evidence for the
among discrete Xs and modeling the Generally speaking, logistic regression is used
applications: analyzing the differences among discrete
Binary Logistic Regression
Xs and modeling the relationship between a discrete
relationship between a discrete binary Y when the Ys are discrete and the Xs are Continuous & model not fitting 0
and discrete and/or continuous Xs. Binary continuous Discrete X the data
binary Y and discrete and/or continuous Xs.
logistic regression can be used to model
p-value is less
than your
accepted a level,
the test would
indicate sufficient
evidenc

You can use a box plot throughout an
A box plot is a basic graphing tool that displays the centering, spread, and distribution of your
improvement project, although it is most useful
centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous data data quickly. It is especially useful to view
in the Analyze phase. In the Measure phase
Box Plot set. In simplified terms, it is made up of a box and more than one box plot simultaneously to
you can use a box plot to begin to understand Continuous X & Y N/A 1 7.52
whiskers (and occasional outliers) that correspond to compare the performance of several
the nature of a problem. In the Analyze phase a
each fourth, or quartile, of the data processes such as the price quote cycle
between off

## If your data is not normally distributed, you may

used to find the mathematical function needed to Many tools require that data be normally
encounter problems in Calculating Z values with
translate a continuous but nonnormal distribution into a distributed to produce accurate results. If
continuous data. You could calculate an
Box-Cox Transformationnormal distribution. After you have entered your data, the data set is not normal, this may reduce
inaccurate representation of your process Continuous X & Y N/A 1
Minitab tells you what mathematical function can be significantly the confidence in the results
capability. In constructing control charts.... Your
applied to each of your data points to bri obtained.
process may appear more

## Brainstorming can be used any time you and

Brainstorming is helpful because it allows your team need to creatively generate
Brainstorming is a tool that allows for open and creative
your team to generate many ideas on a numerous ideas on any topic. You will use
Brainstorming thinking. It encourages all team members to participate
topic creatively and efficiently without brainstorming many times throughout your all N/A 0
and to build on each other's creativity
criticism or judgment. project whenever you feel it is appropriate. You
also may incorporate brainstorming into ot

Control phase to verify that your process
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual determine if your process is in control by
remains in control after the sources of special
number of defects in each subgroup. Unlike continuous determining whether special causes are
cause variation have been removed. The c Continuous X,
c Chart data control charts, discrete data control charts can present. The presence of special cause
chart is used for processes that generate N/A 0 12.150
monitor many product quality characteristics variation indicates that factors are Attribute Y
discrete data. The c chart monitors the number
simultaneously. For example, you could use a c cha influencing the output of your process.
of defects per sample taken from a
Eliminating the

## Tool to determine which groups or individuals

To insure project leader has identified key
CAP ARMI Model committment to project are needed for success. Lists
stakeholders for project
Define Step 0 C, pg 7
groups / individuals involved in process and defines roles

## An excellent organizing tool for newly-

G.R.P.I. Check List - This tool is based on a simple formed teams or for teams that have been
model for team formation. It challenges the team to underway for a while, but who have never
CAP GRPI Checklist consider four critical and interrelated aspects of taken time to look at their teamwork. Define All N/A Step 0 C, pg 13
teamwork: Goals, Roles, Processes and Interpersonal Ideally, this tool should be used at one of
relationships. It is invaluable in helping a gr the first team meetings. It can and should
be update

## This is a visual tool based on the analogy of a picture

Not as complex as SIPOC, but useful when
frame. It challenges the team to identify those aspects of
you feel there are many “boundary issues”
CAP In Out of Frame the project (the type and extent of end results or
facing the team (differences of opinion as
Define N/A Step 0 C, pg 8
deliverables, the people impacted, timing, product lines
to what is and isn’t in the scope of work).
impacted, sites involved, etc.)

## Encourages group participation. Increases

A group exercise used to establish scope and facilitate individual involvement and understanding
CAP Includes/Excludes discussion. Effort focuses on delineating project of team efforts. Prevents errant team Define all N/A 0
boundaries. efforts in later project stages (waste).
Helps to orient new team members.

