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, ndhraPrad ?, Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: [ n d r pr d e ] ( listen)), abbreviated A.P., is a state situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city is Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajahmundry,Kakinada, Guntur, Warangal and Tirupati are other major cities. The State has the second longest coastline 972 km (604 mi) among all the States in India. The official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu, while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Kannada, Urdu, English, Tamil, and Hindi. Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state. On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu-speaking areas of
Hyderabad State and the Telugu-speaking part of the Madras Presidency.
History An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as AitareyaBrahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata (400 BCE). The NatyaShastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions the Andhra people. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Gunturdistrict and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE. Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer, who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322 297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants. Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time. Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra(Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as his capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".
Kakatiya sculpture at Warangal The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, AnandaGotrikas, Rashtrakutas, Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land. During this period Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries) who ruled from their capital city of Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler RajarajaNarendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE. The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323
The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad. was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India.. Delhi SultanGhiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and capture Warangal. Meanwhile. In 1347 CE. MusunuriNayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. .. one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India. and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954. the Bahmani Sultanate. the Vijayanagara Empire. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948. In Colonial India. in the Godavari delta. Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad had ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Inspired by their success. an independent Muslim state.  20th and 21st centuries India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The QutbShahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. was founded by Harihara and Bukka. who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. the French had occupied Yanam. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. CE.
N..  Geography and climate . In an effort to gain an independent state and protect the interests of the Andhra people of Madras State. headed by B. PottiSreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Hyderabad state with the Teluguspeaking areas of the former Madras state to form the state of Andhra Pradesh.. it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would be introduced to the state assembly. There were several movements to separate Telangana and Andhra starting in the 1960s. The committee is scheduled to submit its report by the end of 2010. Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad City. part of one of the ten districts of Telangana region. the former capital of the Hyderabad State. On 9 December 2009. to guide the central government to settle the issue of Telangana amicably. The Government of India appointed a committee. was made the capital of the new state. Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953. with Kurnool as its capital. This agitated supporters of a separate Telangana state. On 1 November 1956. the Central Government[who?] conducted a meeting by inviting all the recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue. Srikrishna. This move was opposed by protesters from Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. On 23 December 2009. On 5 January 2010. After his death. The city of Hyderabad. the government decided to put the decision of bifurcating the state on hold until a consensus is achieved among the different political parties.
Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme . Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterusroseus) taking off Pocharam lake The railroad bridge between Rajahmundry and Kovvur Geographically. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The KadapaBasin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral rich area. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. Krishna.. It is the fourth largest state in India.. and Penner rivers. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari.
Rajahmundry which is situated on the banks of Godavari River. along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad. Summers last from March to June. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. Hyderabad is the capital and. while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau. with temperature ranging between 20°C and 41°C. The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably. is the fourth largest city. is the largest city in the state. November. is the second largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. Due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes. The range of winter temperature is generally 12°C to 30°C. where shrub vegetation is more common. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which. January. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. December. Other important .. along with the Northeast Monsoon. The state receives heavy rainfall during these months. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests.. Andhra Pradesh's main seaport. July to September is the season for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Vijayawada is a major trading center and the third largest city. depending on the geographical region. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions. north of the coast. In the coastal plain the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state. and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatnam.
and Eluru. cotton. Penna.. sugarcane.910 1985 152.660 . and Thungabhadra flow through the state. the world's highest masonry dam. cities and towns are Kakinada.Tirupati. GDP by year Year State GDP ( MM) 1980 81.. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development. Narsapuram. Nizamabad. and tobacco are the local crops. Tenali. crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. Krishna. providing irrigation. Warangal. the Godavari. mango. Ongole. Kurnool. Recently. Guntur. Rice. Economy Main articles: Economy of Andhra Pradesh and Software industry in Andhra Pradesh Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Chili pepper. Karimnagar. Bhimavaram. Srikakulam. including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and NagarjunaSagar Dam. Anantapur. Four important rivers of India. Machilipatnam. Nellore. Nirmal.
