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The sum of ox #s of all atoms in a neutral compound is 0. The Solvent-dissolver Sum of the ox # in a polyatomic ion equals the charge of the ion Solute- dissolves in the solvent Displacement Reactions- A+BX → AX+B Electrolyte- contains ions&conducts electricity Activity Series- Any metal can be oxidized by the ions of elements below it. Strong Electrolytes strong acids: HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, and H2SO4 strong bases: NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2 salts: NaCl, KBr, MgCl2, and many, many more Weak Electrolytes weak acids:HF, HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3 (carbonic acid), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), and many more weak bases: NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and several more, all containing "N" Non-electrolyte- doesn't ionize&can't conduct electricity Ionic Compounds- dissolve well in water Molecular Compounds-do not ionize, non-electrolytes Precipitation Reactions- reactions that form an insoluble product Precipitate- an insoluble solid formed by a reaction in solution
Molarity- measure of concentration of a solution; Molarity=moles solute/volume of solution in liters
Solubility- the amount of the substance that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent Exchange (Metathesis) Reactions- AX+BY → AY+BX Molecular Equation-Complete chemical formula of products and reactants Complete Ionic Equations- all soluble strong electrolytes are shown as ions Spectator Ions- ions that, when the equation is broken down, are present but play no role in the reaction Net Ionic Equation- Complete ionic minus the spectator ions Balanced Net Ionic- Sum of charges on either side is equal Summary 1. Write a balanced molecular equation for the reaction 2. Rewrite the equation to show the ions that form in solution when each soluble strong electrolyte dissociates or ionizes into its component ions. Only dissolved strong electrolytes are written in ionic form. 3. Identify and cancel spectator ions that occur on both sides of the equation. Neutralization Reactions- Acid+Base → Salt+ H20 Acids- taste sour, are corrosive to metals, change litmus red, and become less acidic when mixed with bases. Bases- feel slippery, change litmus blue, and become less basic when mixed with acids. Oxidation- more + charged, loses e-, Metal+O2 → metal oxide, + in ox # Reduction- more – charged, gains e-, - in ox # Redox Reactions- transfer of eOxidation Number- the actual charge of the atom if it were monatomic 1. For an atom in elemental form, the ox # is always zero 2. For any monatomic ion, the ox. # equals the charge of the ion 3. Nonmetals usually have negative ox #s 4. The ox # of oxygen is usually -2 5. The ox # of Hydrogen is usually +1 when bonded tonon metals and -1 when bonded to metals 6. The ox # of Fluorine is -1