## Helps to eliminate low priority projects.

Confirms management or stakeholder acceptance and
CAP Stakeholder Analysis
prioritization of Project and team efforts.
Insure management support and Defone all N/A 0

## Building the "case for change" is one of the

Threat vs. Opportunity Matrix - "Best Practice" first and most important tasks of the team.
organizations know how to frame the need for change as This simple tool helps the team discover
CAP Threat vs. more than a short-term threat. They work to find ways to how to frame the need for change more Define all N/A Step 0 C, pg 11
Opportunity Matrix frame the need as a threat and opportunity over both the broadly and perhaps break some old
short and long term. By doing so, they habits about change only as it applies to a
short-te
When describing a process, it is important
Capability analysis is used with continuous data
Capability analysis is a MinitabTM tool that visually to identify sources of variation as well as
whenever you need to compare actual process
compares actual process performance to the process segments that do not meet
performance to the performance standards. You
Capability Analysis performance standards. The capability analysis output performance standards. Capability analysis
can use this tool in the Measure phase to Continuous X & Y N/A 1
includes an illustration of the data and several is a useful tool because it illustrates the
describe process performance in statistical
performance statistics. The plot is a histogram with th centering and spread of your data in
terms. In the Improve phase, y
relation t

## A cause and effect diagram allows your

A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool that logically team to explore, identify, and display all of You can use the cause and effect diagram
organizes possible causes for a specific problem or the possible causes related to a specific whenever you need to break an effect down into
Cause and Effect Diagram
effect by graphically displaying them in increasing detail. problem. The diagram can increase in its root causes. It is especially useful in the all N/A 0
It is sometimes called a fishbone diagram because of its detail as necessary to identify the true root Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of the
fishbone shape. This shape cause of the problem. Proper use of the DMAIC process
tool

## At least one group

The chi square-test of independence is
The chi square-test of independence is a test of useful for identifying a significant difference
When you have discrete Y and X data (nominal is statistically
data in a table-of-total-counts format, shown in different. When
association (nonindependence) between discrete between count data for two or more levels
fig. 1) and need to know if the Y output counts discrete (category or
Chi Square--Test of Independence
variables. It is also referred to as the test of association. of a discrete variable Many statistical
differ for two or more subgroup categories (Xs), using Chi Square 0
It is based on a mathematical comparison of the number problem statements and performance count)
use the chi square test. If you have raw data to fit a distribution,
of observed counts against the expected nu improvement goals are written in terms of
reducing
(untotaled), you p > 0.5 reflects a
close fit.

## Control charts serve as a tool for the

In the Measure phase, use control charts to
Control charts are time-ordered graphical displays of ongoing control of a process and provide a
understand the performance of your process as
data that plot process variation over time. Control charts common language for discussing process
it exists before process improvements.
Control Charts are the major tools used to monitor processes to ensure performance. They help you understand
In the Analyze phase, control charts serve as a all N/A 0 12.102, 12.106
they remain stable. THEY HELP IN DETERMINING variation and use that knowledge to control
WHEN A SPECIAL CAUSE IS ACTING ON THE PR and improve your process. In addition,
sources of variation (Xs).
control char

Control Charts (2R - Allows you to assess control of two parameters (e.g., Use when you are controlling out-of-round,
12.211
Chart) roundness, flatness, etc...) flatness, etc... Issues.

## Charts used to monitor process control of attribute data.

Control Charts discrete (category or
Chart types include: u-chart, p-chart, c-chart and np- To analyze control of attribute data sets Control phase 12.15
(attribute) chart (dependent on constant lot size) count)

## Charts used to monitor process control of continuous

Control Charts data sets. Chart types include: I-MR charts and X-Bar / To analyze control of continuous data sets Control phase Continuous X&Y 12.11
(continuous) Range charts (dependent on high or low volume)