3% every year.540 2000 1.[not in citation given] The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.5 billion) in 2006 2007. The IT exports reached 190.360 1995 798.000 million ($4.610 Cyber Towers at Hyderabad The state has started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. 1990 333. In 2004 2005.294. The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force.401. Andhra Pradesh was at the fifth position in the list of top IT exporting states of India... Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth.8 billion). The state capital of Hyderabad is considered to be the bulk drug capital of the country. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves. 50% of the top 10 companies in the pharmaceutical field are from the state.700 million in 2004 2005 ($1. The IT exports from the state were 82. contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India.190 2007 2. estimated at .
Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2005 was estimated at $62 billion in current prices. and fourth in per capita GSDP among the major states of India.  Government and politics Main articles: Government of Andhra Pradesh. about 30 billion tonnes.Guntur. Tirupathi.Kakinada. (August 2010) . The state ranks third in terms of Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union. Vijayawada. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation with a national market share of over 11%. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum.Warangal. Rajamahendravaram. The state ranks fourth in terms of overall GSDP.. and List of Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh This section needs additional citations for verification.Kurnool. The state has a large amount of coal reserves. Politics of Andhra Pradesh. Visakhapatanam.. Major citiesHyderabad. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
N. S. KotlaVijayaBhaskara Reddy. and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. 31 members are elected from the assembly. N. 31 members are elected from local bodies. NarasimhaRao served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973. Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. N. In the Parliament of India Andhra Pradesh has 18 in the RajyaSabha. NedurumalliJanardhana Reddy. KasuBrahmananda Reddy. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). V. NarasimhaRao. the Lower House. Y. . the Upper House. eight members are elected from graduates. upper house) of 90 members. lower house) of 294 seats. TanguturiAnjaiah. P. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was NeelamSanjiva Reddy.. Kiran Kumar Reddy . V. BhavanamVenkatarami Reddy. and a VidhanParishad (legislative council. KonijetiRosaiah and N.Chandrababu Naidu. JalagamVengalaRao. who later served as President of India. MarriChenna Reddy. Rama Rao. and went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. NadendlaBhaskaraRao. T. Andhra Pradesh has a VidhanSabha (legislative assembly.. The Andhra Pradesh State Legislative Assembly at the centre of Hyderabad City. P. Rajasekhara Reddy. The notable chief ministers of the state are TanguturiPrakasam. and 42 in the LokSabha. DamodaramSanjivayya. eight members are elected from teachers.
the CPI. NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N. The governor Thakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma.. A few months after the election. with the INC party returning to power with MarriChenna Reddy at the helm. They failed to hold control later and became defunct. The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR. NTR was reinstated as Chief Minister. In the 1967 state assembly elections all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status.G. Andhra Pradesh High Court at Hyderabad. the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.T. N. Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi was made Prime Minister by President Giani Jail Singh. In 1978 JalagamVengalRao and KasuBrahmananda Reddy formed the Reddy Congress and contested against Congress (I) but lost. In the ensuing elections for LokSabha and the AP Assembly. After coming back. Ranga'sSwatantra Party became the Opposition Party. along with socialist parties. the main judicial body for the State Until 1967. NadendlaBhaskaraRao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment.. He was replaced by . Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time. played an important role as opposition parties. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections.
.. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and LokSabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. TRS. S. S. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent Congress Party and its allies. usurped power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. Nara Chandrababu Naidu. and with its allies won 226 seats. Y. Congress on its own won 185 seats in 294 assembly. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister. and NTR became the chief minister again. Rosaiah submitted his resignation on the grounds of increased work pressure. the son-in-law of NTR. who was replaced by KotlaVijayaBhaskara Reddy in 1992. he survived the attack. In 1994. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Y. Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again. Culture  Cultural institutions . There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi. On 24 November 2010. NallariKiran Kumar Reddy was sworn in as the new CM on the following day. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the PrajaRajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP. KonijetiRosaiah. Janardhan Reddy in 1990. became the Chief Minister of AP on 3 September 2009. a senior statesman and former State Finance Minister. CPI and CPM.
and the Visakha Museum in Visakhapatnam. paintings. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures. which displays the history of the pre-Independence Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in NagarjunaSagar. including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites. the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics. weapons. paintings. Andhra Pradesh has many museums. an artificial lake that formed after the construction of NagarjunaSagar Dam. and religious artifacts. cutlery and inscriptions..  Cuisine Main article: Andhra cuisine .. idols. which features a varied collection of sculptures.
chicken. vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala) into a variety of strongly flavored dishes such as Nellore fish curry. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes. and traditions. Avakaya (mango) is probably the best known of the Andhra pickles. caste. mango brinzal curry. rice is either boiled and eaten with curry. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. and fish are the most widely used meats in the nonvegetarian dishes.. Meat.  Dance . brinjals (eggplant). are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. called pachchadi in Telugu. Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish called attu (pesarattu is made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas. and roselle (GunturGongura).. a crepe filled with black beans or lentils. Biriyani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular dish of Hyderabadi cuisine. and GunturuGongurapachadi. Typically. Lamb. It is rich and aromatic. Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. There are many variations to the Andhra cuisine (all involving rice) depending on geographical regions. Hyderabad biryani served with other Indian dishes The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisines. Pickles and chutneys. with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter).
Kuchipudi. JayapaSenani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Dhimsa. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are ChenchuBhagotham. Jaanapadam is a popular folk dance. the traditional dance of Andhra Pradesh Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women. Kolattam and chindu. Dappu. Burrakatha. Kuchipudi. Bhamakalapam. Buttabommalu.. Lambadi. women tend to learn it more often. TappetaGullu. Festivals . Bonalu.. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise NrutyaRatnavali. Veeranatyam. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form.
Bakr-Id. nine days after Ugadi Bonalu Celebrated in Telengana Region only in the month of July/August NagulaChavithi in August VaralakshmiVratham in August Rakhipoornima in August VinayakaChavithi in August/September Dasara in September/October Deepavali in October/November. This section does not cite any references or sources. 20 days after Dasara Eidul-Fitr. Milad-un-Nabi Bonalu (Celebrated in Telangana region) y y y y y y y y . date varies according to the Islamic calendar Sankranthi in January MahaShivaratri in February/March Holi in March Ugadi or the Telugu New Year in March/April Sri Rama Navami celebrated in March/April... Muharram. (September 2009) y y y y y y y Day of Ashura. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Vaikuntapali. the earliest know Telugu author. Vamagunatalu. TokkuduBilla. and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. The major outdoor game played is cricket. Yedupenkulata. 11th century AD). GavaluAataa. Achenagandlu and RamuduSita are indoor games played by children and elders. Gotilu.AshtaChamma. KothiKommachi. BommeraPothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMadMahaBhagavatamu. was patronized by the king RajarajaNarendra who ruled from . GootiBilla. NaluguRalluAata. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Tikkana. authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit.  Literature This section does not cite any references or sources. Indoor board games include PuliJoodam. y Batukamma celebrated for nine days during Durgastami (called as Navratri Dasara in Telangana region) Chhat Puja is celebrated by people who come from Bihar. and ChinthaGinjalluAataa. NaluguStambhalata. Nannayya (c... Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham. KhoKho. Goleelu. Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh y  Games Main article: Traditional games of Andhra Pradesh Outdoor games include GujjanaGoollu. Carroms. and Nela-Banda. Gilli-danda. (September 2009) Main article: Telugu literature Nannayya. Kabaddi. Dahdi.
