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**ONE DIMENSIONAL MOTION
**

One dimensional motion By one dimension we mean that the body is moving only in one plane and in a straight line. Like if we roll a marble on a flat table, and if we roll it in a straight line (not easy!), then it would be undergoing one-dimensional motion. There are four variables which put together in an equation can describe this motion. These are Initial Velocity (u); Final Velocity (v), Acceleration (a), Distance Traveled (s) and Time elapsed (t). The equations which tell us the relationship between these variables are as given below. v = u + at v2 = u2 + 2as s = ut + 1/2 at2 average velocity = (v + u)/2 Armed with these equations you can do wonderful things like calculating a cars acceleration from zero to whatever in 60 seconds !!

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TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL MOTION

Note: As it is difficult to use vector notations on the computer word processors we will coin our own notation. we can do mathematics on them. When the components of a vector are at right angle to each other they are called the rectangular components of a vector. By direction we mean is this quantity having a direction which defines it. This allows us to solve many real life problems. temperature etc. Examples of these are velocity. acceleration. Other physical quantities cannot be defined by just their magnitude. For example 'A' will be scalar quantity and 'A' will be a vector quantity. torque. Resolution of a Vector It is often necessary to split a vector into its components. volume. force. We can say that: A = (Ax + Ay)1/2 Similarly the angle Q which the vector A makes with the horizontal direction will be Q = tan-1 (Ax / Ay) LAWS OF MOTION . Vector Addition Parallelogram law of vector addition If we were to represent two vectors magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. Physical quantities which are completely specified by just giving out there magnitude are known as scalars. speed. After all the best thing about physics is that it can be used to solve real world problems. To define them completely we must also specify their direction. We will show all vector quantities in bold. Let Ax and Ay be the rectangular components of a vector A then A = Ax + Ay this means that vector A is the resultant of vectors Ax and Ay A is the magnitude of vector A and similarly Ax and Ay are the magnitudes of vectors Ax and Ay As we are dealing with rectangular components which are at right angles to each other. Examples of scalar quantities are distance. The original vector is the resultant of these components. density. The resultant can then be represented in magnitude and direction by the diagonal. Rectangular Components of a Vector As the rectangular components of a vector are perpendicular to each other. displacement. By magnitude we mean how much of the quantity is there. mass. momentum etc. Splitting of a vector into its components is called resolution of the vector. This diagonal is the one which passes through the point of intersection of these two sides.Scalar or Vector? To explain the difference we use two words: 'magnitude' and 'direction'.

on the other hand can be stopped easily. Imagine you are pushing a heavy box across the room. The ones we see over here are kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE) Transitional KE = ½ mv2 Rotational KE = ½ Iw2 . Work is the product of force and the distance over which it moves. W = Fx Energy comes in many shapes. Impulse = Ft = mv . p = mv click for calculator Often physics problems deal with momentum before and after a collision.Newton's laws of motion Through Newton's second law. A heavy body moving at a fast velocity is difficult to stop. In such cases the total momentum of the bodies before collision is taken as equal to the total momentum of the bodies after collision. A light body at a slow speed. Let m be the mass and v and u the final and initial velocities of a body. The further you move the more work you do! If W is work. F=mxa click for calculator Knowing any two of the quantities automatically gives you the third !! Momentum Momentum (p) is the quantity of motion in a body. So momentum has to do with both mass and velocity. Mass (m) and acceleration (a). a relationship is established between Force (F). F the force and x the distance then.mu click for calculator WORK ENERGY POWER Work and energy As we know from the law of conservation of energy: energy is always conserved. Impulse This is the change in the momentum of a body caused over a very short time. which states: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net unbalanced force and inversely proportional to the body's mass. This is of course a wonderful relation and of immense usefulness. That is to say: momentum is conserved.

