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Unit 1 Introduction to Maintenance Management
Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 History of Maintenance Definition of Maintenance Objectives and Functions of Maintenance 1.3 Functions of Maintenance Management Quality Aspects in Maintenance Maintenance Organisation Initial Level Repeatable Level Defined Level Managed Level Optimized Level 1.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations Training Strategy Work Management Resources Management Supervisory Review Quality Assurance Subcontract Management Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel. Verification of Implementation Metrics and Process Improvement 1.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Maintenance Management Perspectives Types of Maintenance Preventive Maintenance Shut-down Maintenance Opportunistic Maintenance 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions 1.8 Answers
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Rising inflation and increased competition have brought with them the need for greater productivity, and recent years have seen more emphasis being placed on productivity improvement. Moreover, sophisticated equipment and capital intensive units and plants are being increasingly used to achieve the pre-set targets of higher production and productivity. Reliability and maintainability features are now being incorporated in the equipment designs. Although modern equipment has higher levels of reliability, it is not possible to keep this equipment in an operating condition at all times because failures do occur even in the most reliable equipment.1 It is also true that such sophisticated equipment, and units or plants, tend to have high probabilities of failure since in many cases they incorporate newer, and therefore not adequately proven, technologies and designs. They also consist of a large number of assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. Failure and malfunctioning of these items of equipment result in a loss of production. Loss of production is undesirable because it results in corresponding loss in revenue. Whenever an item of equipment is down and fails to perform its intended function, or performs in an undesirable fashion, it must be restored to a state where it performs satisfactorily. At the same time all necessary action must be taken to keep, or retain, such equipment in an operating condition and also to prevent failures. Resources, such as spare parts, manpower skills, tools, instruments and facilities, such as hangars in the case of aircraft maintenance, are utilized for accomplishment of the restoration processes and preventive actions. Thus the requirement for productivity improvement has brought about the pressing need for a significant improvement in the management of maintenance of equipment, units and plants. Objectives: After studying this unit you shall be able To Define Maintenance To assess objective and functions of Maintenance To describe Quality aspect of Maintenance To assess key process of Maintenance Management
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Maintenance Management Unit 1 1. maintenance activities have been regarded as a necessary evil by the various management functions in an organisation. Maintenance. maintenance Sikkim Manipal University Page No. With fewer items of sophisticated equipment around. Leakage of methyl isocyanite (MIC) from a battery/cell manufacturing unit in Bhopal in India and the threat to the survival of mankind caused by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl in the erstwhile Soviet Union have only made the manufacturing industries and the like realize the importance of maintenance. Overhauls of equipment were planned and scheduled. focus was on reducing downtime of equipment and hence preventive maintenance came into being as an important activity.2 History of Maintenance Historically. prevention of equipment failures was not given much attention. regulatory matters. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. This period also saw a number of researchers working on operations research models for preventive maintenance. estimated to be between 15 and 40 per cent of the production costs and the trend towards automation have. drive for cost reduction and the like. Systems for managing maintenance were also introduced. 3 . To live up to the new expectations demanded of maintenance activities. and hence. The attitude of the managers then was ‘to fix the equipment when it breaks’. and warranty and liability factors. ageing plant and equipment. The evolution of maintenance can be traced from the days prior to World War II. financial. Besides high cost. in addition to fixing the broken equipment. however. The period after World War II saw the introduction of the word ‘terotechnology’ which was initially defined by the committee on terotechnology as ‘…a combination of management. the other factors which contributed to this change include: environmental concerns. The period after 1980 has seen some of the worst accidents in industrial history. The attitude of ignorance towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance also as a strategic issue in the organisation. safety issues. Enormous costs of maintenance. forced managers to pay more attention to maintenance. engineering and other practices applied to physical assets in pursuit of economic lifecycle costs’. Importance of planning maintenance activities also grew during this period. Due to rising costs and inflation. the cost of downtime not being high.