C. is notable for his philosophical poems. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature. He received the KalidasSamman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government. The West Bengal Government conferred on him the title Rashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Seshendra's first work in print appeared in 1952.. Telugu literature after KandukuriVeeresalingam (1848 1919) is termed modern literature. Narayana Reddy. Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. Seshendra's first collection of prose-poems SeshaJyotsna. . Jnanpith Award winners include Sri ViswanathaSatyaNarayana and Dr. Known as GadyaTikkana. Its translations into Hindi and Urdu appeared separately. His magnum opus was NaaDesham. Initially he focused on poetry and occasionally worked on literary criticism. MeriDharti. The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana. Other modern writers include GunturuSeshendraSarma. Mere Log). and he won the Central SahityaAkademi fellowship in 1999. a native of Kadapa. SatyavathiCharitam. It led to his nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004. My People. NaaPrajalu (My Country. SatyavathiCharitam was the author Telugu-language social novel. which is based upon the Persian Epic Shahnama. the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore. It is the translation of Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum.. He composed it strictly conforming to Telugu prosody which was published in 1972 in Telugu and English.
Forms such as the Burrakatha and Poli are still performed today.  Movies Main article: Telugu Cinema Andhra Pradesh has around 3. It has around 40% (330 out of 930) of the Dolby Digital theatres in India. Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Tollywood produces the largest number of movies in India per year.  Music Main article: Music of Andhra Pradesh Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya. Tyagaraja. Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include SrirangamSreenivasarao. The local film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers. .. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and Sri M. SyamaSastri and BhadrachalaRamadasu were of Telugu descent. The state produces about 200 movies a year. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and PandurangaMahatyam.. GurramJashuva. ChinnayaSuri.300 cinema halls. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent. Kshetrayya. It houses an IMAX theatre which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007: the Prasads IMAX. ShriPuttaparthiNarayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. ViswanathaSatyanarayana and VadderaChandidas.
(July 2010) Indian School of Business . Mother Meera. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references.  Religion Andhra Pradesh is home to Hindu saints of all castes.. An important backward-caste figure is Saint Yogi Sri PotuluriVirabrahmendra Swami. Fisherman Raghu was a Shudra saint. Sri Sivabala YogiMaharaj who advocates religious unity in worship. and BrahmarshiSubhashPatri. who runs an ashram in Madanapalle. These include Nimbarka.. founder of the pyramid spiritual societies movement Education This section needs additional citations for verification. Saint Kakkayya was a chura (sweeper) Harijan saint. Swami SundaraChaitanyanandaji of the Aurobindo Mission. who founded Dvaitadvaita. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Sri SathyaSai Baba. Several important Hindu modern-day saints are from Andhra Pradesh. He was born in the Vishwabrahmin (goldsmith) caste and had Brahmin and Harijan disciples.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Hyderabad. The state has recently made strides in setting up several institutes. with first degrees and postgraduate awards available. Andhra Pradesh is home to the Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad. The student to teacher ratio in higher education is 19:1..5%. engineering. Also Georgia Institute of . the Nalsar University of Law. The Institute specializes in teaching and research in Information Technology and other emerging disciplines under the control of a common university Governing Council and following a common syllabus. science. Andhra Pradesh has 1. The National Institute of Fashion Technology and The Institute of Hotel Management. humanities. Andhra Pradesh has an overall literacy rate of 80. The male literacy rate is 70. Advanced research is conducted in all major areas. National Institute of Technology NIT Warangal. University of Hyderabad and the Indian School of Business (ISB). All major arts. Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition (NIFT) are also located in Hyderabad. and veterinary science are offered. medicine. According to the 2001 census.000 MBA and MCA colleges. and one Indian Institute of Technology (in Hyderabad). 1. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies (RGUKT) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Andhra Pradesh.330 arts. Birla Institute of Technology and Science (Hyderabad Campus). business. Andhra Pradesh is served by more than 20 institutes of higher education. 847 engineering colleges.International Institute of Information Technology..3% and the female literacy rate is 67.4%. 53 medical colleges. law. Hyderabad (IIIT-H). science and commerce colleges.
