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Biodiesel

Currently most research into efficient algal-oil production is being done in the private
sector, but predictions from small scale production experiments bear out that using algae
to produce biodiesel may be the only viable method by which to produce enough
automotive fuel to replace current world diesel usage.[12]

Microalgae have much faster growth rates than terrestrial crops. The per unit area yield of
oil from algae is estimated to be from between 5,000 to 20,000 US gallons per acre per
year (4,700 to 18,000 m3/km2·a);[citation needed] this is 7 to 30 times greater than the next best
crop, Chinese tallow (700 US gal/acre·a or 650 m3/km2·a).[13]

Studies show that algae can produce up to 60% of their biomass in the form of oil.
Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension where they have more efficient access to
water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients, microalgae are capable of producing large amounts of
biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photobioreactors. This oil can
then be turned into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles. The more
efficient this process becomes the larger the profit that is turned by the company.
Regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide economic
benefits to rural communities.[14]

Algae cultivation

Algae can produce up to 300 times more oil per acre than conventional crops, such as
rapeseed, palms, soybeans, or jatropha. As Algae has a harvesting cycle of 1–10 days, it
permits several harvests in a very short time frame, a differing strategy to yearly crops
(Chisti 2007). Algae can also be grown on land that is not suitable for other established
crops, for instance, arid land, land with excessively saline soil, and drought-stricken land.
This minimizes the issue of taking away pieces of land from the cultivation of food crops
(Schenk et al. 2008). Algae can grow 20 to 30 times faster than food crops.[22]

[edit] Photobioreactors

Most companies pursuing algae as a source of biofuels are pumping nutrient-laden water
through plastic tubes (called "bioreactors" ) that are exposed to sunlight (and so called
photobioreactors or PBR).

Running a PBR is more difficult than an open pond, and more costly.

Algae can also grow on marginal lands, such as in desert areas where the groundwater is
saline, rather than utilize fresh water.[23]

The difficulties in efficient biodiesel production from algae lie in finding an algal strain
with a high lipid content and fast growth rate that isn't too difficult to harvest, and a cost-
effective cultivation system (i.e., type of photobioreactor) that is best suited to that strain.
There is also a need to provide concentrated CO2 to turbocharge the production.

[edit] Closed loop system

Another obstacle preventing widespread mass production of algae for biofuel production
has been the equipment and structures needed to begin growing algae in large quantities.
Maximum use of existing agriculture processes and hardware is the goal.[24]

In a closed system (not exposed to open air) there is not the problem of contamination by
other organisms blown in by the air. The problem for a closed system is finding a cheap
source of sterile CO2. Several experimenters have found the CO2 from a smokestack
works well for growing algae.[25][26] To be economical, some experts think that algae
farming for biofuels will have to be done next to power plants, where they can also help
soak up the pollution.[23]

[edit] Open pond

Open-pond systems for the most part have been given up for the cultivation of algae with
high-oil content.[27] Many believe that a major flaw of the Aquatic Species Program was
the decision to focus their efforts exclusively on open-ponds; this makes the entire effort
dependent upon the hardiness of the strain chosen, requiring it to be unnecessarily
resilient in order to withstand wide swings in temperature and pH, and competition from
invasive algae and bacteria. Open systems using a monoculture are also vulnerable to
viral infection. The energy that a high-oil strain invests into the production of oil is
energy that is not invested into the production of proteins or carbohydrates, usually
resulting in the species being less hardy, or having a slower growth rate. Algal species
with a lower oil content, not having to divert their energies away from growth, have an
easier time in the harsher conditions of an open system.

Some open sewage ponds trial production has been done in Marlborough, New Zealand.
[28]

[edit] Algae types
Main article: SERI microalgae culture collection

Research into algae for the mass-production of oil is mainly focused on microalgae;
organisms capable of photosynthesis that are less than 0.4 mm in diameter, including the
diatoms and cyanobacteria; as opposed to macroalgae, such as seaweed. The preference
towards microalgae is due largely to its less complex structure, fast growth rate, and high
oil content (for some species). Some commercial interests into large scale algal-
cultivation systems are looking to tie in to existing infrastructures, such as coal power
plants or sewage treatment facilities. This approach not only provides the raw materials
for the system, such as CO2 and nutrients; it changes those wastes into resources.
However, some research is being done into using seaweeds for biofuels, probably due to
the high availability of this resource.[29][30]

The following species listed are currently being studied for their suitability as a mass-oil
producing crop, across various locations worldwide[31][32][33]:

phosphorus (P). In biogas facilities. may also be considered important marine nutrients as the lack of one can limit the growth of. and at the very least. and potassium (K). If waste water is not processed before it reaches the algae. is working on producing biofuel from a local species of algae. kill much of the desired algae strain. its formula can increase the daily growth rate by 34% and can double the amount of algae produced in one growth cycle. However. or flood plain run-off.[40] [edit] Wastewater Main article: Wastewater treatment facility A possible nutrient source is waste water from the treatment of sewage. an area. Green Star Products. Silica and iron. [edit] Nutrients Main article: Algal nutrient solutions Nutrients like nitrogen (N).[37] NBB’s Feedstock Development program is addressing production of algae on the horizon to expand available material for biodiesel in a sustainable manner[38]. organic waste is often converted to a mixture of carbon . agricultural. According to the company. it will contaminate the algae in the reactor. this waste water cannot feed algae directly and must first be processed by bacteria. are important for plant growth and are essential parts of fertilizer. • Botryococcus braunii • Chlorella • Dunaliella tertiolecta • Gracilaria • Pleurochrysis carterae (also called CCMP647)[34] .[39] One company. through anaerobic digestion. A small quantity of laboratory produced oil was mixed with 95% regular diesel. A feasibility study using marine microalgae in a photobioreactor is being done by The International Research Consortium on Continental Margins at the International University Bremen. or productivity in.[35] [edit] Specific research Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation of New Zealand announced that it has produced its first sample of homegrown bio-diesel fuel with algae sourced from local sewerage ponds.[36] The Department of Environmental Science at Ateneo de Manila University in the Philippines. as well as several trace elements. with 10 times the output volume of Gracilaria. announced their development of a micronutrient formula to increase the growth rate of algae. all currently major pollutants and health risks. • Sargassum.

Additional concerns consider the potential environmental impact of Algal fuel development. methane. heavy metals. In open pond systems the use of strains of algae that can deal with high concentrations of heavy metals could prevent other organisms from infesting these systems (Schenk et al.dioxide. The same is true for ocean water. Dmitrov[41] examined the GreenFuels photobioreactor and estimated that algae oil would only be competitive at an oil price of $800 per barrel. photobioreactors and anaerobic fermenters to make biofuels from algae and found that photobioreactors are too expensive to make biofuels. Algal fuel companies are learning that investors have different expectations about returns and length of investments. and must often rely on the little data (often only engineering estimates) available in the public domain. Thus. A study by Alabi at al. etc. The group found that capital cost. Only few studies on the economic viability are publicly available. and nearly suitable for algae growth. Whereas technical problems. electricity. and organic fertilizer. are being addressed successfully by the industry. 2008). trace metals. Similar results were found by others[43][44][45]. Organic fertilizer that comes out of the digester is liquid. Every investor has its own unique stipulations that are obstacles to further algae fuel development.[42] examined raceways. but it must first be cleaned and sterilized. and fermenters may become cost-effective subsequent to significant process improvements. but the contaminants are found in different concentrations. the high up-front investment of algae-to-biofuels facilities is seen by many as a major obstacle to the success of this technology. but heavy metals are again a problem. agricultural-grade fertilizer is the preferred source of nutrients. their great technical potential may never become economically accessible.) by themselves are too high for algae biofuels to be cost-competitive with conventional fuels. others would only be willing to invest in a profitable operation over the long term. especially for strains of algae that are susceptible to these metals. suggesting that unless new. [edit] Investment and economic viability There is always uncertainty about the success of new products and investors have to consider carefully the proper energy sources in which to invest. and other contaminants in wastewater can decrease the ability of cells to produce lipids biosynthetically and also impact various other workings in the machinery of cells. AlgaePro Systems found in its talks with investors that while one wants at least 5 times the returns on their investment. A drop in fossil fuel oil prices might make consumers and therefore investors lose interest in renewable energy. as well as secondary impacts on wildlife such as bears and fish. such as harvesting. [edit] Algae fuel by country See also: List of algal fuel producers . Raceways might be cost-effective in warm climates with very low labor costs. cheaper ways of harnessing algae for biofuels production are found. However. The utilization of wastewater and ocean water instead of freshwater is strongly advocated due to the continuing depletion of freshwater resources. labor cost and operational costs (fertilizer.

Cranfield University. From 1982 until its end in 1996.[50] Algaewheel. The program initially focused efforts on the production of hydrogen. US universities which are working on producing oil from algae include: University of Texas at Austin. was a research program funded by the United States Department of Energy (DoE) which was tasked with investigating the use of algae for the production of energy. shifting primary research to studying oil production in 1982. California) has produced a fuel suitable for powering jet aircraft from algae. Cambridge University.[11] The Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at University of Georgia is exploring microalgal biomass production using industrial wastewater. launched in 1978. The Ukraine plans to produce biofuel using a special type of algae[46]. in Sevilla. Spain[47] is researching the algal fuels. [edit] United States Main article: Algae fuel in the United States The Aquatic Species Program. At the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution the wastewater from domestic and industrial sources contain rich organic compounds that are being used to accelerate the growth of algae. using the sludge byproduct to produce biofuel. Indiana.[48] University of Maine.[edit] Europe See also: Algae fuel in the United Kingdom Universities in the United Kingdom which are working on producing oil from algae include:University of Glasgow. the DoE decided to end the program. University of Kansas. Imperial College London. The CSIC´s Instituto de Bioquímica Vegetal y Fotosíntesis (Microalgae Biotechnology Group. presented a proposal to build a facility in Cedar Lake.[51][52] Sapphire Energy (San Diego) has produced green crude from algae. University College London. based in Indianapolis. In 1995. notably biodiesel. Solazyme (South San Francisco. and Old Dominion University[49]. Indiana that uses algae to treat municipal wastewater. [edit] Other . from algae. Research stopped in 1996 and staff began compiling their research for publication. the majority of the program research was focused on the production of transportation fuels. as part of overall efforts to lower budget demands. University of Brighton.