manpower. The objective of maintenance. which is linked to the overall organizational objectives. Techniques such as condition monitoring. be to maximize the profitability of the organisation by performing activities which retain working equipment in an acceptable condition. or tasks. Alternatively the objective should be to minimize the costs – the labour costs and the material costs as well as the loss in revenue due to loss of production. neural networks and Markov chains have been used for controlling and managing maintenance activities. tools and facilities. Performing such activities would obviously extend the useful life of the equipment. the principal objectives of maintenance would be: to control the availability of the equipment. The set of tasks or activities that constitute maintenance ranges from simple cleaning operations and lubrication to performing condition monitoring. The availability and utilization of these resources are of prime importance.2. or restoring failed equipment to a normal operating condition. an item of equipment in a specified operating condition. means preserving. therefore. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and planning and scheduling maintenance resources. Performing maintenance activities requires the use of resources such as spare parts. The need for reliable equipment has also been realized. 4 . or keeping.2. Maintenance can thus be defined as a set of activities. or return the equipment to an acceptable working condition. 1. In summary. should. Obviously. that are related to preserving equipment in a specified operating condition.Maintenance Management Unit 1 programmes have to be developed to ensure that physical assets will continue to fulfill their intended functions at a minimum expenditure of resources. maintenance activities which do not contribute to preserving or restoring the intended functions of assets should be eliminated. at minimum resource cost.2 Objectives and Functions of Maintenance The objective of any business organisation is to make profits. In case an item of equipment fails it needs to be restored to the same specified operating condition. 1. Maintenance. To extend the useful life of the equipment.1 Definition of Maintenance Maintenance is an element of a complete production system. in general.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Budgeting. 3.Maintenance Management Unit 1 Modern maintenance management can be considered to be composed of the following functions: maintenance planning. at minimum ________________. Maintenance is an element of a complete ___________ system. involved simple activities like cleaning and lubrication. _____________ in addition to fixing the broken equipment. 4. organizing maintenance resources. defining processes for performing maintenance. Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying organisation-wide policies that would help achieve higher maintenance productivity such as: Do we repair the equipment or buy a new one? Do we perform preventive maintenance or corrective maintenance activities? Do we employ full-time repair personnel or should we subcontract work? Self Assessment Questions 1. 2. The attitude of ______________ towards maintenance has increasingly been replaced by one which recognizes maintenance. including staffing/recruiting. controlling the performance of maintenance activities. directing execution of maintenance plan. 5 . Maintenance planning includes formulating and identifying ___________ policies. 5. The principal objectives of maintenance would be to control the availability of the equipment.
3 Functions of Maintenance Management Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with top management. Any maintenance activity requires resources. Once the required resources are available.Maintenance Management Unit 1 1. This is a statement of maintenance tasks to be carried out in a specified period. the maintenance Sikkim Manipal University Page No. If the required resources are not available. 6 . the maintenance manager needs to organize the required resources and all these resources need to be available in the right quantity and at the right time. Another important task is creation of a master maintenance schedule. In order to carry out maintenance activities as planned. This will lead to degradation of equipment performance and can also result in its failure. then the planned maintenance activity cannot be performed. The top management is also responsible for negotiating and authorizing the service level agreement.
without causing any damage to the equipment or to any of its parts. a review by the manager or the maintenance supervisor would be essential to ensure and authorize that the maintenance work has been carried out properly.Maintenance Management Unit 1 activity can be initiated.3. the required tools. an appropriate ‘on-the-job’ training programme for the repair men to enhance their ability to work. It incurs not more than the budgeted cost. It is more to do with Sikkim Manipal University Page No.2 Maintenance Organisation Maintenance organisation does not mean only the organisation of people in the maintenance department or their reporting structure. The maintenance manager should ensure that the equipment is restored to its normal working condition as quickly as possible. it is initiated on time and the equipment is returned to production at the required time. the need is for a good maintenance organisation. instruments and facilities for performing the activity. 1. The above-mentioned conditions can be satisfied only when the maintenance organisation has: skilled and committed repair men available to carry out the required maintenance activity at the required time. It also includes activities related to collection and analysis of data related to maintenance and reporting to top management. the required spare parts in the required quantity. work and costs. In general.3. Once the activity is complete. A repository of maintenance processes. In case the task does not get completed within the estimated time then corrective action would need to be taken to ensure further loss in revenue due to loss in production is minimized. The maintenance manager should track the work to completion. A maintenance activity can be considered to be of high quality if: it restores an item of equipment to its normal working state. 1. 7 . This way not only is the downtime cost kept to the minimum but also the resources are utilized effectively. Other common tasks related to maintenance management include generating reports related to equipment.1 Quality Aspects in Maintenance Quality is not absolute but relative.