## Control Charts Monitors several parts from same process; measures

12.210
(process focused) deviation from nominal / target;
Control Plan 12.9
Failing to establish a data collection plan
can be an expensive mistake in a project.
Without a plan, data collection may be Any time data is needed, you should draft a
Data Collection Plan haphazard, resulting in insufficient, data collection plan before beginning to collect all N/A 0
unnecessary, or inaccurate information. it.
This is often called "bad" data. A data
collection p

## The design analysis spreadsheet can help

Partial derivative analysis is widely used in
The design analysis spreadsheet is an MS-Excel™ you improve, revise, and optimize your
product design, manufacturing, process
workbook that has been designed to perform partial design. It can also:Improve a product or
improvement, and commercial services during
derivative analysis and root sum of squares analysis. process by identifying the Xs which have
the concept design, capability assessment, and Continuous X & Y N/A 0
The design analysis spreadsheet provides a quick way the most impact on the response.Identify
creation of the detailed design.When the Xs are
to predict the mean and standard deviation of an the factors whose variability has the
known to be highly non-normal (
highest influe

## DOE uses an efficient, cost-effective, and

Design of experiment (DOE) is a tool that allows you to methodical approach to collecting and In general, use DOE when you want toIdentify
obtain information about how factors (Xs), alone and in analyzing data related to a process output and quantify the impact of the vital few Xs on
Continuous Y & all
Design of Experiment (DOE)
combination, affect a process and its output (Y). and the factors that affect it. By testing your process outputDescribe the relationship N/A 0 7.133+
Traditional experiments generate data by changing one more than one factor at a time, DOE is between Xs and a Y with a mathematical X's
factor at a time, usually by trial and able to identify all factors and combinations modelDetermine the best configuration
of

## Design scorecards can be used anytime that a

Design scorecards are a means for gathering data,
product or process is being designed or
predicting final quality, analyzing drivers of poor quality,
modified and it is necessary to predict defect
Design Scorecards and modifying design elements before a product is built.
levels before implementing a process. They can all N/A 0
This makes proactive corrective action possible, rather
be used in either the DMADV or DMAIC
than initiating reactive qualit
processes.

## The DDA method is an important tool

Use the DDA method after the project data
because it provides a method to
The Discrete Data Analysis (DDA) method is a tool used collection plan is formulated or modified and
independently assess the most common
to assess the variation in a measurement system due to before the project data collection plan is discrete (category or
Discrete Data Analysis Method
reproducibility, repeatability, and/or accuracy. This tool
types of measurement variation-
finalized and data is collected. Choose the N/A 0
repeatability, reproducibility, and/or count)
applies to discrete data only. DDA method when you have discrete data and
accuracy. Completing the DDA method will
you want to determine if the measur
ProcessModelTM is a process modeling Discrete event simulation is used in the Analyze
Discrete event simulation is conducted for processes and analysis tool that accelerates the phase of a DMAIC project to understand the
that are dictated by events at distinct points in time; each process improvement effort. It combines a Continuous Y,
behavior of important process variables. In the
Discrete Event Simulation (Process
occurrence ModelTM)
of an event impacts the current state of the simple flowcharting function with a Improve phase of a DMAIC project, discrete N/A 0
process. Examples of discrete events are arrivals of simulation process to produce a quick and Discrete Xs
event simulation is used to predict the
phone calls at a call center. Ti easy tool for documenting, analyzing, and performance of an existing proce
improving busines

Quick graphical comparison of two or more processes' Quick graphical comparison of two or more Comparing two or more processes' variation or Continuous Y,
Discrete Xs

## When new systems, products, and processes

A means / method to Identify ways a process can fail, Improves the quality, reliability, and safety
are being designed. When existing designs or
estimate th risks of those failures, evaluate a control of products. Helps to increase customer
processes are being changed. When carryover
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
plan, prioritize actions related to the process. Three satisfaction. Reduces product
designs/processes will be used in new all N/A 0
types: system (analyze systems early on), design development timing and cost. Documents
applications, or new environments. After
(analyze designs before production) and tracks actions taken to reduce risk.
completing a Problem Solving Study (to pre