termed as “biofuels. will be the first wave of aviation- related members.[5 Algae are tiny biological factories that use photosynthesis to transform carbon dioxide and sunlight into energy so efficiently that they can double their weight several times a day. renewable resources. it can be utilized on its pure form or as an additive (normally 20%) as a renewable substitute fuel for diesel engines. As part of the photosynthesis process algae produce oil and can generate 15 times more oil per acre than other plants used for biofuels. Scripps Institution of Oceanography. At the present time. Pond Biofuels Inc. and biofuel technology developer UOP. ethanol is derived from starches and sugars however there have been constant research to allow it to be produced from fibrous substance which consists the bulk of most plant matter . Benemann Associates[54]. such as corn and switchgrass. In order to lessen harmful vehicle emissions. The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. can be converted directly into burnable fuels. Mont Vista Capital[55] and Montana State University. Ethanol is widely used as a blending agent with gasoline to boost octane and at the same time reducing carbon monoxide and other toxic smog- causing emissions.[56] The National Algae Association (NAA) is a non-profit organization of algae researchers. Algae can grow in salt water. grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available. In contrast to other renewable energy resources. biodiesel is produced by the combination of alcohol which is usually alcohol with vegetable or animal oil/fats. a Honeywell company. Ethanol is produced by fermentation through a method similar to beer brewing of any biomass containing carbohydrates. to join Algal Biomass Organization. algae production companies and the investment community who share the goal of commercializing algae oil as an alternative feedstock for the biofuels markets. an organic material. is an alcohol modified to utilize it as a fuel and making it undrinkable. The NAA gives its members a forum to efficiently evaluate various algae technologies for potential early stage company opportunities. Global air carriers Air New Zealand.the cellulose and hemicellulose.The Algal Biomass Organization (ABO) is formed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean. A2BE Carbon Capture Corporation[53]. and on land not suitable for food production Biofuel: A Short Review Ethanol. for the most .[57] in Canada has grown algae directly off of a cement plant smokestack emissions. biomass. Continental. National Renewable Energy Labs. or recycled cooking grease.” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands. freshwater or even contaminated water. On the other hand. as in beer and wine. at sea or in ponds. Virgin Atlantic Airways. together with Boeing.

all of which help to lengthen the life of your vehicle. It thus makes sense to search for new alternatives before that day arrives. etc) are fuels made from organic materials. environment. while oil is a non-renewable resource. in turn. clean. Cleaner burning energy sources lessen the toxic pollutant emissions produced by burning gasoline. Moreover. the present technologies result in limitation of production for the reason that not all parts of a certain plant can be used. This can make biofuels an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. renewable. increasing octane and lessening harmful emissions. the so-called “biofuels”. Biofuel is made from agricultural crops developed in the different parts of the United States and other countries as well. Increased utilization of biofuel can generate new markets for American products. Each has its own pros and cons. biofuel is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers. Tags: agricultural. . Biofuel is a “quality” fuel that cleans your fuel system. Ethanol Biofuel and Its New Developments Among the most promising replacement for nonrenewable fossil fuel (petroleum. it promotes American energy independence just by generating a percentage of our fuel at home. alcohol. As a result. A number of jobs can also be produces especially in rural communities. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel fuel. traditional No Comments » Jan 21 2008 Posted by admin under Biofuels. biofuel. In addition. The two widely used biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. fact remains that the supply may well run out one day. quality. coal. it can keep the money circulating all the way through the domestic economy.phase using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. reduce dependence on unreliable foreign oil. Another gain is that many alternative fuels can be generated. biofuel is capable of improving the performance of your engine. Demand varies. However. alternative. Ethanol. a much-hyped reason is that lessening dependence on oil will. and it cuts down on the dumping of used oil. Present estimates predict that world oil production will reach its peak some time in the next 10 to 15 years. More importantly. biodiesel. In the contrary. and there is always the possibility of discovering new reserves. energy.

by year 2050. First generation biofuel are those fuel derived from vegetable or animal fats/oils. Moreover. biomass. less fossil fuel is required. several companies are moving forward having plans to build plants using this method. Ethanol. starch or sugar with the use of modern technology. there has been lot of studies that would resolve this problem. having a greater impact than the usual corn ethanol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Tags: biofuel. This is great news for those regions having a short supply of corn-based food that is competing with the corn-ethanol manufacturers. This is because in cellulose ethanol. trees and grasses can be derived. corn. none of the ethanol is derived from cellulosic materials. therefore. This is where the so-called second generation of biofuel enters. Proponents claims that increasing industrial and political support for this second generation biofuel is a more feasible solution to achieve efficient fuel production utilizing a much greater range of plants and its waste. nrdc. problem No Comments » . In addition. Based on the report made by the National Resources Defense Council (NRDC). the increasing productivity of cellulosic sources would in due course allow them to generate as much as 150 billion gallons of ethanol which is comparable to more than two- thirds present gasoline consumption in the United States. As a matter of fact. development. ethanol from crop wastes. This would only mean that through this method.At the present time in the United States. Moreover.Due to this drawback. This is according to ethanol industry’s list of producers in the United States. etc. Cellulose ethanol production is newly discovered experimental processes which can breakdown cellulose in woody fibers. the fuel is derived from the stems and stalks of plants rather than only using the sugars and starches from corns. there have been techniques to develop fast-growing trees that can grow to size in just 10 years. In cellulosic ethanol. there is no doubt that an acre of grasses could make twice the number of gallons of ethanol that can be generated with an acre of corn. This new type of biofuel is gradually gaining popularity because of the feedstock such as wood chips and grasses that is cost effective and very abundant. grasses can be harvested twice every year. This is starting to gain interest in the United States. wood. This so-called second generation denotes non food crops (cellulosic biofuel) such as waste biomass. as with corn ethanol. During the conversion into ethanol. the entire plant can be utilized instead of just the grain as in corn ethanol. To briefly differentiate second from first generation. cellulose. It is significantly better since trees and grasses require small amount of energy in comparison to grains that must be replanted annually. in comparison between the land area of grasses and corn.