The strength to carry out similar activities stems from the prior experience. However. An important step in addressing the maintenance management problems is to treat the maintenance task as a process that can be controlled. training and motivation of the people involved. List down required process improvement actions. In order to improve performance. measured and improved. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that. the most important ones being project management. 1.Maintenance Management Unit 1 the maturity of the maintenance process such that high-quality maintenance activities are performed. Commit resources to execute the plan. organizations must have dedicated personnel who take care of the development processes. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. that is. 3.*9 The CMM was defined by the software engineering institute (SEI) for software development organizations and it classifies software development organizations into five levels initial. The performance of these steps calls for a process-oriented organisation and such an organisation develops over a period of time as enunciated by the capability maturity model (CMM). 8 . Understand the status of the current maintenance process or processes. the tools and procedures used. without formalized procedures. quality assurance and project tracking and oversight. Determine if the current process is the desired process. when performed properly. organizations at this level face risks when presented with new challenges. 4. produces the desired result. Tools are neither integrated with the process nor uniformly applied.3.3. To improve the capabilities of the maintenance organisation the following steps8 must be performed consistently: 1. 2. managed and optimized. 5. cost estimates and plans.3 Initial Level The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. 1. Plan to perform the required actions. To reach the defined level.4 Repeatable Level Organizations which carry out similar projects with reasonable accuracy with regard to cost and time are at this level. repeatable. defined. An effective maintenance process must consider the relationships of all the tasks. and the skill. organizations at this level need to institutionalize basic management processes.
The objective is not to classify the maintenance organizations also into one of these levels. Since the data collection process is full-fledged. produces the undesired result. To reach the highest level on the CMM. Any maintenance activity requires resources. Targets are set for performance and a plan is made out to achieve the pre-set targets.3. 9 .3. 1. 1. that is. the effectiveness of the process can also be determined. without formalized procedures. 10. 1. The organisation operates on an ad hoc basis. A ‘process’ can be defined as a set of tasks that.6 Managed Level The organisation has a way by which performance indicators are measured objectively.3. Responsibility for formulating the maintenance policies lies with shop Supervisors. 7. the organisation achieves the foundation for continuous improvement in processes. 9. Problems are identified proactively and eliminated. The objective is only to identify the key process areas that would enable Sikkim Manipal University Page No. With this. 8. Quality is not absolute but relative.5 Defined Level The organisation has a repository or a set of defined procedures for carrying out development work.Maintenance Management Unit 1 1. To climb up the maturity level. the organisation needs to put in place automatic data collection support tools.4 Improving Maturity in Maintenance Organizations The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a software organisation. The CMM can be adapted to enhance the capabilities of the maintenance organizations as well. when performed properly. Self Assessment Questions State whether following statement True or False 6. the organisation has to implement a measurement programme to obtain process feedback. cost estimates and plans. The organisation now has capabilities to face new challenges and achieve success.7 Optimized Level The organisation has capabilities to identify the weakest links in the development processes and eliminate/improve them.