## Gage R&R-ANOVA method is an important

Measure -Use Gage R&R-ANOVA method after
Gage R&R-ANOVA method is a tool used to assess the tool because it provides a method to
the project data collection plan is formulated or 3.29,
variation in a measurement system due to reproducibility independently assess the most common
modified and before the project data collection
Gage R & R--ANOVA Method
and/or repeatability. An advantage of this tool is that it types of measurement variation -
plan is finalized and data is collected. Choose Continuous X & Y 0 08_MSA_010199.
can separate the individual effects of repeatability and repeatability and reproducibility. This tool pps
the ANOVA method when you have continuous
data and you want to dete
variation from repeatabili

## Gage R&R-Short Method is an important

Use Gage R&R-Short Method after the project
Gage R&R-Short Method is a tool used to assess the tool because it provides a quick method of
data collection plan is formulated or modified 3.29,
variation in a measurement system due to the combined assessing the most common types of
and before the project data collection plan is
Gage R & R--Short Method
effect of reproducibility and repeatability. An advantage measurement variation using only five
finalized and data is collected. Choose the Continuous X & Y 0 08_MSA_010199.
of this tool is that it requires only two operators and five parts and two operators. Completing the pps
Gage R&R-Short Method when you have
continuous data and you believe the
determine whether the com

## GRPI is an excellent team-building tool and, as

GRPI is an excellent tool for organizing
such, should be initiated at one of the first team
newly formed teams. It is valuable in
meetings. In the DMAIC process, this generally
GRPI helping a group of individuals work as an
happens in the Define phase, where you create all N/A 0
effective team-one of the key ingredients to
success in a DMAIC project

## it is important to identify and control all Histograms can be used throughout an

A histogram is a basic graphing tool that displays the
sources of variation. Histograms allow you improvement project. In the Measure phase,
relative frequency or occurrence of data values-or which Continuous Y & all
to visualize large quantities of data that you can use histograms to begin to understand
Histogram data values occur most and least frequently. A histogram
would otherwise be difficult to interpret. the statistical nature of the problem. In the N/A 1
illustrates the shape, centering, and spread of data X's
They give you a way to quickly assess the Analyze phase, histograms can help you
distribution and indicates whethe
distribution of your data and the variat identify potential Xs that should be investi

## While large differences in variance (Use Levene's

There are two main reasons for using the
Homogeneity of variance is a test used to determine if between a small number of samples are Test) At least one
homogeneity of variance test:1. A basic
the variances of two or more samples are different, or detectable with graphical tools, the
assumption of many statistical tests is that the Continuous Y, group of data is
Homogeneity of Variance
not homogeneous. The homogeneity of variance test is homogeneity of variance test is a quick
variances of the different samples are equal.
1
a comparison of the variances (sigma, or standard way to reliably detect small differences in Discrete Xs different than at
Some statistical procedures, such as 2-sample
deviations) of two or more distributions. variance between large numbers of
least one other
samples. group

The presence of special cause variation The Measure phase to separate common
indicates that factors are influencing the causes of variation from special causesThe
The I-MR chart is a tool to help you determine if your
output of your process. Eliminating the Analyze and Improve phases to ensure process 12.133,12.142,12.
I-MR Chart process is in control by seeing if special causes are
influence of these factors will improve the stability before completing a hypothesis testThe Continuous X & Y N/A 1
present. 201
performance of your process and bring Control phase to verify that the process remains
your process into control in control after the sources of

## Use Kano analysis after a list of potential needs

Kano analysis is a customer research method for
Kano analysis provides a systematic, data- that have to be satisfied is generated (through,
classifying customer needs into four categories; it relies
based method for gaining deeper for example, interviews, focus groups, or
Kano Analysis on a questionnaire filled out by or with the customer. It
understanding of customer needs by observations). Kano analysis is useful when all N/A 0
helps you understand the relationship between the
classifying them you need to collect data on customer needs and
fulfillment or nonfulfillment of a need
prioritize them to f
Used most commonly when you are unsure of Kolmogorov-
A goodness-of-fit test, the result of which is essentially
Kolmogorov-Smirnov the largest vertical distance between the two cumulative Used to test the goodness-of-fit of a given the best distribution needed to characterize a
Smirnov < 0.03
distributions. Generally a value less than 0.03 indicates distribution through a set of data.
set of data. Crystal Ball has a builtin Continuous Y
Test distribution wizard that ranks distributions using indicates a good
a good fit.
this tool as one of the ranking methods. fit

