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Light is defined as an electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength that is visible to the human (in a
range from about 380 or 400 nm to about 760 or 780 nm). The light sometimes referred to
electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not.

Reflection - Light is reflects off the surface like mirror such that angle of incidence is equal to
angle of reflection.

Refraction - Refraction is define as the bending of light as it passes between material of
different optical density

Dispersion - Light is composed of waves of different wavelengths that correspond to different
colors of lights. When light wave pass through a material, these different wavelengths causes
refraction by different amounts according to the wavelengths and which gives rise to different
colors seen through prism or for rainbow.

Diffraction - This is defined as the bending of light waves around obstacles in its path. ex. When
a light wave comes oppose a barrier with a small opening, it acts as a single point source from
where light emerges in all direction.

Interference - When two light waves meets or coincides, it can create either constructive or
destructive interference based on how crest & trough of each wave coincide with other.

Properties of Light:
Four primary properties of light are intensity, frequency or wavelength, polarization, and phase
Light, which exists in tiny "packets" called photos, exhibits properties of both waves and
particles. This property is referred to as the wave particle duality. The speed of light, although
quite fast, is not infinite. The speed of light in a vacuum is expressed as c = 2.99 × 108 m/s.
Light travels in a vacuum in a constant speed, and this speed is considered a universal constant.
It is important to note that speed change for light traveling through no vacuum media such as air
(0.03% slower) or glass (30.0% slower). For most purposes, we may represent light in terms of
magnitude and direction. In a vacuum, light will travel in a straight line in a fixed speed, carrying
energy from one place to another. Two key properties of light interacting with a medium are:

1. It can be deflects upon passing from one medium to another (refraction).

It can be bounced off a surface (reflection). Thus. This makes the reception noisy.2. the audio frequencies from 20Hz to 20000Hz must be reproduced. Reproduction is not of High Fidelity For high fidelity reception. The wave moves energy without moving mass from one place to another place at a speed independent of its intensity or wavelength. The power in the sidebands is the only useful power. Small Operating Range Due to small useful power the messages cannot be transmitted over large distance. (Note that both the sidebands must be reproduced). then power carried by the sidebands is 11. The aspect of light interaction with media other than a vacuum will be addressed. the useful power is small. However. Clearly. the transmitter based on amplitude modulation has small range. This is done to keep the interference from adjacent broadcasting stations to a minimum. This requires a bandwidth + 20000Hz i. respectively.1%. Many of these processes required calculus and quantum theory to describe them rigorously. the sidebands contain the signal. the highest . The bandwidth actually assigned for AM transmission is 20000Hz. Noisy Reception Different types of atmospheric and other electrical disturbance are reproduced in amplitude modulation receivers. which deal with geometrical and physical optics. So. This wave nature of light is the basic of physical optics and describes the interaction of light with media.3% even when there is 100% modulation. 40000Hz. The power carrier by the side bands is only 33. the amplitude modulation has low efficiency. Wave Model: The particle-like model of light describes large-scale effects such as light passing through lenses or bouncing off mirrors. So. If modulation is 50%. a wave like model should be used to describe fine-scale effects such as interference and diffraction that occur when light passes through out small openings or by sharp edges. The propagation of light or electromagnetic energy through or towards space can be described in terms of a traveling wave motion.. For this text it is sufficient to provide the resulting equations and models to be used by the photonics technician in real applications.e. amplitude modulation.

However. radar. facsimile etc. Thus. Amplitude Modulation When the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed in accordance with the intensity of the signal.modulating frequency is 10000Hz. the reproduction is not of high fidelity. the frequency of the modulated wave remains the same as the carrier frequency. This is not sufficient to reproduce music properly. standard broadcasting. . aids to navigation. The Below figure shows the principle of amplitude modulation (a) shows the audio electrical signal. whereas (b) shows the carrier wave of constant amplitude and (c) shows the amplitude-modulated wave. Applications Amplitude modulation is utilized in many services such as television. In amplitude modulation. the mechanism of combining the message and the message carrier at the sending terminal is basically the same. Although the message content may vary widely for these. only the amplitude of the carrier wave is changed in accordance with the intensity of the signal. telemetering. it is called amplitude modulation.