Biofuels are renewable but crops are still not enough. They are naturally renewable. The use of biofuel is not complicated.2 . Consequently. This leads to some arguments. Compared to other forms of renewable energy (solar. Biofuels are easily utilize but not readily accessible. It does not require special equipment or a modification in all engines. In some instances. Biofuels uses more energy than they can produce. Biofuels. This had been an issue in so many years whether producing biofuels would actually need more energy than they can give. In its simplest sense. Ethanol The Pros and Cons of Biofuels There have been studies that prove the many benefits of substituting fossil fuels (petroleum. you may have to look for flexible fuel car models. it would take time for biofuels to be readily accessible due to lack of ethanol or biodiesel pumps at existing filling station. Ethanol puts out about 1. If not. etc) with biofuels such as biodiesel and ethanol. these biofuels emit nontoxic and cleaner emissions in comparison to traditional fuels. biodiesel even has an output of 3. Over the years. For this reason. It is a fact that biofuels are derived from biomass that is renewable and biodegradable. Any automobile will not need complex changes. it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come. one major concern of wide scale biofuel production is the increased need of growing crops to meet the demand. our reliance on foreign sources of fossil fuels will be significantly reduced. These alternative fuels also do not promote global warming. etc). The biodiesel can be readily combined with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time. technology has significantly improved. Moreover. Despite these benefits.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used in processing it. biofuel is far more simple and easy to use. biodiesel can run most diesel operated engines. wind. It can create numerous jobs since our own farmers can practically make them domestically. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. wild habitats and agricultural lands. In addition.Dec 15 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. since it might require extensive land that may involve forests. However. such biofuels are biodegradable which means they are derived from organic materials. particularly true for ethanol. since the carbon they emit is taken back to the environment.

It is quite impossible to totally replace it but instead the consumption must be decreased. From starch. cons. corn and biomass. diesel. Biofuels. Presently. are left behind. biofuels. ethanol is an alcohol fuel derived from sugarcane. In this method. In it simplest explanation. it is fermented into sugar. have a positive effect to the environment. Each of them has its pros and cons. .units of energy to every unit of energy used on its production. As an alternative to this “traditional” diesel or gasoline fuel. afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol. it is expected to yield significant energy security and environmental advantage to its consumers. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. thus including wasted cooking oil. yeast. or leaving you with only 80%. Other sources of energy such as solar. Tags: alternative. Biodiesel is produced through a chemical process termed as transesterification. The utilization of both ethanol and biodiesel will result to a decrease reliance on foreign conventional fossil fuels and a reduction on harmful. etc. Below are some of them. methyl esters and glycerin which are not good for engines. Ethanol Ethanol and Biodiesel: A Biofuel Comparison The two most widely used types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. wind. conservation is still the primary strategy. biodiesel is made from natural oils such as animal fats or vegetable oils. There are various methods to compare ethanol and biodiesel. It can be blended with conventional petroleum diesel to improve its octane level resulting in reduced greenhouse gas emissions. There is no instant weaning on conventional petroleum diesel. wheat. renewable. experts states that the main biofuels. pros. But this does not mean that biofuel have no future. Just a brief review. sugars and starch are fermented. technology. toxic emissions. it has a very promising potential. are still needed. Process The two processes that can generate fuel-grade ethanol are wet milling and dry milling. As a matter of fact. traditional No Comments » Nov 19 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. the two byproducts. Conclusion To reduce the reliance on fossil fuel. The “traditional” fuel like gasoline needs 20% energy based on what it can provide. ethanol and biodiesel. On the other hand. energy.

Gallons per acre In the perspective of land use and agricultural efficiency. Thus. It necessitates a blend of ethanol. The pursuit to lessen our reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels will not be realized with a single alternative fuel. Costs Currently. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. Stated above are some of the many facts about ethanol and biodiesel with the end view of comparing the two biofuels on which one is better. The two have a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that these biofuels are primarily derived from crops which absorb carbon dioxide. Consequently. The reason is that about 420 gallons of ethanol can be generated per acre in contrast to 60 gallons of biodiesel per acre soybeans. Both biodiesel and ethanol could provide significant environmental benefit. Therefore. commercial biodiesel is more expensive than ethanol. On the other hand ethanol produces only 25% more net energy.Environmental Benefit Both biofuels can reduce harmful emissions. the generation and combustion of biodiesel from soybeans results in 41% diminution compared to conventional gasoline. biodiesel and perhaps some yet-to-be discovered alternative fuel. However. ethanol seems to be a good choice. almost all ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline. . Energy Many reports stated that biodiesel provides 93% more net energy per gallon than is necessary for its manufacture. On the other hand. Compatibility Biodiesel can run in any diesel generated engines. the cost of soybean oil would significantly increase if biodiesel production is increased as well. Greenhouse-gas Emissions (GHG) The production and combustion of ethanol ends in 12% less greenhouse gas emission than the production and combustion of regular diesel. it is only compatible with selected gasoline powered automobiles. it is not yet clear if it is the same when using 100% ethanol since it is recommended to be blended with fossil fuel like gasoline. In the United States.

