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web server:- examples

Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server (also referred to as simply "Apache") has, at the time of wri
ting, been the most popular web server on the web since 1996. Apache is develope
d and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation, which consists of a decentra
lized team of developers. The software is produced under the Apache licence, whi
ch makes it free and open source.
Apache is available for a range of operating systems, including Unix, Linux, Nov
ell Netware, Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD.
Apache HTTP Server website:
Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)
IIS is, at the time of writing, the second most popular web server on the web. I
t is however, gaining market share, and if the current trend continues, it won't
be long before it overtakes Apache.
IIS comes as an optional component of most Windows operating systems. You can in
stall IIS by using Add/Remove Windows Components from Add or Remove Programs in
the Control Panel.
Microsoft IIS website:
Sun Java System Web Server
Based on the Sun One Web Server, the Sun Java System Web Server is designed for
medium to large business applications. Sun Java System Web Server is available f
or most operating systems.
Sun Java System Web Server website:

How Web Servers Work

Whenever you view a web page on the internet, you are requesting that page from
a web server. When you type a URL into your browser (for example, "http://www.qu"), your browser requests the page from the web
server and the web server sends the page back:

The above diagram is a simplistic version of what occurs. Here's a more detailed
Your web browser first needs to know which IP address the website "www.quackit.c
om" resolves to. If it doesn't already have this information stored in it's cach
e, it requests the information from one or more DNS servers (via the internet).
The DNS server tells the browser which IP address the website is located at. Not
e that the IP address was assigned when the website was first created on the web
Now that the web browser knows which IP address the website is located at, it ca
n request the full URL from the web server.
The web server responds by sending back the requested page. If the page doesn't
exist (or another error occurs), it will send back the appropriate error message
Your web browser receives the page and renders it as required.
When referring to web browsers and web servers in this manner, we usually refer
to them as a client (web browser) and a server (web server).

To navigate a website using HTTPS. Page Not Found If the requested page isn't found. you coul d configure your web server to use "index. then configure your web server to u se them. This can add a nice touch to y our website. their features are typically focussed around setting up and maintaining a website's hosting environment. HTTPS encrypts any data that is transferred over the internet. For example. "index. Applying an SSL certificate to a website is a straight forward task.quackit.cfm" is the default document. How many times have you (or even worse. You can create user friendly error messages.cfm" in the event no filename has been specified. many hosting companies host hundreds. This can be useful in a devel opment environment and is quite easy to do. the web server sends the appropriate error co de/message back to the client. Because w eb servers are built specifically to host websites. using a certificate gen erator). or even thousands of websites on a single web server. First you n eed to generate the certificate either by yourself (i.cfm In this example. you may have found that if you have an "index" file (index. For example. Most web servers have features that allow you to do the following: . or by a Certificate Authority (CA).com") Web Servers . SSL Certificates You can apply SSL certificates against a website via the web server.quackit. or if you use PHP. the following URLs both load the same page: http://www. once it has been generated. Then. Once you've applied an SSL certificate against a website. "index. This reduces the possibility of some malicious person being able to read your users' sensitive information.e. then configure your web server to d isplay that page instead of the usual error page. In fact. Default Documents If you've ever created a website. Each website is usually assigned a unique IP address which distinguishes it from other websites on the same machine. You can configure your web server so that any file name can be the default document. This IP address is also what the DN S server uses to resolve the domain It is also possible to configure multiple websites without using different IP ad dresses using host headers and/or different http://www. y ou apply it to your website via your web server. you simply replace the HTTP with HTTPS at the start of the URL in your browsers' location bar ("https://www. You could even specify different def ault documents for different directories if you like.quackit. your visitors) encountered a plain white page with some cryptic error message on it? It's very easy to create custom error pages.php". you don't need to specify the name of the file.html for example).Multiple Websites A web server can (and usually does) contain more than one website. you can navigate it us ing HTTPS (as opposed to HTTP).Features There's a common set of features that you'll find on most web servers.