non-parametric
At least one mean
Kruskal-Wallis Test Compare two or more means with unknown distributions (measurement or 0
is different
count)
Main-Effects / A useful plot in showing effect of one factor on another.
Determine dependancy between factors Used commonly in analyzing DOE results 7.86, 7.124
Interaction Plots The steeper the line, the more significant the effect.

Tool used for high-level look at relationships between Matrix plots can save time by allowing you Continuous Y & all
You should use matrix plots early in your
Matrix Plot several parameters. Matrix plots are often a first step at to drill-down into data and determine which
analyze phase. N/A
determining which X's contribute most to your Y. parameters best relate to your Y. X's

## You should use mistake proofing in the

Mistake proofing is an important tool Measure phase when you are developing your
Mistake-proofing devices prevent defects by preventing because it allows you to take a proactive data collection plan, in the Improve phase when
Mistake Proofing errors or by predicting when errors could occur. approach to eliminating errors at their you are developing your proposed solution, and all N/A 0 12.42
source before they become defects. in the Control phase when developing the
control plan.Mistake proofing is appr

## Performing a Monte Carlo analysis is one

Monte Carlo analysis is a decision-making and problem- way to understand the variation that
solving tool used to evaluate a large number of possible naturally exists in your process. One of the
Continuous Y & all
Monte Carlo Analysis scenarios of a process. Each scenario represents one ways to reduce defects is to decrease the N/A 0
possible set of values for each of the variables of the output variation. Monte Carlo focuses on X's
process and the calculation of thos understanding what variations exist in the
input

## Most products or processes, once

You should follow an MGPP in conjunction with
Multigenerational product/process planning (MGPP) is a introduced, tend to remain unchanged for
procedure that helps you create, upgrade, leverage, and many years. Yet, competitors, technology,
market process applied to MGPP usually takes
Multi-Generational Product/Process Planning
maintain a product or process in a way that can reduce and the marketplace-as personified by the
place over three or more generations. These all N/A 0
production costs and increase market share. A key ever more demanding consumer-change
generations cover the first three to five years of
element of MGPP is its ability to help constantly. Therefore, it makes good
product/process devel

You can use multiple regression during the
understand the relationship between the
Analyze phase to help identify important Xs and
method that enables you to determine the relationship process output (Y) and several factors (Xs)
during the Improve phase to define the A correlation is
Multiple Regression between a continuous process output (Y) and several that may affect the Y. Understanding this
optimized solution. Multiple regression can be Continuous X & Y 0
factors (Xs). relationship allows you to1. Identify detected
used with both continuous and discrete Xs. If
important Xs2. Identify the amount of
you have only discrete Xs, use A
variation explai

## A multi-vari chart enables you to see the

A multi-vari chart is a tool that graphically displays effect multiple variables have on a Y. It
patterns of variation. It is used to identify possible Xs or also helps you see variation within Continuous Y & all
Multi-Vari Chart families of variation, such as variation within a subgroup, subgroups, between subgroups, and over N/A 0
X's
between subgroups, or over time time. By looking at the patterns of variation,
you can identify or eliminate possible Xs

## Data does not

To determine the normality of data. To see
Normal Probability Plot Allows you to determine the normality of your data. if multiple X's exist in your data. cont (measurement) follow a normal 1
distribution

## There are two occasions when you should use

Many statistical tests (tests of means and a normality test:
A normality test is a statistical process used to determine
tests of variances) assume that the data 1. When you are first trying to characterize raw
if a sample, or any group of data, fits a standard normal
Normality Test distribution. A normality test can be done mathematically
being tested is normally distributed. A data, normality testing is used in conjunction cont (measurement) not normal 0
normality test is used to determine if that with graphical tools such as histograms and box
or graphically.
assumption is valid. plots.
2. When you are analyzing your data, and y