Simple isn't it!! Power Power (P) is work( W) done in unit time (t). 1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts click for calculator where h is the height of the object CIRCULAR MOTION Circular motion In the diagram v is the tangential velocity of the object. So the first thing to do in solving any problem related to power is to convert horsepower to Watts. r is the radius of the circle and m is mass of the object. P = W/t as work and energy (E) are same it follows power is also energy consumed or generated per unit time. a is the centripetal (acting towards the center of the circle) acceleration and F is the centripetal force. Tycho Brahe collected a huge amount of data . a = v2 / r F = ma = mv2/r GRAVITATION Kepler's Laws Towards the end of the sixteenth century.here I is the moment of inertia of the object (a simple manner in which one can understand moment of inertia is to consider it to be similar to mass in transitional KE) a w is angular velocity Gravitational PE = mgh Elastic PE = ½k L 2 where k is the spring constant ( it gives how much a spring will stretch for a unit force) and L is the length of the spring. P = E/t In measuring power Horsepower is a unit which is in common use. However in physics we use Watt.

The squares of the periods of revolution of the planets about the Sun are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from it. The formula for finding out the acceleration due to gravity at this point becomes: g' = ( r / re )g In both the above formulas. 3. Using this we can express the acceleration due to gravity (g') at a radius (r) outside the earth in terms of the Earth's radius (re) and the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (g) g' = (re2 / r2) g Acceleration due to gravity inside the Earth Here let r represent the radius of the point inside the earth. g the acceleration due to gravity. Each planet moves in such a way that the (imaginary) line joining it to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times.m2/kg2).giving precise measurements of the position of planets.67x10-11 N. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse which has the Sun at one of its foci. G the Universal Gravitational Constant (6. Newton's law of universal gravitation About fifty years after Kepler announced the laws now named after him. 2. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Density The mass of a substance contained in unit volume is its density (D). after a detailed analysis of the measurements announced three laws in 1619. g' becomes equal to g when r = re. Then F = G m 1 m2 / r 2 Acceleration due to gravity outside the Earth It can be shown that the acceleration due to gravity outside of a spherical shell of uniform density is the same as it would be if the entire mass of the shell were to be concentrated at its center. Hence: If F is the force due to gravity. Johannes Kepler. 1. Isaac Newton showed that every particle in the Universe attracts every other with a force which is proportional to the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation. D = m/V . as expected. m the mass and r the distance between two objects.

Measuring of densities of substances is easier if we compare them with the density of some other substance of know density.056 0. The ratio of the density of the substance to that of water is called the Specific Gravity (SG) of the substance.200 0. You would require 4186 J of heat to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius.5 x 4186 x 3 =6280 J It is as simple as that !! The table below gives the specific heat of some common substances Aluminium Copper Glass Gold Ice Iron Silver Steam Water J/kg. Let Q be the heat transferred to m kg of a substance.107 0.5 kg and the dt. SG = Dsubstance / Dwater The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 Pressure Pressure (P) is Force (F) per unit area (A) P = F/A Specific Heat You may have noticed that metals. the temperature rise = 3 deg C and we know the specific heat of water is 4186 J/kg. o C 0. It is known that every substance has a unique value of amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 kg of it by 1 degree Celsius. Q = m c dT For example the heat required to increase the temperature of half a kg of water by 3 degrees Celsius can be determined using this formula.0924 0.480 1. heat faster than water. thereby changing its temperature by dT. The specific heat c of the substance is defined as c = Q/mdt Juggle the expression. Water is used for this purpose. This is given by.00 . Here m.500 0.0308 0. So here the heat required will be Q = 0. o C 900 387 837 129 2090 448 234 2010 4186 cal/g. for example copper.215 0. On the other hand 1 kg of copper would zoom to this temperature after it receives only 387 J of heat. mass of water is 0. and we get the heat transferred from a body to its surroundings or the other way around. This number is referred to as the specific heat of the substance.

Resistance of Resistors in Parallel The equivalent resistance (Req) of a set of resistors connected in parallel is 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ..- click to see a sample step by step solution according to the above . V=IR The relationship between power (P) and current and voltage is P=IV Using the equations above we can also write P = V2 / R and P = I2 R Resistance of Resistors in Series The equivalent resistance (Req) of a set of resistors connected in series is Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + .ELECTRICITY Electricity According to Ohm's Law electric potential difference(V) is directly proportional to the product of the current(I) times the resistance(R)..