This allows you to build and display user friendly error messages on your website. and map them to physical directories Configure/nominate custom error pages. a "40 4 error"). a web server could indeed be essential in your d evelopment environment. What this means is that when you update your website. if you open "http://localhost". which fil e should be displayed? This is typically "index. your changes will take effect on your website. For example. What I m ean is. but let's just call it "development en vironment" for now. Create virtual directories. you can use root-relative pa ths for your image references and hyperlinks (i. The knowledge you gain from using your own web server will help you u nderstand how it works in the live environment. Default documents are those that are displayed when n o file name is specified. you could have many copies of your website for different purposes ( such as testing. Example Web Server Here's an example of the "Properties" dialog box from Microsoft IIS. and so on.Create one or more websites. and a 3rd choice. In o ther words.e. Knowledge. your paths can represent the website structure. Specify default documents. if this is your developmen t environment. Here are some advantages of using a web server within your development environme nt: Your local website behaves more like the live one. Web Servers . (No I don't mean build a set of web pages. so that the website can be viewed via HTTP) Configure log file settings. you can specify which pag e is displayed when a user tries to access a page that doesn't exist (i. u sually on your local machine. that you use to perform updates before you commit them to the live (production) environment. You can see that the website has been configured to use the local path of c:\ine tpub\wwwroot. To display the box. you need to place your files and folders within that directory. For example. An FTP site allows users to transfer files to and from the s ite.gif"). You could nominate "index. (Log files can be used to analyse traffic etc) Configure website/directory security. what data to include on the log files etc. When I say "development environment". set up the website in the web server. You can use server-side scripting languages such as PHP and ColdFusion. you can configur e directory security. rather than the dire ctory structure of your computer. Create an FTP site. For example. which IP addresses are/aren't allowed to view the website etc. including where the log files are saved.e. in a production hosting environment. protypes etc). For example. test your custom error pages etc before commiting them to the production environment. This will most certainly help yo . For example. "/directory/image.cfm" if your website is using ColdFusion. As soon as you do that. In practice.cfm file). you can simply edit the files straight from that directory. And. depending on your website. I'm referring to a copy of your website. Of course. a web server is essential. Allows you to standardize your coding. I simply ri ght-clicked on the website and selected "Properties". Of course. which user accounts are/aren' t allowed to view the website. You could also nominate a 2nd choice (in case there is no index. training.html" or similar but it doesn't need to be. This box is displaying the properties for a single website.Advantages There are many advantages to using a web server within your development environm ent.

You know when you're using HTTP because the website URL begins w ith "http://" (for example. and client-side When you first set up a web server. http://dev. What Is A Web Server? A web server is a piece of software that enables a website to be viewed using HT TP. they can view their web page/website as it was intended to be viewed. "http://www.0. the URL will consist of either an IP address or a domain name/host name. Also.quackit. even if you're not using a server-side language.quackit. But in most c ases.0.0. they are referring to a piece of soft ware that you install on a computer. you'd be right too. you're not viewing the website using the HTTP protocol (you're using the file protocol instead).quackit. Here are some examples of what the URL could look like when viewing a web page v ia a web server: http://127.1. the n assign that URL to your websites via your web server. You might be thinking "I always thought a web server was a special. What Does a Web Server Look Like? That depends on which web server you choose to install. And from that point on. yo u'll need to create your own URLs for them (via a DNS server or Hosts file).1 looks like: . when someone refers to a web server. They will learn that you can simply double click on the HTML file. you can usually navigate to your default web site using http://localhost or http://127. one of the first things they learn to do is how to view their (newly created) HTML file.0. this isn't normally a problem if you're only using client side languages su ch as HTML. But it is a problem if you're tryin g to use a server-side language such as PHP. chances are. the URL begins with "http://". ColdFusion etc. Viewing HTML Files With a Web Server One problem with the above method is that. Viewing HTML Files Without a Web Server When someone learns how to code'll be able to us e terminology that makes it easier for them to understand your request/issue. Here's an example of Mic rosoft Internet Information Services (IIS) 5. When you add more websites.1 http://localhost http://www. Some high-powered computers are referred t o as web servers as they have been built with web hosting in mind. Here are some examples of what the URL could look like when viewing a web page w ithout a web server: file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Homer%20Simpson/My%20Documents/index. it could still cause you problems with developing a website that behaves exactly how it should on the web . and this will launch it in their web browser. high-powered computer". Well. Now.html These examples are using the file protocol in order to display the files. When you view a web page via a web server.u when you need to communicate with your hosting provider .html file:///C:/Inetpub/wwwroot/"). CSS. HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the key protocol for the transfer of d ata on the web.