Amplitude modulation is done by an electronic circuit called modulator. (ii) The amplitude variation of the carrier wave is at the signal frequency fs.Note that the amplitude of both positive and negative half cycles of carrier wave are changed in accordance with the signal. the amplitude of carrier decreases. when the signal is increasing in the positive sense. The following points are worth noting in amplitude modulation: (i) The amplitude of the carrier wave changes according to the intensity of the signal. For instance. . During negative half cycle of the signal. the amplitude of carrier wave also increases.

e. In amplitude modulation.cos (B+A)) .e. wc and wm represent angular velocities at carrier frequency vc and modulating frequency vm respectively. (Although the more precise terms are demodulation for the process and demodulator for the device. Three Sinusoidal Waves in AM Wave Let the carrier voltage and the modulating voltage be represented by: where ec and em represent instantaneous voltages of carrier wave and modulating wave respectively. the amplitude of the wave is varied duplicating faithfully the fluctuations of the message. fc.) After reception and demodulation at the receiver. i. Ec and Em represent the amplitudes of carrier wave and modulating wave respectively. The amplitude Ec of the carrier wave is varied in accordance with the modulating wave. carrier frequency.. e = (Ec + em) sin wct = (Ec + Em sin wmt) sin wct = Ec sin wct + Em sin wmt sin wct (Because 2sinA sinB = cos (B-A) . the carrier is of no further use and is discarded.. e = E sin wct Here E is the amplitude of the modulated wave. Now. the terms detection and detector are widely used. the message is removed from the carrier. At the receiver these variations are detected or demodulated i.(iii) The frequency of the amplitude modulated wave remains the same. For the modulated wave.

It is clear from the above equation that the AM wave may be regarded as a combination of three sinusoidal waves.wm). The two side-band lie on either side of the carrier frequency at equal frequency interval nm. or a radio wave or laser beam. a coaxial cable. the signal power progressively decreases with increasing distance. However. There are three essential parts of any communication system. (wc + wm) and (wc . one having amplitude Ec and the other two having amplitudes Side Band Frequencies Corresponding to wc. band width is 2nm. So. and nc . Signal processing for transmissions almost always involves modulation and may also include coding. transmission channel.nm) are produced.nm is called the lower side-band frequency (LSB). nc + nm. nc + nm is called the upper side band frequency (USB). . These are known as side-band frequencies. there are three frequencies nc. Every channel introduces some amount of transmission loss or attenuation. and receiver. VVVV Elements of a Communication System Elements of a communication system The above figure depicts the elements of a communication system. Clearly. as follows: The transmitter processes the input signal to produce a suitable transmitted signal suited to the characteristics of the transmission channel.nm. nc . The transmission channel is the electrical medium that bridges the distance from source to destination. Each parts plays a particular role in signal transmission. the transmitter. the frequency of the unmodulated carrier wave is not changed. It may be a pair of wires. So. two new frequencies (nc + nm) and (nc .

The figure represents one-way or simplex (SX) transmission. (iii) Increased immunity to noise and external interference. Digital and Analog Communication Systems The advantages associate with digital communication systems include (i) A common format for encoding different kinds of message signals (e. These also include demodulation and decoding to reverse the signal procession performed at the transmitter. Two way communication of course requires a transmitter and receiver at each end. Mathematically these signals can be described by function of a continuous variable.) for the purpose of transmission.. (iv) Flexibility in configuring digital communication systems. A full-duplex (FDX) system has a channel that allows simultaneous transmission in both directions. Disadvantages The disadvantages associate with digital communication systems include (i) Increased transmission (ii) Increased system complexity Although digital communication is becoming increasingly attractive for practical use. computer data. We would consider the signal to be a function of a signal independent variable i. Receiver operations include amplification to compensate for transmission loss. etc.g. For example. video signal. Analog signals or continuous-time signals are defined for every value of time and they take on continuous values in a given time interval. The value of the signal may be real or complex. A half-duplex (HDX) system allows transmission in either direction but not at the same time. Filtering is another important function at the receiver. . (ii) An improved security of message. A signal is usually described by a function of one or more independent variable. There are numerous ways of classifying signals depending on the requirement of study.The receiver operates on the output signal from the channel in preparation for delivery to the transducer at the destination. it is a fact that analog communication systems are still in existence. speech signal. the signals.e. Most of the broadcasting systems and a large part of telephone networks in use today are analog in nature. time t.

however..... . Sine wave. . where n = 0 ± 1. electroencephalogram(EEG) signals are some of the examples of naturally occurring analog signals.time signal.. Speech.. electrocardiogram(ECG).. for mathematical convenience these time intervals are taken to be equispaced... Notice that the sine wave is continuous. Most of the naturally occurring signals are also analog in nature. Digital signals or Discrete-time signals are defined at discrete values of time.s1 (t) = cos (500 pt) are analog or continuous-time an example of a discreate . example of an analog signal An analog signal is best fitted illustrated by a sine wave as shown in above figure.. In practice. These time instants need not be equidistant.. The signal x(tn) = exp (-|tn|). The value of the analog signal at any given instant can be anywhere within the range of the signal's extremes. ± 2....