Subcontract management. For example.2 Work Management Any activity. quality assurance. A few key process areas can be readily identified in this regard. scheduled and conducted. Resource here means manpower. 10 .1 Training Strategy Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable training programme for its personnel. Individual as well as organisation-wide training programmes should be planned. 1. resources management. can be provided on safety and productivity-related issues. tools. This is the responsibility of the maintenance manager. is not managed if it is not planned and tracked. Each of the tasks in the work-breakdown structure should have appropriate resources assigned to it. Also the probable time to complete the tasks should be specified. In such a case it is better if some of the available personnel are re-trained on some trades other than those in which they have specialized. for example. Coordination within a group is critical to completion of the maintenance task on time. scheduled and tracked to completion. work management. in one organisation an activity that Sikkim Manipal University Page No. This is referred to as the work-breakdown structure. Every maintenance activity should be planned. The maintenance manager should identify the training needs of his subordinates and get them trained. The term ‘small activity’ should be defined by the quality assurance personnel because it varies from one organisation to another. usage of modern tools etc. It would not be appropriate to track every small activity in the work-breakdown structure to completion. For example. Most maintenance activities are performed in groups. facilities etc. 1. supervisory review. They are: training strategy.4. a welder may be re-trained to perform a pipe-fitter’s job. A maintenance activity should be broken down into smaller manageable tasks. Training.Maintenance Management Unit 1 maintenance organizations to enhance their capabilities and maturity. It therefore becomes necessary to train all the maintenance personnel on the aspects of team work. An organisation may not always find suitable people for performing a job. irrespective of the time it consumes.4.
and for analyzing them in order to come up with improved routes and work processes. The required resources should be available at the right time and in the right quantity. tools. instruments and facilities. Holding resources in excess of requirements is wasteful while nonavailability of required resources at the required time is undesirable since this result in loss of revenue due to loss in production. They are responsible for collecting data while the maintenance activity is carried out. a bull’s eye chart may be appropriate for tracking work. is expensive. subcontracted work should also be managed. Like any other internal maintenance activity.6 Subcontract Management A few maintenance activities require specialists at the job.Maintenance Management Unit 1 takes only 15 minutes for completion is considered to be small. The supervisor should also report completion of the activity to the maintenance manager so that the actual costs incurred are logged. manpower.4. A better option is to subcontract the work. Management of resources is therefore critical to managing the maintenance function.4.4. a small maintenance activity may take not less than 5 hours. the supervisor should inspect the equipment in order to ensure that the equipment is performing as desired. 1. 11 . For small activities. The supervisor’s responsibility is to ensure that the required resources allotted for performing the maintenance activity are available to the repair gang on time and in the required numbers.5 Quality Assurance The quality assurance personnel should be responsible for identifying the optimum route for performing a maintenance activity. 1. such as an oil refinery.4. In some others. Hiring these specialists on a full-time basis. The goals of the subcontract management should be to evaluate and select appropriate subcontractors Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 1.3 Resources Management As mentioned earlier.4 Supervisory Review Every maintenance activity should be performed under the charge of a supervisor. 1. in most cases. maintenance activities require resources in the form of spare parts. Once the activity is complete. The supervisor should also guide the repair gang in performing the activity.
4. 1.9 Metrics and Process Improvement This is a continuous process. The repair men should be provided with a list of activities that need to be performed as a part of the maintenance. These factors have also been borrowed from the CMM. Feedback on the maintenance activity performed should be given to the concerned repair men.4. Measurement of maintenance activity can be in terms of percentage of work complete to date. 12 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No.8 Verification of Implementation The supervisor of the repair men should verify the completion/ implementation of the maintenance activity. Ability of the maintenance personnel can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. Gathering metrics on every maintenance activity helps in estimating the time requirements and also the cost. List of activities. The subcontractor manager should select a suitable subcontractor based on a balanced assessment of the capabilities of prospective subcontractors. A few more basic areas like maintenance planning and configuration management would also need to be considered. 1. Yet another goal would be to verify the correctness of the work performed.4. tools etc. This involves establishment of policies and top management sponsorship. This is the work order management process.Maintenance Management Unit 1 for performing the maintenance activities. The supervisor should also make use of this opportunity to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the individual repair men and arrange suitable training for them. The maintenance manager can also visit premises to inspect the capabilities and to get first-hand information. estimated time to complete the work. Five important factors need to be taken care of if each of the key process areas mentioned above need to be implemented in the maintenance organisation. 1.7 Commitment of the Maintenance Personnel The repair men need to be committed to perform the maintenance activities. the maintenance productivity and quality of the maintenance work. The selection of the subcontractor should be planned. The assessment of the subcontractor can be done by inviting each to present their capabilities and verification of claims through independent references. Increasing the ability to perform.