Distill the fermented mixture in order for the ethanol to separate from the solids. To make it undrinkable. Then. add a small amount of gasoline. etc) pass through a grinding meal to pulverize the selected material. ghg. wheat. various methods are used in making ethanol from biomass . Presently. 4. Ethanol-producing plant also buys these by- products for a variety of purposes. biofuel. afterwards it is fermented again into alcohol. comparison.an organic material. cost. Get rid of the water from the separated ethanol through a dehydration process. Add another enzyme that will facilitate the conversion of starch into sugars which are then fermented. But in Brazil.Tags: biodiesel. compatibility. 6. Start the fermentation by adding yeast to the sugar mixture. Ethanol. But the most widely used is the dry-mill method. A variety of procedures can generate fuel-grade ethanol. sugarcane is widely used. 2. gallons per acre. Corn is commonly the base material in the United States due to its affordability and availability. Below is the brief step by step process. it is considered biodegradable and renewable. sorghum and wheat. 3. The carbon dioxide and distiller grain which are both byproducts of this method can be use in the ranching and farming industry. environment. it is fermented into sugar. . colorless alternative alcohol fuel. Ethanol Uncovering a Biofuel: Ethanol Ethanol is alcohol fuel derived from sugars found in crops such as rice. grain powder and an enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of the grain compound into a high-heat cooker. Cool it afterwards. From starch. Since it is produced from plants. It is definitely a clear. Let the base organic material (corn. 5. The ethanol should be non potable to be used as an alternative fuel. 7. energy. The fermentation of sugars and starch in corn with the use of yeast is the most frequently method utilized. sugarcane. 1. liquefy it by placing the blend of water. The sugars will be broken down to ethanol (a form of alcohol) and carbon dioxide. process No Comments » Oct 06 2007 Posted by admin under Biofuels. potato skins and sugarcane and it is commonly made from corn. producing alcohol from the cooled mash.

This reaction gets rid of the by-product glycerin which is not suitable for the engines through a refinery process termed as transesterification. it also one of the most thoroughly tested substitute fuels on the market. Biodiesel is then free from such materials as sulfur and aromatics which are contained in traditional fuels that in turn will substantially facilitate in the reduction of harmful emissions from diesel-fed engines. During the transesterification process. biodiesel is way better for the environment. organic. Ethanol is safe. construction equipment. Tests have verified that even though it operates in a similar manner to conventional diesel. and sunflowers. Ethanol. It has a great probability of decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions because of the fact that biodiesel is primarily derived from crops which absorbs carbon dioxide. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines. corn. It can be used in unmodified engines . In the United States. It does not require lead or other derivatives to keep the engine running smoothly. ethanol as a transportation fuel can be utilized as a partial or total alternative for conventional petroleum diesel. safe No Comments » Sep 14 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. Tags: biofuel. truck. Since it does not produce detrimental . For urban regions that don’t meet the standards of a clean air. soybean. In addition. boat. Since it is primarily derived from plants and animals. generator or oil home heating units. bus. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. cleaner-burning alternative for petroleum-based diesel fuel.Utilizing ethanol means using less of the nonrenewable fuel to produce gasoline. Thus. It is not detrimental if accidentally spilled because it breaks down very quickly. Biofuels Biodiesel: In Depth A type of biofuel that is now frequently used is biodiesel. The glycerin that is removed in turn can be made into soaps. It is considered clean for the main reason that it lessens toxic pollutants such as carbon monoxide from the pipelines of vehicles.be it a car. the supply can be replenished by means of farming and recycling. nontoxic and biodegradable. Considered to be biodegradable and nontoxic. ghg. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. It is a renewable. On another note. biodiesel is primarily produced from a chemical reaction of alcohol (commonly methanol) and a wide range of fats which include vegetable or animal oils and plant extracts such as corn. other byproducts such as methyl esters are also left behind. gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) is utilized. canola. almost 99% of ethanol produced can be blended with gasoline to make E10.

It can be seen around the country in selected areas or it can be purchased directly from manufacturers. Nevertheless. The contribution to the sustainability and cleanliness of diesel engines has been one of the focuses of biodiesel production. it will accordingly cause lasting effects on generations to come.and 98% diesel or 5% bio. the price will eventually drop. are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by drivers as they become more aware of the many advantages. The ultimate target of the biodiesel industry is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. it yields a fuel which is compatible with diesel engines. As one of numerous alternative fuels. A combination of 20% bio.and 95% diesel. designed to be ran on traditional fuel on the condition that it meets the given standards that can be checked on the manufacturer’s recommendations and information. Biodiesel is a ground-breaking fuel that is rapidly becoming more available to the general community. fuel.conventional diesel will considerably lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can aggravate global warming. production. efficacy and worth. It may rate a little more expensive than conventional fuels at the present time due to the demand that is not as great. However. It can be safely utilized in any compression-ignition engine. may it light-duty or heavy-duty engines. renewable No Comments » Aug 28 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable. Tags: alcohol. biodiesel. its main goal is to broaden its usefulness. the raw oil is subjected to a process called “transesterification. shifts imported petroleum and decrease toxic emissions. It is most often blended with traditional diesel fuel at any level to lessen automobile emissions. Biofuels Why Choose Biodiesel? How It Works To generate biodiesel. When biodiesel is mixed with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. energy. Lower-level biodiesel blends. biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy. renewable fuel source. such as 2% bio.consequences to the environment. .” This refining method uses of an industrial alcohol (ethanol or methanol) and a catalyst (substance that speeds up the chemical reaction) resulting to a conversion of the oil into a fatty-acid methyl-ester fuel (biodiesel).and 80%.