by the time you've finished with this web page. That way you can configure your development environment to be closer to your live environment. you can research the more ad vanced topics to suit your needs (such as security. Open up your computer's normal plain text editor (this will probably be Notepad if you're using Windows or TextEdit if you're using a Mac). logging etc) How to create a website! OK.e. lets get straight into it. You can get a web server up and running on your machine with a minimum of technical knowledge. Then once you've done that. you may even find that you already have a web server on your machine. Now.The left pane represents the various websites. You could use a spec . having declared that "web servers are easy!". one F TP site (called "Default FTP Site"). depending on your computer set up. let's walk through the above steps in more detail. In the above screenshot. load issues.html or . and SMTP virtual serve rs. You can right click on an item to display it's properties. Do I Need A Web Server? If you maintain your own web site I recommend you install a web server on your o wn development machine. y ou will definitely need a web server. you can right click on "Default Web Site" to display (and configure) the properties of t hat website. Then if required. When an item in the left pane is selected. you will learn just how easy it is to creat e a web page. Plea se don't think that! Think of a web server as simply another piece of software you can install on you r machine. FTP sites.txt extension). there are many advanced topic s regarding web servers. I won't be going into any detail in this tutorial. the contents are displayed in pan e on the right hand side. you will have created your own web page! When you create a web page you will usually do something like this: Create an HTML file Type some HTML code View the result in your browser Repeat the last 2 steps (if necessary) Creating a Webpage OK. For example. Also. Here. In fact. And. Once you install it. you'll start to become familiar with the various options available to you. you can configure it to suit your needs. Create an HTML file An HTML file is simply a text file saved with an . and one SMTP virtual server (called "Defaul t SMTP Virtual Server"). if you intend to use server-side technologies such as PHP or ColdFusion. there is one website (called "Default Web Site").htm extension (i.that they are only used by professional web developers and/or hosting companies. Web Servers are Easy! You might also be thinking that web servers are way too advanced for you . a s opposed to a .

ialized HTML editor such as DreamWeaver or FrontPage if you prefer. When using hexadecimal color values in yo ur HTML/CSS.0 specification).. Don't worry .w3. Navigate to the file. There are 16 color names (as specified in the HTML 4. Although hexadecimal values may look a little weird at first.that's OK! Just try again and again . Open up your computer's web browser (for example. Select File > Open.. A dialogue box will appear prompting yo u to navigate to the file. Internet Explorer.01//EN" "http://www.. The numbers go from 0 . Hexadecimal values are a combination of letters and numbers. Explanation of code OK.. The next lesson goes into a bit more detail about HTML tags.html Type some HTML code Type the following code: <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4. Most HTML tags have an opening and closing tag. Repeat the last 2 steps until you're satisfied with the result It's unrealistic to expect that you will always get it right the first time arou nd.. you'll soon get used to them. then select "Open". before we get too carried away. All HTML documents should at least contain all of the tags we've just coded and in that order. then click "Browse". These tags tell the browser what to display and where. Although color names are easier to remember. The chart below shows these color names and their corresponding hexadecimal value.until you get it right. Create a new file (if one wasn't already created) Save the file as html_tutorial_example. the hexadecimal values and RGB values provides you with more color options.OR. We just coded a bunch of HTML tags. Navigate to your file then double click on it . Firefox. colour tags Color Names The most common methods for specifying colors are by using the color name or the hexadecimal value. and that the content we wanted to display appeared in rict. I'll explain what that code was all about.9 and the letters go from A to F. . you preceed the value with a hash (#)..dtd"> <html> <head> <title>HTML Tutorial Example</title> </head> <body> <p>Less than 5 minutes into this HTML tutorial and I've already created my first homepage!</p> </body> </html> View the result in your browser Either. Ne tscape etc). You may have noticed that for every "opening" tag there was also a "c losing" tag.