Vector Addition Parallelogram law of vector addition If we were to represent two vectors magnitude and direction by two adjacent sides of a parallelogram. By direction we mean is this quantity having a direction which defines it. mass. These are Initial Velocity (u). Final Velocity (v). Examples of scalar quantities are distance. momentum etc. The resultant can then be represented in magnitude and direction by the . v = u + at v2 = u2 + 2as s = ut + 1/2 at 2 click for calculator average velocity = (v + u)/2 Armed with these equations you can do wonderful things like calculating a cars acceleration from zero to whatever in 60 seconds !! TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL MOTION Scalar or Vector? To explain the difference we use two words: 'magnitude' and 'direction'. force. torque. speed. displacement. To define them completely we must also specify their direction. Physical quantities which are completely specified by just giving out there magnitude are known as scalars. volume. Distance Traveled (s) and Time elapsed (t). Acceleration (a). then it would be undergoing one-dimensional motion. There are four variables which put together in an equation can describe this motion. temperature etc.procedure Top of Form blended physicstutor-20 Bottom of Form ONE DIMENSIONAL MOTION One dimensional motion By one dimension we mean that the body is moving only in one plane and in a straight line. and if we roll it in a straight line (not easy!). The equations which tell us the relationship between these variables are as given below. Other physical quantities cannot be defined by just their magnitude. acceleration. density. Examples of these are velocity. By magnitude we mean how much of the quantity is there. Like if we roll a marble on a flat table.

we can do mathematics on them. F=mxa click for calculator Knowing any two of the quantities automatically gives you the third !! Momentum Momentum (p) is the quantity of motion in a body. After all the best thing about physics is that it can be used to solve real world problems.diagonal. Note: As it is difficult to use vector notations on the computer word processors we will coin our own notation. We will show all vector quantities in bold. Mass (m) and acceleration (a). So momentum has to do with both mass and velocity. This is of course a wonderful relation and of immense usefulness. We can say that: A = (Ax + Ay)1/2 Similarly the angle Q which the vector A makes with the horizontal direction will be Q = tan-1 (Ax / Ay) LAWS OF MOTION Newton's laws of motion Through Newton's second law. This diagonal is the one which passes through the point of intersection of these two sides. on the other hand can be stopped easily. Rectangular Components of a Vector As the rectangular components of a vector are perpendicular to each other. A heavy body moving at a fast velocity is difficult to stop. a relationship is established between Force (F). The original vector is the resultant of these components. . which states: The acceleration of a body is directly proportional to the net unbalanced force and inversely proportional to the body's mass. Resolution of a Vector It is often necessary to split a vector into its components. This allows us to solve many real life problems. When the components of a vector are at right angle to each other they are called the rectangular components of a vector. Let Ax and Ay be the rectangular components of a vector A then A = Ax + Ay this means that vector A is the resultant of vectors Ax and Ay A is the magnitude of vector A and similarly Ax and Ay are the magnitudes of vectors Ax and Ay As we are dealing with rectangular components which are at right angles to each other. Splitting of a vector into its components is called resolution of the vector. For example 'A' will be scalar quantity and 'A' will be a vector quantity. A light body at a slow speed.

W = Fx Energy comes in many shapes. That is to say: momentum is conserved.mu click for calculator WORK ENERGY POWER Work and energy As we know from the law of conservation of energy: energy is always conserved. click for calculator where h is the height of the object . Work is the product of force and the distance over which it moves. The ones we see over here are kinetic energy (KE) and potential energy (PE) Transitional KE = ½ mv2 Rotational KE = ½ Iw2 here I is the moment of inertia of the object (a simple manner in which one can understand moment of inertia is to consider it to be similar to mass in transitional KE) a w is angular velocity Gravitational PE = mgh Elastic PE = ½k L 2 where k is the spring constant ( it gives how much a spring will stretch for a unit force) and L is the length of the spring. The further you move the more work you do! If W is work. Let m be the mass and v and u the final and initial velocities of a body. Simple isn't it!! Power Power (P) is work( W) done in unit time (t). Impulse This is the change in the momentum of a body caused over a very short time. F the force and x the distance then. Imagine you are pushing a heavy box across the room. In such cases the total momentum of the bodies before collision is taken as equal to the total momentum of the bodies after collision.p = mv click for calculator Often physics problems deal with momentum before and after a collision. Impulse = Ft = mv . P = W/t as work and energy (E) are same it follows power is also energy consumed or generated per unit time.