Definition Biodiesel is a renewable fuel made from farm products such as vegetable or animal oils. It is most commonly mixed with conventional petroleum diesel fuel at any level to reduce detrimental automobile emissions. biodiesel is the best alternative that has proven to be safe and not harmful to the environment.It can be utilized in single pure form however it may require engine alterations to avoid maintenance and performance troubles. Lower-level biodiesel blends. fats. A Safe and Clean Fuel • Cleaner Emissions – The use of biodiesel lessens greenhouse emissions because carbon dioxide that is released from the combustion of biodiesel is neutralize by the carbon dioxide utilized while growing the feedstock. A combination of 20% bio. it brings in a fuel that is compatible with diesel engines.and 80%. • Nonflammable – In contrast to gasoline which ignites immediately at any lower temperature. • Appropriate for Your Engine – A number of tests reveal that biodiesel is more lubricating than any conventional diesel to both the fuel injection pump and engine. such as 2% bio. When biodiesel is combined with petroleum diesel. and animal fats can also be used in the United States. • Sustainable – Aside from it biodegradability. • Non-hazardous – In terms of toxicity. . reduce imported petroleum needs and decrease toxic emissions. are turning out to be increasingly common and widely used by the public as they become more aware of the many benefits. recycled vegetable oils. Almost all biodiesels are derived from soybean oil. canola oil. • Simple – The automobile need not any complex modification or conversion. biodiesel will only ignite at a very high temperature. biodiesel is also renewable in contrast to scarce fossil fuel use which is formed from the remnants of animals and plants that have lain in the earth for millions of years. Various tests verified that biodiesel is biodegradable and nontoxic that poses no threat to human health. The biodiesel can be readily blended with conventional petroleum diesel in your fuel tank at any point in time.conventional diesel will greatly lessen carcinogenic emissions and gases which can worsen global warming. • Renewable – Biodiesel is derived from 85% vegetable or animal oils/fats which are renewable sources.and 98% diesel or 5% bio. however sunflower oil.and 95% diesel. or recycled cooking greases.

It is suggested to carry an extra fuel filter in your car. such as hoses and pump seals will be gradually degraded with the utilization of biodiesel. know how to change it and be prepared at all times. Before they will entirely ruin. These rubber fuel system components.1994 automobiles and several later model vehicles have fuel lines that are not compatible with biodiesel. Biofuels Precautionary Measures in Using Biodiesel in Your Engines One of the main biofuels which is biodiesel is now widely used in the United States. It does not also require purchasing new vehicles to shift from conventional diesel to biodiesel. It varies depending on the said determinants. clean. • Rubber Seals and Hoses Almost all pre . Canada. and many countries in Europe. energy. Here are some of the important considerations in utilizing biodiesel in your engines. Thus.• Available – Currently in the United States. base organic material (soybean. it will first become supple or spongy. it is advisable to consult the manufacturer’s recommendations and information about the use of biodiesel. On the side of the fleets. • Paint . thus primarily causing fuel filter clogs when used for the first time. Thailand. there are roughly 600 fleets that use biodiesel blends in their diesel engines. renewable No Comments » Jul 22 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. acquisitions of new spare parts supply or rebuilding stations need not to be done by the manager. Since it turns out to be increasingly common and generally used by the public as they become more knowledgeable of the positive effects. Vehicle owners must change the filter shortly after trying on a full tank of biodiesel. corn. Power loss is an indication of fuel filter clogging. fuel. • Affordable – The geographic area. Tags: biodiesel. various blends of biodiesel at approximately 800 areas are available nationwide. etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. Moreover. once in a while check under your hood and replace with a biodiesel resistant synthetic any ruined fuel lines and seals • Fuel Filter Clogging Biodiesel can liberate deposits mounted up on pipes and tank walls from previous traditional diesel fuel.