natural-environment. _top Loads the URL in the current browser window. The target attribute can have the following possible values: _blank Opens the UR L in a new browser window.most websites contain images. but cancelling out any frames. If we relate this to a web page. if you think about it for a moment.Color Color Name Hexadecimal Value Color Color Name Hexadecimal Value Black #000000 Green #008000 Silver #c0c0c0 Lime #00ff00 Gray #808080 Olive #808000 White #ffffff Yellow #ffff00 Maroon #800000 Navy #000080 Red #ff0000 Blue #0000ff Purple #800080 Teal #008080 Fushia #ff00ff Aqua #00ffff Link targets: You can nominate whether to open the URL in a new window or the current window. you need to embed it into your web page.right? All these could be examples of" target="_blank">Natural E nvironment</a> This results in: Visit the Natural Environment image uploading: Images make up a large part of the web . For example. The page also has an author . they aren't any longer. Metadata on the Web . other data or information.gif. the image first needs to exist in either . To embed the image into your web page. To embed an image into a web page. or . . This is only applicable when using frames. For example. Once you've created an image. if frames were being used. You could probably give the page a description. target="_blank" opens the UR L in a new window. there could be a number of keyword s that are related to the page. HTML make s it very easy for you to embed images into your web page. you could p robably come up with a lot more information about a web page than what you're ac tually displaying to the reader. _parent Loads the URL into the parent frame (still within the current browser wi ndow).jpg . _self Loads the URL in the current browser window. or that describes.png format. Example HTML Code: Visit the <a href="http://www. Therefore. You do this with the target attribute. You can create images in an image editor (such as Adobe Photoshop) and save them in the correct format. specifying the actual locatio n of the image. meta data for linking to a search engine: What is Metadata? Metadata is information about. use the <img /> tag.

generator etc. It can assist search engines in fi nding the best match when a user performs a search. author. This is where the action page comes in. For example http-equiv can be used to refresh the page or to set a cookie. In any case. Adding Meta Tags to Your Documents You can add metadata to your web pages by placing <meta> tags between the <head> and </head> tags. Can be anything.cfm" method="get"> First name: <input type="text" name="first_name" value="" maxlength="100" /> <br /> Last name: <input type="text" name="last_name" value="" maxlength="100" /> <input type="submit" value="Submit" /> </form> . refresh and set-cookie. Values include content-type. we will simply look at how to submit the form to the action page. expir es. such as emailing the webmaster whenever the form has been completed. many web hosts provide scripts that can be used for action page functionality. This page could contain advanced scripts or programm ing that inserts the form data into a database or emails an administrator etc. 6/12/2002" /> Refresh the page every 10 seconds: <meta http-equiv="refresh" content="10" /> The above examples are some of the more common uses for the meta tag. Example HTML Code: <form action="/html/tags/html_form_tag_action. meta tags. ****************************************************************************** Form Action Usually when a user submits the form. You nominate an action page with the action attribute.and rank it higher than another page with less relevant metadata. Creating an action page is outside the scope of this tutorial. or with no metadata at all. content Specifies the property's value. Search engines will often lo ok at any metadata attached to a page . For now. scheme Specifies a scheme to use to interpret the property's value (as declared in the content attribute).especially keywords . you need the system to do something with t he data. metadata" /> Description: <meta name="description" content="Contains info about meta tags" /> Revision date (last time the document was updated): <meta name="revised" content="Quackit. Example HTML Code: Keywords: <meta name="keywords" content="HTML. http-equiv Used for http response message headers. The can include the following attributes: Attribute Description Name Name for the property.Metadata is a very important part of the web. revised. descrip tion. Examples include. The action page is the page tha t the form is submitted to. keywords.