1 horsepower (hp) = 746 Watts CIRCULAR MOTION Circular motion In the diagram v is the tangential velocity of the object. Hence: . The squares of the periods of revolution of the planets about the Sun are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from it.P = E/t In measuring power Horsepower is a unit which is in common use. r is the radius of the circle and m is mass of the object. Tycho Brahe collected a huge amount of data giving precise measurements of the position of planets. a is the centripetal (acting towards the center of the circle) acceleration and F is the centripetal force. The orbit of each planet is an ellipse which has the Sun at one of its foci. Newton's law of universal gravitation About fifty years after Kepler announced the laws now named after him. Johannes Kepler. So the first thing to do in solving any problem related to power is to convert horsepower to Watts. However in physics we use Watt. after a detailed analysis of the measurements announced three laws in 1619. Isaac Newton showed that every particle in the Universe attracts every other with a force which is proportional to the products of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation. 1. Each planet moves in such a way that the (imaginary) line joining it to the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times. 2. a = v2 / r F = ma = mv2/r GRAVITATION Kepler's Laws Towards the end of the sixteenth century. 3.

m the mass and r the distance between two objects. g' becomes equal to g when r = re. Using this we can express the acceleration due to gravity (g') at a radius (r) outside the earth in terms of the Earth's radius (re) and the acceleration due to gravity at the Earth's surface (g) g' = (re2 / r2) g Acceleration due to gravity inside the Earth Here let r represent the radius of the point inside the earth.If F is the force due to gravity. You would require 4186 J of heat to raise the temperature of water by 1 degree Celsius. G the Universal Gravitational Constant (6. as expected. On the other hand 1 kg of copper would zoom to this temperature after it receives only 387 . heat faster than water. D = m/V Measuring of densities of substances is easier if we compare them with the density of some other substance of know density. g the acceleration due to gravity. Then F = G m 1 m2 / r 2 Acceleration due to gravity outside the Earth It can be shown that the acceleration due to gravity outside of a spherical shell of uniform density is the same as it would be if the entire mass of the shell were to be concentrated at its center.m2/kg2). The ratio of the density of the substance to that of water is called the Specific Gravity (SG) of the substance. PROPERTIES OF MATTER Density The mass of a substance contained in unit volume is its density (D). The formula for finding out the acceleration due to gravity at this point becomes: g' = ( r / re )g In both the above formulas. SG = Dsubstance / Dwater The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 Pressure Pressure (P) is Force (F) per unit area (A) P = F/A Specific Heat You may have noticed that metals.67x10-11 N. for example copper. Water is used for this purpose.

056 0. V=IR The relationship between power (P) and current and voltage is P=IV Using the equations above we can also write P = V2 / R and P = I2 R . Here m. thereby changing its temperature by dT. The specific heat c of the substance is defined as c = Q/mdt Juggle the expression. Let Q be the heat transferred to m kg of a substance. o C 0.215 0.500 0. the temperature rise = 3 deg C and we know the specific heat of water is 4186 J/kg.480 1.0924 0.200 0. This is given by. It is known that every substance has a unique value of amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 kg of it by 1 degree Celsius.107 0. This number is referred to as the specific heat of the substance. and we get the heat transferred from a body to its surroundings or the other way around. o C 900 387 837 129 2090 448 234 2010 4186 cal/g.5 x 4186 x 3 =6280 J It is as simple as that !! The table below gives the specific heat of some common substances Aluminium Copper Glass Gold Ice Iron Silver Steam Water J/kg. Q = m c dT For example the heat required to increase the temperature of half a kg of water by 3 degrees Celsius can be determined using this formula.J of heat.00 ELECTRICITY Electricity According to Ohm's Law electric potential difference(V) is directly proportional to the product of the current(I) times the resistance(R). So here the heat required will be Q = 0.0308 0. mass of water is 0.5 kg and the dt.

Resistance of Resistors in Parallel The equivalent resistance (Req) of a set of resistors connected in parallel is 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + ..Resistance of Resistors in Series The equivalent resistance (Req) of a set of resistors connected in series is Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ..- .

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