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Bus Rollover Analysis In addition to standard Finite Element Analysis (FEA) applications
using CAE tools such as ANSYS, TEMSA drew up and carried out a
with LS-DYNA project in cooperation with CADFEM GmbH and TÜV Süddeutsch-
land in Germany which aimed to perform regulatory bus rollover
This project, initiated by the TechNet Alliance analyses.
members FIGES and CADFEM, is a perfect
example for a cost-effective solution by a “vir- A rollover event is one of the most crucial hazards for the safety
of passengers and bus drivers. In past years it was observed that
tual company“ in a network. FIGES acted as focus
the deforming body structure seriously threatened passengers’
point to the customer and managed the project. lives. Today, European regulation “ECE R66” is in force to prevent
CADFEM trained the customer in using LS-DYNA, the catastrophic consequences of such rollover accidents from
supervised the project and selected the certifica- occurring and thereby ensuring passenger safety for buses and
tion agency TÜV Süddeutschland. Lasso provided coaches. According to said regulations, certification can be obtai-
ned either by full-scale vehicle testing, or by numerical simulation.
consultation in proper application of the ECE
The bending deformation enables scientists to investigate whe-
regulation. ther there is any intrusion in the passenger survival space (residual
space) along the entire vehicle.

TEMSA A.S., an important bus and coach manufacturer from The non-linear explicit dynamics code LS-DYNA (solver) and
TURKEY, is currently embarking on high-technology CAE pro- ANSA software (crash FEA pre-processor) were purchased to use
jects in cooperation with well known European CAE consulting throughout the bus rollover analysis project. Based on a compre-
companies. hensive agreement made between CADFEM GmbH, Figes Ltd.
and TEMSA which included software sales, on-the-job training,
TEMSA´s production facilities are located in the city of Adana in consultancy, testing and certification, two FEA engineers from
Turkey, and set out over a surface area of 400.000 square meters, TEMSA were assigned to start on-the-job training under the
including 58.500 square meters of covered areas. TEMSA’s annual close supervision of highly skilled staff in the CADFEM GmbH
output target is 1.250 coaches, 1.500 midi-buses and 13.000 premises in Germany and perform rollover analyses on the
trucks. TEMSA offers new markets and customers the skills of its TOURMALIN 12.8 vehicle.
qualified workforce and advantageously low production costs.
During the first stage, the verification of the calculation pro-
cedure following regulation ECE R66 was performed. Two
separate specimens (breast knot + roof edge knot extracted
from the vehicle) were prepared and sent to TÜV Automotive
for experimental investigations. These parts were subjected to
specific boundary conditions and quasi-static loads at TÜV’s
testing facility. The same test scenarios were simulated by using
LS-DYNA. Force-deflection curves both for the experiment and
simulation were compared, and it was observed that there was
As one of the largest, independent bus and coach producers in a good correlation between experiment and simulation. The
the world, with the advent of globalization TEMSA inevitably saw verification by calculation is a compulsory requirement of the
the need to integrate its product line with some of the world’s lea- regulation, as it is the technical service’s responsibility (TÜV Süd-
ding component manufacturers. TEMSA collaborates with highly deutschland in this case) to verify the assumptions used in the
esteemed European consultants in an effort to further expand its numerical analysis.
horizons through the continuous development and innovation of
its range of vehicles. The FEA model of the full vehicle comprised 589.250 first order
explicit shell elements, 338 beam elements and 114.605 mass
If its aim is to offer coach-manufacturing solutions tailored to cli- elements. Element length was assigned as 10 mm in both criti-
32 ents’ specific needs, a manufacturing company must have a ver- cal regions (a verified assumption resulting from the verification
satile, high quality production capability, as well as state-of-the-art of calculation) and up to 40 mm was used for those under the
technology and in-depth design experience. These are TEMSA’s floor (lower structure-chassis). The number of elements per pro-
main achievements. TEMSA is currently determined
to focus on achieving customer satisfaction, and
continue along its path of success by confidently
improving, innovating and developing its vehicles.

Owing to these ambitious goals, TEMSA began

using CAE technologies for its product develop-
ment activities making investments in software,
hardware and human resources.
Result plots of rollover analysis of entire bus.