A second opinion from an expert mechanic is also suggested before permitting any expensive repairs to be done. The vehicle will not start when biodiesel freezes your fuel system and injection pump. Fact: Over the years. technology has significantly improved. This however may not cause damage. vehicle No Comments » Mar 11 2007 Posted by admin under Biodiesel. In addition. biodiesel crystallizes.The paint on your automobile may dissolve with the use of biodiesel in due course. It is better to look and locate for the nearest biodiesel-friendly mechanic before actually needing one. A lot of newer vehicles have compatible components that will accept biofuels readily. biofuel. Pouring hot water can also be done but be sure to avoid wetting the electrical components. engine. immediately replace your fuel filter. Ethanol Misconceptions on Biofuel Misconception # 1: Biofuel generates a small amount of energy than it takes to produce them. Nevertheless it is still best to check your owner’s manual or consult your vehicle manufacturers for recommendations and more specific information. danger. A blow-dryer can also be aimed at the fuel filter and lines. biodiesel even provides 3. else park it indoors. Ethanol gives about 1. Fuel containers can be stored in warm places. If experiencing power loss. In regions with colder climates. A lot of researches and tests had been done to prove that biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel generate energy that is comparable to conventional diesel fuel. warming up the vehicle helps. precaution.5 units of energy for every unit of energy used. crystallization can be prevented with adding of heating elements or insulation to the fuel systems. If no indoor parking is available. This incident can be prevented by immediately wiping off or washing with small amount of soap and water. • Uninformed Mechanics Mechanics that are not knowledgeable and familiar with biodiesel might misdiagnosed not related problems as being brought about by biodiesel and perform “repairs” in the fuel system that are not necessary and expensive. • Cold Weather Depending on the type of fat sources it was derived from. Overall. the utilization of biodiesel can not be the primary reason for maintenance issues and concerns. Biofuels. Tags: biodiesel.2 units of energy to every unit . the car should be parked where sunlight can hit it. at around 32°F or higher.

On another note. In biodiesel for example. If there are billions of people who suffer starvation in different parts of the world. its main goal is to broaden its usefulness. gasoline containing 10% ethanol (E10) can also be used. It varies depending on the said determinants. biodiesel have a spot in the development and improvement of a balanced energy policy. most of the time using equipment that a local workshop can make and maintain. construction equipment.be it a car. The extensive use of E10 is encouraged in some states. It can create jobs and help boost the economy as well. renewable fuel source. Sufficient amount of food exist than there has ever been before. Not only traditional petroleum fuel is far more expensive. biofuels are the best alternatives to fossil fuels which are nonrenewable. truck. renewable resources. Misconception # 3: Modification of all engines is a must in using Biofuel. Biodiesel can be utilized in pure form however it may necessitate engine modifications to refrain from maintenance and performance troubles. the price will eventually drop. The use of E10 can be used on all gasoline operated vehicles without making massive modification to their engines. Fact: There is more than enough food to cater to the general public. corn. efficacy and worth. it is also damaging our environment. as demand increases and as the public realize the advantages of a biodegradable. Misconception # 4: Biofuel must be subsidized to be affordable. grow-your-own fuels which can be produced on-site in local villages or communities from locally available. However. Misconception # 2: Biofuel brings about food shortage. This can make biofuel an economical option to fossil fuels and can aid in strengthening local communities both socially and economically. Biodiesel and ethanol are both clean. Fact: The ultimate target of the biofuel manufacturing is not to totally replace conventional diesels such as petroleum diesel. It may rate a little more expensive than traditional fuels at the current time due to the demand that is not as great. Misconception # 5: Biofuels will completely replace conventional fuel. that is not primarily because there is not enough food. it can be used in unmodified engines . As a matter of fact. As one of numerous alternative fuels. etc) and supplier will greatly determine the price of biodiesel. Fact: This is not true for all. The main reason why people starve is not because of biofuel production but because of inequitable economic system. base organic material (soybean. bus.of energy used. “traditional” fuel (gasoline) uses 20% more energy to make it than it provides or converts. generator or oil home heating units. Fact: The geographic area. . Reality: At the present time. Nevertheless. boat.

We can’t deny the fact that in other parts of the world.an organic material. This would only result to further reduction of water availability. termed as “biofuels. Ethanol. infrastructure. energy. food shortage No Comments » Jan 24 2007 Posted by admin under Biofuels Biofuel and the Controversies There have been many efforts to generate unlimited and renewable source of fuel. In contrast to other renewable energy resources. It has been believed to be the sole answer for the world’s global warming and energy crisis. This is where biofuel production comes in. looking at the entire process. alternative. Issue # 2: Does it not really affect food supply?One of the prime criticisms is usually directed against large-scale biofuel production. can be converted directly into burnable fuels. deforestation. will cause food shortages and price increase. biomass . human resource. e10. Consequently. the balance of carbon dioxide is sustained and maintained in the atmosphere. In the contemporary years. etc. The presence of large-scale biofuels would greatly need enormous amount of water. The central dispute is that biofuel production will compete with food supply in numerous ways. It is particularly alarming in regions known to have scarcity of water. the considerable reduced emission from the utilization of biofuel is overshadowed by far greater emissions that result from burning. agricultural. the biofuel industry is gaining impetus to promote a cleaner environment. Thus. However. biodiesel. from clearing the field to its consumption. It is believed to redirect agricultural production away from food crops. Manufacturing biofuel would only worsen water problem. .” to assist in meeting transportation fuel demands. etc. water limits are becoming more severe. biofuel. this fight over rural investment. fertilizers. engine modification. Issue # 3: Does it not affect a considerable amount of land and water?It is a fact that biofuel production necessitates growing biomass such as crops which in turn require a massive amount of land and water. improve new economic prospect for the agriculture industry and eventually reduce reliance on crude oil as a feedstock for gasoline. Issue # 1: Is it really environmental friendly?It is known that biofuel chief benefit is the reduction of harmful greenhouse gas emission because of the fact that these biofuel is primarily derived from crops which can absorb carbon dioxide. It is especially not good in developing countries. water.Tags: affordable. However there are a lot of controversies that arises from biofuel production and use.