You will use an np chart in the Control phase to
determine if your process is in control by
verify that the process remains in control after Defectives Y /
a graphical tool that allows you to view the actual seeing if special causes are present. The
the sources of special cause variation have
np Chart number of defectives and detect the presence of special presence of special cause variation
been removed. The np chart is used for Continuous & N/A 1 12.170
causes. indicates that factors are influencing the Discrete X
processes that generate discrete data. The np
output of your process. Eliminating the
chart is used to graph the a
influence
Many businesses are successful for a brief
Out-of-the-box thinking is an approach to creativity
time due to a single innovation, while Root cause analysis and new product / process
Out-of-the-Box Thinkingbased on overcoming the subconscious patterns of continued success is dependent upon development all N/A 0
thinking that we all develop.
continued innovation

You will use a p chart in the Control phase to
a graphical tool that allows you to view the proportion of determine if your process is in control by
verify that the process remains in control after Defectives Y /
defectives and detect the presence of special causes. determining whether special causes are
the sources of special cause variation have
p Chart The p chart is used to understand the ratio of present. The presence of special cause
been removed. The p chart is used for Continuous & N/A 1 12.165
nonconforming units to the total number of units in a variation indicates that factors are Discrete X
processes that generate discrete data. The
sample. influencing the output of your process.
sample size for the p chart can va
Eliminating the

## . It is easy to interpret, which makes it a

A Pareto chart is a graphing tool that prioritizes a list of convenient communication tool for use by In the Define phase to stratify Voice of the
variables or factors based on impact or frequency of individuals not familiar with the project. The Customer data...In the Measure phase to
Pareto Chart occurrence. This chart is based on the Pareto principle, Pareto chart will not detect small stratify data collected on the project Y…..In the all N/A 0
which states that typically 80% of the defects in a differences between categories; more Analyze phase to assess the relative impact or
process or product are caused by advanced statistical tools are required in frequency of different factors, or Xs
such cas

As you examine your process in greater In the Define phase, you create a high-level
Process mapping is a tool that provides structure for detail, your map will evolve from the process map to get an overview of the steps,
defining a process in a simplified, visual manner by process you "think" exists to what "actually" events, and operations that make up the
Process Mapping displaying the steps, events, and operations (in exists. Your process map will evolve again process. This will help you understand the all N/A 0
chronological order) that make up a process to reflect what "should" exist-the process process and verify the scope you defined in

## provides an objective process for

The Pugh matrix is the recommended method
the tool used to facilitate a disciplined, team-based reviewing, assessing, and enhancing
for selecting the most promising concepts in the
process for concept selection and generation. Several design concepts the team has generated
Analyze phase of the DMADV process. It is
Pugh Matrix concepts are evaluated according to their strengths and with reference to the project's CTQs.
used when the team already has developed all N/A 0
weaknesses against a reference concept called the Because it employs agreed-upon criteria
several alternative concepts that potentially can
datum. The datum is the best current conc for assessing each concept, it becomes
meet the CTQs developed during
difficult for one team membe

## QFD drives a cross-functional discussion

QFD produces the greatest results in situations
a methodology that provides a flowdown process for to define what is important. It provides a
where1. Customer requirements have not been
CTQs from the highest to the lowest level. The flowdown vehicle for asking how products/services
clearly defined 2. There must be trade-offs
Quality Function Deployment
process begins with the results of the customer needs will be measured and what are the critical
between the elements of the business 3. There all N/A 0
mapping (VOC) as input. From that point we cascade variables to control processes.The QFD
are significant investments in resources
through a series of four Houses of Quality process highlights trade-offs between
required
conflictin