T. RangaAgril. University. Rama Rao.Sri Venkateswara University. Rama Rao the University was named after him as NTR University of Health Sciences. Technology. is in the process of setting up their campus in Hyderabad.Sri Krishnadevaraya University.PottiSreeramulu Telugu University.Andhra University.T. After the death of its founder Sri N.. 6 of the Andhra Pradesh legislature and was inaugurated in 1986 by the late Sri N. then Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh. The Andhra Pradesh University of Health Sciences was established by Act.Osmania University.No. to serve their people across Andhra Pradesh.Acharya N. Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University..Nagarjuna University.G. The Government of Andhra Pradesh has established the first University of Health Sciences.  Newspapers and journals Andhra Pradesh has several Telugu-language newspapers: y y y y y Andhra Bhoomi Andhra Jyothy Andhra Prabha Eenadu Islamic Voice . Apart from this Andhra Pradesh was home to many more top class university's like English and Foreign Languages University. fulfilling the recommendations of several committees.Kakatiya University.
including: y y y y y The Business Line The Economic Times The Deccan Chronicle The Hindu The New Indian Express ... y y y y y y Prajasakti Sakshi Magazine Suryaa Vaartha Visalandra Namaste Telangana Andhra Pradesh's Urdu-language newspapers include : y y y y y y Awam Itimad Urdu Daily Rehnuma-e-Deccan Siasat Daily The Milap Daily The Munsif Daily There are several English-language newspapers in Andhra Pradesh.
. y The Times of India Andhra Pradesh is also home to several Hindi-language newspapers: y y SwatantraVaartha Hindi Milap  Tourism Belum Caves Rishikonda beach ..
nestled in the Nallamala Hills is the abode of Mallikarjuna and is one of twelve Jyothirlingalu in India. Shalihundam. Pavuralakonda. is most visited religious center of any faith in the world. Lakshmi Narasimha. Amaravati'sShiva temple is one of the Pancharamams. TirumalaVenkateswara Temple in Tirupati. Bhattiprolu. Dhulikatta. Phanigiri and Kolanpaka. Andhra Pradesh is promoted by its tourism department as the "Koh-iNoor of India. Bavikonda. Nelakondapalli. Sankaram. Araku Valley .. The state has numerous Buddhist centres at Amaravati." Andhra Pradesh is the home of many religious pilgrim centres. the abode of an avatara of Vishnu. Thotlakonda. The Ramappa temple and Thousand Pillars temple in Warangal are famous for their temple carvings. Ghantasala.Srisailam. NagarjunaKonda. the abode of Hindu god Venkateswara.. as is Yadagirigutta.
Kailashagiri is a park near the sea in Visakhapatnam.. and Indira Gandhi Zoological Gardens. Araku Valley. The caves get their name from a formation inside the caves that looks like the human brain. waterfalls at Ettipotala. The Belum caves were formed due to . the one-million-year old limestone caves at Borra. Borra Caves (stalagmites and stalactites) The Badami cave temples in Karnataka are an excellent example of Chalukya art and sculpture. They were discovered by British geologist William King George in 1807. is known as burra. Visakhapatnam is home to other tourist attactions such as the INS Kursura S20 Submarine museum (the only one of its kind in India).. Kuntala and rich bio-diversity at Talakona are some of the natural attractions of the state. They are at an altitude of about 800 to 1300 metres and are famous for million-year-old stalactite and stalagmite formations. picturesque Araku Valley. river Godavari racing through a narrow gorge at PapiKondalu. The Vijayanagara Empire built number of monuments. The golden beaches at Visakhapatnam. Telugu. the longest beach road in India. The Borra Caves are located in the Anatagiri Hills of the Eastern Ghats. near Vishakapatnam. which in the local language. Yarada Beach. including the Srisailam temple and Lepakshi temples. hill resorts of Horsley Hills.