At any time. 12. 3. Four entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. The quality assurance group. The resources. Maintenance is carried out while the equipment is running. 13 . the quality assurance group collects data on the process and analyses them with a view to improving the process. including manpower. 1. 15. The quality assurance group determines the process of performing the maintenance activity in an optimized manner.1 Maintenance Management Perspectives Kelly has described the dynamics of a production maintenance system considering a large process plant. materials and tools.Maintenance Management Unit 1 Self Assessment Questions 11. As the maintenance activity is carried out. An activity is scheduled (as far as possible during the production windows in the case of preventive maintenance) and initiated depending on the availability of the required resources. The equipment is running and is producing the desired output. tools etc. Ability of the __________________ can be enhanced by providing them with proper and relevant training. The maintenance manager. The selection of the ______________should be planned. 1. 4. The key process areas (KPAs) involved in enhancing the capability and maturity of a ____________________. Since the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Every maintenance organisation should have a suitable ___________ for its personnel. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities.5. The supervisor group.5 Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation Coordination within the groups is one of the most important factors that determine the effectiveness of any maintenance organisation. an item of equipment or some part of it can be in one of the five following states: 1. Metrics and process improvement is a ___________________. 14. They are as follows: 1. 13. The maintenance manager tracks the activity to completion while the supervisor inspects and ensures the activity is carried out properly. 2.
This is called the ‘production window’. The equipment is in a failed condition. The equipment is taken out of production for a scheduled maintenance activity. This maintenance activity also does not incur any loss in production. All the maintenance activities. It can be seen from the above that there are two perspectives of maintenance management: 1. regardless of the maintenance perspectives. Maintenance is being carried out to restore the equipment to an operable condition.Maintenance Management Unit 1 equipment is in use there is no loss in production while performing this maintenance activity. Ettkin and Jahnig have described the work life cycle for the reactive and proactive perspectives. Fix it when it breaks as in cases (4) and (5). 2. performing the maintenance task. Due to shortage of resources the maintenance activity is pending. This activity involves simple inspection of replaceable parts. The key distinction among the three perspectives relates to the time interval between the recognition of the need to perform a maintenance activity and the time at which the activity is actually performed. The equipment is in a failed condition. They have divided corrective maintenance into two perspectives – ‘reactive’ and ‘reactive/proactive’ – and have defined preventive maintenance as a ‘proactive’ perspective. Since the equipment is being taken out of production this maintenance activity results in loss of production. Evaluation of the performance. 5. 2. The equipment is not wanted for production and is available for maintenance. 3. Prevent it from breaking down as in cases (1). Relatively more time is spent on performing this type of maintenance activity. Since the equipment is not in an operating condition this maintenance activity results in considerable loss of production. 14 . 4. involve the following steps: planning the maintenance task. scheduling the maintenance task. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. (2) and (3). this is called preventive maintenance. this is called corrective maintenance.
The intention is to detect potential failures early. make changes and prevent failures. In the case of the ‘reactive’ perspective. which are primarily due to loss of production. in turn. 15 . Performing a maintenance activity requires usage of resources such as manpower. results in loss of revenue. the time interval between the recognition and performance is very small as compared to the ‘proactive’ perspective. Just as there is a tradeoff between inventory holding costs and the reordering costs. This approach to maintenance becomes essential for any equipment where there are serious dangers to life should a failure occur. The preventive actions under such a situation would be to: Train all the personnel in their own jobs.5. the ship and its entire crew are in mortal danger.3 Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance is a proactive activity. 1.2 Types of Maintenance The return of investment on an item of equipment can be maximized by maximizing its availability. in the case of nuclear submarines. is proportional to the loss in revenue. 1. corrective and other maintenance practices followed in organizations. material costs and direct overheads. There is rarely any organisation where only one type of maintenance is used. If personnel who operate and maintain the nuclear power plant of the submarine make serious mistakes. The cost of unavailability. The level of maintenance activity to be performed is obviously the one where the total cost is minimal. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. and indirect maintenance costs. As the level of performing maintenance activity increases. the direct costs increase. The total maintenance cost is the sum of direct maintenance costs. The following section describes the preventive. This is an approach developed to reduce the likelihood of the failure of critical equipment to the minimum possible.5. consisting of labour costs. Most situations warrant a considerable mixture of maintenance types. which is an indirect cost. Also the indirect costs resulting due to failure decrease. for example. materials and tools. The cost of utilization of these resources is a direct maintenance cost. When an item of equipment is down it results in loss of production which.Maintenance Management Unit 1 The only difference is that of the time interval. there is a trade-off between the maintenance costs and their benefits. Availability of an item of equipment can be defined as the ratio of uptime to the sum of uptime and downtime.