A correlation is
Reqression see Multiple Regression Continuous X & Y 0
detected

## Any time you make a change in a process,

In DMAIC, risk assessment is used in the
there is potential for unforeseen failure or
The risk-management process is a methodology used to Improve phase before you make changes in the
unintended consequences. Performing a
identify risks,analyze risks,plan, communicate, and process (before running a DOE, piloting, or
Risk Assessment implement abatement actions, andtrack resolution of
risk assessment allows you to identify
testing solutions) and in the Control phase to all N/A 0 IC.14
potential risks associated with planned
abatement actions. develop the control plan. In DMADV, risk
process changes and develop abatement
assessment is used in all phases of
actions to min

Identifies elements that can interfere with process Continuously to assess risk and abate; DMAIC
Risk Management improvement or cause loss of control; Process of and DFSS to assure improvement and control is 12.23
managing risk using risk abatement plan maintained

## RSS analysis is a quick method for

estimating the variation in system output Use RSS when you need to quantify the
Root sum of squares (RSS) is a statistical tolerance given the variation in system component variation in the output given the variation in
analysis method used to estimate the variation of a inputs. However, the following conditions must
Root Sum of Squares system output Y from variations in each of the system's
inputs, provided the system behavior can
be met in order to perform RSS analysis: 1. The Continuous X & Y N/A 0
be modeled using a linear transfer function
inputs Xs. inputs (Xs) are independent. 2. The transfer
with unit (± 1) coefficients. RSS can quickly
function is linear with coeffi
tell yo

## used in many phases of the DMAIC process.

A run chart is a graphical tool that allows you to view the The patterns in the run chart allow you to Consider using a run chart to 1. Look for
variation of your process over time. The patterns in the see if special causes are influencing your possible time-related Xs in the Measure phase
Run Chart run chart can help identify the presence of special cause process. This will help you to identify Xs 2. Ensure process stability before completing a cont (measurement) N/A 1
variation. affecting your process run chart. hypothesis test 3. Look at variation within a
subgroup; compare subgroup to s

## The calculation helps link allowable risk

The sample size calculator simplifies the use of the with cost. If your sample size is statistically
sample size formula and provides you with a statistical sound, you can have more confidence in
Sample Size Calculator basis for determining the required sample size for given your data and greater assurance that all N/A 1
resources spent on data collection efforts
levels of α and β risks
and/or planned improvements will not be
wasted

## a basic graphic tool that illustrates the relationship

between two variables.The variables may be a process Scatter plots are used with continuous and
output (Y) and a factor affecting it (X), two factors Useful in determining whether trends exist discrete data and are especially useful in the
Scatter Plot affecting a Y (two Xs), or two related process outputs between two or more sets of data. Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of all N/A 0
(two Ys). DMAIC projects.
indicate that there
is sufficient
Simple linear regression is a method that enables you to evidence that the
understand the relationship between the You can use simple linear regression during the
determine the relationship between a continuous coefficients are
process output (Y) and any factor that may Analyze phase to help identify important Xs and
Simple Linear Regression
process output (Y) and one factor (X). The relationship is
affect it (X). Understanding this relationship during the Improve phase to define the settings Continuous X & Y 0
typically expressed in terms of a mathematical equation, not zero for likely
will allow you to predict the Y, given a needed to achieve the desired output.
such as Y = b + mX, where Y is the
value of X. This is especially useful when
Type I error rates
(a levels)... SEE
MINITAB

Simulation is used in the Analyze phase of a
Simulation is a powerful analysis tool used to experiment interactions and specific problems in an
DMAIC project to understand the behavior of
with a detailed process model to determine how the existing or proposed process 2. Develop a
important process variables. In the Improve
Simulation process output Y will respond to changes in its structure, realistic model for a process 3. Predict the
phase of a DMAIC project, simulation is used to all N/A 0
inputs, or surroundings Xs. Simulation model is a behavior of the process under different
predict the performance of an existing process
computer model that describes relatio conditions 4. Optimize process
under different conditions
performance

## A Six Sigma process report, used with

It helps you compare the performance of continuous data, helps you determine process
A Six Sigma process report is a Minitab tool that Continuous Y & all
your process or product to the capability for your project Y. Process capability
Six Sigma Process Report
provides a baseline for measuring improvement of your performance standard and determine if is calculated after you have gathered your data N/A 0
product or process X's
technology or control is the problem and have determined your performance
standards

## used with discrete data, helps you determine

It helps you compare the performance of
process capability for your project Y. You would
your process or product to the Continuous Y,
Six Sigma Product Report
calculates DPMO and process short term capability
performance standard and determine if
calculate Process capability after you have N/A 0
technology or control is the problem
performance standards.