at 45 metres (148 ft).594 ft). Nirmal is famous for its handicrafts and paintings. Charminar. The caves' deepest point is 120 feet (37 m) from the entrance and is known as Patalganaga. near Rajahmundry. West Godavari District. spacious chambers. . and Surya temple in Arasavelli in Srikakulam District are also places to see in Andhra Pradesh. about 160 km (99 mi) from Bangalore and 144 km (89 mi) from Tirupati. Chandragiri Fort. is the biggest in the state.265 metres (4. is a summer hill resort in Andhra Pradesh. The Belum Caves in Kurnool District have a length of 3. Boat cruises are available on the river Godavari. Kuntala waterfall. The caves have long passages. elevation 1. Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada in Krishna district. the caves are known as BelumGuhalu..229 metres (10. Chowmahalla Palace. and Falaknuma Palace are some of the monuments in the state. The Belum Caves derive their name from Bilum.. Horsely Hills is the departure point for the Koundinya Wildlife Sanctuary at a distance of 87 km (54 mi). Horsley Hills. erosion in limestone deposits in the area by the weakly acidic water of the Chitravati River millions of years ago. the Sanskrit word for caves. The town of Madanapalle lies nearby. Golconda Fort. making them the second largest natural caves on the Indian subcontinent. Major tourist attractions include the Mallamma temple and the Rishi Valley School. In Telugu. and siphons. Venkateswara Temple in DwarakaTirumala. The Papi Hills are located in East Godavari district. freshwater galleries.150 ft).
511 km (26..415 mi). near Kakinada. of which State Highways comprise 42. National Highways 2.000).  Transport  Road Major road links of Andhra Pradesh A total of 146. and District Roads 101. The growth rate for vehicle ownership in Andhra Pradesh is the highest in the country at 16%.Konaseema is another place in East Godavari for nature lovers with scenic greenery of lush paddy fields and coconut groves. and the longest distance covered .944 km (91. All along the banks of river Godavari and its canals.307 mi) of roads are maintained by the State. APSRTC is in the Guinness Book of World Records for having the largest fleet of vehicles (approximately 21. Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is the major public transport corporation owned by the government of Andhra Pradesh that connects all the cities and villages.949 km (1. The AnnavaramSatayannarayana Swami temple is in East Godavari..059 mi).832 mi).484 km (63.
daily. Private vehicles like cars.. Most of Andhra Pradesh falls under the . and bicycles occupy a major share of the local transport in the cities and adjoining villages. Thousands of private operators also run buses connecting major cities and towns.  Rail The Secunderabad Railway Station. motorised scooters.. The history of railways in Andhra Pradesh dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. headquarters of the South Central Railway Visakhapatnam seaport Railways are a major means of transport connecting all major cities and towns.
. Tadepalligudem.000 250. This deep seaport can accommodate ocean liners up to 200. Kadapa. Rajahmundry Airport. A private port is being developed at Gangavaram. is the international airport for the city of Hyderabad. Vijayawada Railway Station is the one of the busiest railway junctions in India. also known as Rajiv Gandhi International Airport.  Sea Andhra Pradesh has two of the major ports of India at Visakhapatnam and Kakinada and three minor ports at Krishnapatnam (Nellore). auspices of the South Central Railway. founded in 1966 with its headquarters at Secunderabad. and Nizampatnam (Guntur). The East Coast Railway serves Srikakulam. Warangal. and part of Visakhapatnam district including Visakhapatnam City. Vijayawada Airport. The government also has plans to start airports in eight other cities: Guntur. It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide.  Air Hyderabad International Airport. Other airports in the state are Visakhapatnam Airport.. Vizianagaram District. near Visakhapatnam..000 DWT. Machilipatnam. Kurnool and Ramagundam. Ongole. Nellore. and Tirupati Airport.
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