Fixed-time maintenance is that activity which involves inspection of critical parts of the equipment after a fixed time interval. Planned activities are carried out and the main functions are: inspection of critical parts of the equipment. Primary objectives of this approach to maintenance are to: Increase the life of critical equipment by preventing failures. adjustment and similar activities. Replacement of worn-out parts.Maintenance Management Unit 1 Audit the personnel so that they demonstrate satisfactory performance to their job standards. This approach to maintenance is also important in highly automated plants. These activities can prevent serious errors from occurring. The fixed time should not be based on the calendar units but should be based on a fixed number of running units such as kilometers. Analyze even the most trivial errors to determine what went wrong. servicing. Inspect each ship and each operation to ensure that every procedure and method is properly understood and executed. 16 . such as car assembly. hours etc. or after generation of a fixed cumulative output. This approach is designed to detect the onset of Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Condition-based maintenance is also known as predictive maintenance. where the cost due to loss in production is very high. power plants etc. which includes lubrication. These objectives give rise to the following methods of performing preventive maintenance activities: fixed-time maintenance. This type of maintenance activity is applicable only for those items which exhibit a timedependent failure mechanism. Report deviations to the admiral-in-charge. and the commanding officer must promptly report on the corrective actions. and replacement of those which are worn out. Detect the onset of a failure.. the level of distilled water in the battery of an automobile is checked after every 1000 kilometers and the brush ploughs of a grinding mill should be replaced after every 500 hours of running. For example. Condition-based maintenance.
17 . shock pulses etc. is a reactive activity and is performed when an item of equipment is not in an operating condition or is operating at a level below its rated capacity. Corrective maintenance activities are also performed when condition monitoring indicates onset of a failure. In some situations it is possible to carry out some preventive maintenance activities while the equipment or plant is running. the maintenance personnel can also collect data which can be used as inputs by other methods of condition-based maintenance procedures. This type of maintenance is called running maintenance. For example. generally occurring in the form of breakdown maintenance. These methods. Detailed analysis helps in detecting an impending failure. which the case is when the event leading to failure occurs in a predominantly random manner. or how the failure can be prevented is not yet known. The costs involved in condition monitoring may vary widely. Since condition monitoring gives sufficient warning of an impending failure it Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Corrective Maintenance Corrective maintenance. A parameter. which can be measured either visually or by other means. are expensive. Techniques such as oil analysis. cracks in the structure of a building etc. checking for leaks in fuel-carrying pipes. A simple case of condition-based maintenance is the visual examination of the brake pads of an automobile. It is an appropriate option for preventive maintenance when the following conditions apply: Prevention of failure is not technically feasible. It is possible to identify a value of that parameter when action may be taken before full failure occurs. This method of condition-based maintenance is inexpensive. eddy currents. such as the setting of warning limits for the Solidification of the lubricant. on the other hand.Maintenance Management Unit 1 a failure. Running maintenance is normally carried out in situations where there is no threat to the life of the maintenance personnel. correlating to the onset of failure has been identified. the solidification of the lubricant is an indicator of the machine’s wearing condition. The obvious advantage of carrying out running maintenance is that there is no loss in production. Along with inspection. analysis of acoustic emissions. ultrasonic waves and thermographs also help monitor the condition of the equipment. Complex situations require sensors and other high-tech tools to monitor the vibrations.