LS-DYNA Case Study


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Testing and simulation results of a roof component show high correlation.

file width was at least 3 for the upper structure; the number of The total energy according to the formula indicated in the ECE
elements per width was 4 for sidewall pillars which are significant R66 regulation was as follows:
for rollover deformation. E*= 0.75 Mgh (Nm) was applied to the structure by a rotational
Tension tests were carried out on several specimens at TÜV velocity to all the parts of the vehicle. h is the vertical distance
Süddeutschland facilities in order to obtain material data. The between the vehicle CoG at free fall position, and the vehicle CoG
true stress-strain curves were obtained and imposed in LS-DYNA which is kinematically rotated up to the ground contact position.
accordingly. The material model for the deformable structure in The hardware resources utilized were 2 PCs running with Linux
LS-DYNA is the so-called “MAT Type 24, Piecewise Linear Iso- Suse O/S for the generation of FE mesh in ANSA Software, and a
tropic Plasticity model”. This is an elastic model made of plastic LINUX cluster with 6 XEON processors (to perform the solutions)
which applies the Young’s Modulus if the stress is lower than located in CADFEM GmbH‘s premises in Grafing near Munich.
the yield stress, and measured stress-strain-curves if the stress is
greater than the yield stress. Rigid parts (engine, gear box, fuel The multiple analyses were carried out until the final design which
tank, axles, etc) are modeled using the so-called “Rigid Material, met the requirements of the ECE R66 regulation was eventually
MAT Type 20”. “MAT Type 9, Null Material” was used to define obtained. The entire project was supervised by TÜV and certifi-
the survival space (residual space). cation granted to TEMSA’s TOURMALIN 12.8 following a final
meeting in Germany.
Upon completion of the mesh generation of the bare structure,
masses were imposed according to a structured methodology. The simulation project was initiated in CADFEM GmbH subsi-
Firstly, a list of TOURMALIN Vehicle masses was prepared. The diaries in Chemnitz and Leinfelden, Germany and continued at
engine, gearbox and fuel tank were roughly 3D modeled as TEMSA A.S. in Adana, Turkey. The final stage, and the simulations
rigid parts. Inertias were calculated analytically, and mass and in LS DYNA were performed in Chemnitz. Both CADFEM GmbH
inertia were imposed on a representative node (on the appro- and TEMSA A.S. were consulted by LASSO Ingenieurgesellschaft
ximate center of gravity points for the relevant part) of these mbH and TÜV Süddeutschland during the various stages of the
parts. The axles were modeled using rigid truss elements and project.
the mass and inertias imposed using the same method. The
fixed masses were imposed by using mass elements. The dis- Finally, very special thanks go to the CADFEM GmbH staff, espe-
tributed masses were imposed by changing the density of the cially Dr. Ulrich Stelzmann for his patience, dedication, expertise,
related region. and effort during the entire duration of the project. Also many
The “Center of Gravity (CoG)” of the vehicle was measured by special thanks to Dr. Ulrich Hindenlang of LASSO and Mr. Franz
test in TEMSA. The measured values were in a good agreement Bartl of TÜV Süddeutschland for their precious, constructive coo-
with the ones coming from the FEA model. To exactly match the peration.
measured and calculated CoGs, the CoGs of engine, gearbox and
the axles were fine tuned in the FEA model.
When it came to the definition of survival space, the statement Kadir Elitok, FEA Engineer TEMSA A.S.
Fatih Han Avci, FEA Engineer TEMSA A.S.
in the regulation ECE R66 was used to form the basis of the
survival space model. It was introduced 500 mm above the
floor, under the passengers’ feet, 300 mm away from the inside
surface of the side of the vehicle, throughout the entire vehicle
Crash Analysis with LS-DYNA
(trim lengths were also considered and added to these values).
Dr. Ulrich Stelzmann, CADFEM GmbH
The model of the survival space consists in rigid beam frames in
each section (10 sections), rigidly mounted in the hard region
LS-DYNA (international sites)
under the floor. There is no stiffness connection between these .
rigid beam frames as these shell elements are modeled using
Figes (LS-DYNA distributor in Turkey)
“Null material”, for visual purposes only.
TÜV Süddeutschland
At the final stage, non-linear explicit dynamic solutions were per-
formed in LS-DYNA software.

LS-DYNA Case Study

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