Uses control charts to monitor X(s) and quickly detect
changes in process due to special cause variation
proofed or easily control within the required 12.21, 12.102
Process Control) tolerance range;

## Regression tool that filters out unwanted X's based on

Stepwise Regression specified criteria. Continuous X & Y N/A 0

## A tree diagram is helpful when you want to 1.

Relate a CTQ to subprocess elements (Project
A tree diagram is a tool that is used to break any concept Useful in organizing information into logical
CTQs) 2. Determine the project Y (Project Y) 3.
Tree Diagram (such as a goal, idea, objective, issue, or CTQ) into categories. See "When use?" section for
Select the appropriate Xs (Prioritized List of All all N/A 0
subcomponents, or lower levels of detail. more detail
Xs) 4. Determine task-level detail for a solution
to be implement

You will use a u chart in the Control phase to
determine if your process is in control by
verify that the process remains in control after
A u chart, shown in figure 1, is a graphical tool that determining whether special causes are
the sources of special cause variation have
u Chart allows you to view the number of defects per unit present. The presence of special cause
been removed. The u chart is used for N/A 1 12.159
sampled and detect the presence of special causes variation indicates that factors are
processes that generate discrete data. The u
influencing the output of your process.
chart monitors the number of def
Eliminating the

## Each VOC tool provides the team with an

You can use VOC tools at the start of a project
organized method for gathering information
The following tools are commonly used to collect VOC to determine what key issues are important to
from customers. Without the use of
data: Dashboard ,Focus group, Interview, Scorecard, the customers, understand why they are
Voice of the Customer and Survey.. Tools used to develop specific CTQs and
structured tools, the data collected may be
important, and subsequently gather detailed all N/A 0
incomplete or biased. Key groups may be
associated priorities. information about each issue. VOC tools can
also be used whenever you need add
information m

## Worst case analysis tells you the minimum

You should use worst case analysis : To
and maximum limits within which your total
A worst case analysis is a nonstatistical tolerance analyze safety-critical Ys, and when no process
product or process will vary. You can then
analysis tool used to identify whether combinations of data is available and only the tolerances on Xs
Worst Case Analysis inputs (Xs) at their upper and lower specification limits
compare these limits with the required
are known. Worst case analysis should be all N/A 0
specification limits to see if they are
always produce an acceptable output measure (Y). used sparingly because it does not take into
acceptable. By testing these limits in
account the probabilistic nature

The presence of special cause variation Xbar-R charts can be used in many phases of
indicates that factors are influencing the the DMAIC process when you have continuous
The Xbar-R chart is a tool to help you decide if your
output of your process. Eliminating the data broken into subgroups. Consider using an 12.115, EX.
Xbar-R Chart process is in control by determining whether special
influence of these factors will improve the Xbar-R chart· in the Measure phase to separate Continuous X & Y N/A 1
causes are present. 12.118, 12.141
performance of your process and bring common causes of variation from special
your process into control causes,· in the Analyze and Improve

An Xbar-S chart can be used in many phases of
An Xbar-S chart, or mean and standard deviation chart, determine if your process is in control by
the DMAIC process when you have continuous
is a graphical tool that allows you to view the variation in seeing if special causes are present. The
data. Consider using an Xbar-S chart……in the
Xbar-S Chart your process over time. An Xbar-S chart lets you perform presence of special cause variation
Measure phase to separate common causes of Continuous X & Y N/A 1
statistical tests that signal when a process may be going indicates that factors are influencing the
variation from special causes, in the Analyze
out of control. A proces output of your process. Eliminating the
and Improve phases to ensure pr
influence of