subsistence farmers and endangered species is in reality affected by this land clearing for growing biomass. the incidence of deforestation is alarmingly increasing as croplands are being created. biofuel. But despite of these uncertainties. . environment. biofuel is now widely used in different countries including United States. biomass. in some countries.We supply components for Biodiesel Plants! www.frankenfilter. Ads by Google Algae Oil Extraction . sugar cane. manufacturing biofuel would necessitate growing biomass which requires large agricultural lands.Issue # 4: does it not involve destruction of wild habitats?As stated above. The issues presented above are indeed hot topics that need to be clarified and answered. Tags: benefit. damascusenergy. algae. The simplest biofuel is wood.solutionrecovery. Brazil and some countries in Europe because it poses a very good potential as an alternative fuel. and even manure.com What is Biofuel? Biorganic fuel – biofuel – is any combustible plant or animal material that can be used as an energy source. It does not only destroy wild habitats but also increase carbon dioxide that is emitted when forests are burnt.com/events. Consequently. soybeans. wood-burning as a heat and light source has been popular for millennia.Solar Energy information Your source for energy information.com/algae Solar Energy Blog .High lipid recovery for biofuels Leaders in fractionation technology www. Other common biofuels are made from corn. Fuel can be made from sugar cane. Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels There are both advantages and disadvantages of biofuels that eco-savvy consumers should be aware of when investigating this green fuel alternative to more destructive petroleum products. The home occupied by indigenous people. vegetable oils. These controversies would result to a much continual and thorough studies and research that would greatly benefit not only the government but the public itself.aspx Biodiesel Plants .

biofuels can be manufactured from a wide range of materials including crop waste. making them a safer alternative to preserve atmospheric quality and lower air pollution.com Biofuels Development . • Biodegradability: Biofuels are easily biodegradable and far safer to handle than traditional fuels.Today. biofuel manufacturing plants can employ hundreds or thousands of workers. Advantages Biofuel advocates frequently point out the advantages of these plant. creating new jobs in rural areas. biofuels can be significantly less expensive than gasoline and other fossil fuels. • Source Material: Whereas oil is a limited resource that comes from specific materials. • Economic Stimulation: Because biofuels are produced locally. particularly as worldwide demand for oil increases. • Security: By reducing dependence on foreign fuel sources. Biofuel production will also increase the demand for suitable biofuel crops. Primary Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofuels No fuel source is completely positive or completely negative.and animal-based fuels. www. but the general arguments for and against this type of renewable energy resource are applicable to all types of biofuels and biodiesel. they produce significantly less carbon output and fewer toxins.ca . Different biofuels have more specialized pros and cons. therefore increasing oil and gasoline prices to unheard of levels.pos. such as: • Cost: Once the technology is widely available.50+ companies profiles 1000+ interactive comparison views www. • Renewability: It takes thousands of years for fossil fuels to be produced. providing economic stimulation to the agriculture industry. making spills less hazardous and much easier and less expensive to clean up. countries can protect the integrity of their energy resources and make them safe from outside influences. biofuels are often considered to be a more environmentally responsible type of fuel compared to oil and other fossil fuel products because biofuels have many advantages in terms of ecological sustainability. making it a efficient step in recycling. manure. Ads by Google Free Algae Co's Database . • Lower Carbon Emissions: When biofuels are burned. Consumers need to weigh the pros and cons of biofuels to determine whether they feel comfortable with this emerging resource as an alternative to traditional fuels. but biofuels are much more easily renewable as new crops are grown and waste material is collected.Biofuel development research on lab and pilot plant scales.thegreentrackers. and other byproducts.

this will add to the carbon emissions necessary to bring fuel to population centers. and while they may be cleaner to burn. there are also many disadvantages to these energy sources.Learn Energy Work Basics . . • High Cost: To refine biofuels to more efficient energy outputs and to build the necessary manufacturing plants to increase biofuel quantities will require a high initial investment.spiritconnections. • Water Use: Massive quantities of water are required for proper irrigation of biofuel crops as well as to manufacture the fuel. it could also raise prices for necessary staple food crops. clearing etc www. • Food Prices: As demand for food crops such as corn grows for biofuel production.com Disadvantages Despite the many positive characteristics of biofuels. • Energy Output: Biofuels have a lower energy output than traditional fuels and therefore require greater quantities to be consumed in order to produce the same energy level. there are strong indications that the process to produce the fuel – including the machinery necessary to cultivate the crops and the plants to produce the fuel – has hefty carbon emissions. While manufacturing plants can be isolated. • Smell: Biofuel production produces heavy smells depending on the type of materials used. • Production Carbon Emissions: Several studies have been conducted to analyze the carbon footprint of biofuels. Limited availability reduces the desirability of biofuels as alternative energy sources. • Availability: Biofuels are not widely available for consumer purchase and most vehicles are not equipped to run on biofuel products. and those smells are generally undesirable near large communities. which could strain local and regional water resources.Free 7-Part course sent by email Intention. protection. Biofuels aren't all good.

water. renewable energy source. food supply. many of the disadvantages will be minimized and consumers can begin to enjoy all the benefits of this sustainable.The Future of Biofuels Biofuels are a reliable alternative energy resource but more development and research is necessary to overcome the advantages and disadvantages of biofuels and make them suitable for widespread consumer use. land. When the technology is available. wild habitat .