Damage is caused to other equipment as a consequence of failure. the maintenance department personnel attempt to detect the cause of the failure.Maintenance Management Unit 1 becomes easy for the maintenance manager to plan a corrective activity at a later time. Although. replacement of failed parts with new ones. if repair is not economical. the time required to perform this activity is much higher than the preventive actions require. this can be reduced considerably if the organisation has all the maintenance procedures and systems in place. If the priority is high or alternatively if the equipment is critical. This Sikkim Manipal University Page No. as well as major repairs and overhauls. criticality of the equipment and the priority. as mentioned earlier.5. corrective maintenance work is scheduled and carried out. There is a cost due to loss in production. Once an item of equipment fails. the maintenance-related costs are usually high for the following reasons: The time required is usually much higher than other maintenance types because the cause of failure has to be identified.5. 1. repair and replace certain other parts of the equipment. 1. Minor repairs which cannot be performed while the equipment is running. 18 .5 Opportunistic Maintenance The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. are carried out after the equipment or plant is shut down. The cause is usually recorded for future analysis and corrective actions are prescribed. This is a proactive-reactive approach to maintenance and results in the following tasks: repair of failed parts of the equipment. In organizations where there are very few production windows. The work is deferred to a later date if the priority is low or the equipment is not so critical. corrective maintenance is predominant. Depending on the availability of resources. When a maintenance activity is carried out on an item of equipment there exists some opportunity to inspect. Trained maintenance personnel also have a role to play in reducing the maintenance time. and then the parts have to be repaired or replaced. With this kind of maintenance policy. an emergency maintenance is carried out.4 Shut-down Maintenance Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity.
it has now come to be accepted as an important function – one of strategic importance – particularly in the capital-intensive continuous-process industries such as power plants. The maintenance manager is responsible for scheduling maintenance activities. we also realize that failures are unavoidable. 19 . 17. it should be closely associated or integrated with the resources management function. maintenance of plant and machinery was a thankless job and the maintenance function was considered a necessary evil. From this state. 1.6 Summary Until recently. 18. The types of maintenance discussed in this section will help top management decide on questions like: should we carry out preventive actions? Or should we fix the equipment when it breaks? As mentioned earlier. chemical and fertilizer plants. 20.Maintenance Management Unit 1 approach to maintenance is called opportunistic maintenance. While we know that prevention is better than cure. and integrated iron and steel works. This transformation has taken place in about 40 years and has brought about automation and increasing sophistication of plant and equipment. Plant and equipment availability is of paramount importance and effective management of the maintenance function goes a long way in ensuring the attainment of the objective of maximization of availability Sikkim Manipal University Page No. most situations in organizations warrant a mixture of maintenance types. 19. Self Assessment Questions State whether the following statement True or False 16. The maintenance work that is carried out is not directed at the primary cause of failure of the equipment or shut-down. Shut-down maintenance can either be a preventive activity or a corrective activity. Five entities are important as far as the maintenance activities are concerned. The cost of utilization of the resources is a indirect maintenance cost. nuclear power generating stations. The next chapter describes a few resources management techniques. and has been hastened by the fact that the loss of one hour of production is much more expensive today than it ever was before. Whatever be the choice of the maintenance policy.
True 20. Page 11 – Part 1. Continuous Process 16. Organisation-wide 6. True 11. Page 6 – Part 1.Maintenance Management Unit 1 1.2.2 3. False 19.3 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. True 9.4 5. True 18.2 4. 5. Explain Objectives and Functions of Maintenance. Production 4. What are the steps involved in Maintenance Organisation.7 Terminal Questions 1. Discuss Dynamics of a Maintenance Organisation. Page 3 – Part 1. False 7. Software organisation 12. Resource Cost 5. Maintenance 2. Ignorance 3. False 10. Maintenance Personnel 14. Page 10 – Part 1. Subcontractor 15. Training programme 13. False 17. 20 . Write a note on History of Maintenance. False Terminal Questions 1. What are the features of Preventive Maintenance? 1. 3.4. True 8.1. Page 2 – Part 1. 4. 2.8 Answers Self Assessment Questions 1.1 2.