*"> <frame src ="frame_example_left. Frames are achieved by creating a frameset page. The b etter your directory the more you can demand. This frameset page doesn't actually contain any content . templates. animations. 39. you would ne ed to create 3 files . affiliates programs: .html): <html> <head> <title>Frameset page<title> </head> <frameset cols = "25%. All frame tags are nested with a frameset tag.html).html" /> </frameset> </html> The left frame (frame_example_left. Especially shiny ones. Creating Frames Two Column Frameset HTML Code: The frameset (frame_example_frameset_1. Directories: start one. So.just a reference to each frame.html): <html> <body style="background-color:green"> <p>This is the left frame (frame_example_left.</p> </body> </html> The right frame (frame_example_right. scripts. you can have a left frame for navigation and a right frame for t he main content. icons and other "myspace resourc es" are a multimillion dollar industry.html). in other words. The HTML frame tag is used to specify each frame withi n the frameset. and 1 file to specify how they fit together. and defining each frame from wi thin that page.html" /> <frame src ="frame_example_right. Niche. if you want to create a web page with 2 frames. Webmasters pay to be listed in your directory.</p> </body> </html> ***************************************************************************** ways and means: 26.html): <html> <body style="background-color:yellow"> <p>This is the right frame (frame_example_right.1 file for each frame. Myspa ce backgrounds. hand compiled directories a re a million times better than the SERPs dross and both companies and users know that. For example. frames enable you present multiple HTML documents within the same windo w. Sell trinkets to myspace users.frames: In HTML. They love them.

php referals sites: lockerz Website Crocmint ssl certificates: marketting gimicks: 24. Do not open new browser windows: I used to do that on my first websites. 1. If a visitor can not figure what your si te is about in a couple of seconds. You r site must communicate why I should spend my time if I open new browser windows for external links the user will never leave my site. 3. Mark Alves Participate in Yahoo Answers and LinkedIn Answers where you can demonstrate your he will get back if he wants to (even porn sites are starting to get conscious regarding this point lately ). the n you should make the process comfortable for them.shareapic. Make the content scannable: this is the Internet. you want to make sure that readers are comfortable reading your content. lists. . but if I need to use on your website it will probably be the last ti me I visit it. Do not use fancy fonts that are unreadable: sure there are some fonts that wi ll give a sophisticated look to your website. Probably I will be visiting your site while I work on other stu ff so make sure that I can scan through the entire content.bidvertiser. Do not use tiny fonts: the previous point applies here. Bullet points. The logic was simple. Do not worry about sen ding the visitor to another website.offerforge. he will probably just go somewhere else.html write out newsletters for the website and have the advertising there! Return to Adult FriendFinder Home Page >> http://www. There is a reason why browsers have a huge Back button. The user must know what the site is about in seconds: attention is one the mo st valuable currencies on the Internet. so forget large blocks of text. Anything that will help the reader filter what he is look ing for. subheaders. My Firefox does have a zoomi ng feature. get associated with relevant keywords and put your URL out there. heade rs. WRONG! Let the user control where he wants the links to op http://affiliates. not a book. But are they readable? If your mai n objective is to deliver a message and get the visitors reading your stuff. 4. 5. and FAST! 2.

10. keyword-based URL structure will not only improve your search engine rankings. and some Javascript links might also break them. not the other way around. With the advent of CSS. Do not neglect this on y our site. more reliable and it offers many more features. Just make sure that the u ser is in control. 7. badges of networks an d communities make a site look very unprofessional. let him push the Play button as opposed to jamming the music on his face right after he enters the website. . Do not break the Back button under any circumstance. 9. Do not require a registration unless it is necessary: lets put this straight. 18. You might need to deliver a speech to the user or your gu ided tour might have an audio component. 12. Use CSS over HTML tables: HTML tables were used to create page layouts. but also for yourself. Use it only if you must of fer features that are not supported by static pages. If you resize it you will risk to mess things up on his side. Make sure users can search the whole website: there is a reason why search e ngines revolutionized the Internet. however. Do not force me to register up and leave my email address and other deta ils unless it is absolutely necessary (i. ex cessive usage of Flash might also annoy the visitors. when I browse around the Internet I want to get information. period. That is fine. Guess what. and what is worse you might lose your credibility in front of him. 19. If you MUST play an audio file let the user start it: some situations might require an audio file. 15. Do not break the Back button: this is a very basic principle of usability. they failed mis erably. Even if we are talking about awards and recognition badges you should place them on the About Us page. Do not use a homepage that just launches the real website: the smaller the num ber of steps required for the user to access your content. Do not clutter your website with badges: first of all. there is no reason to stick to them. CSS is faster. because they make i t very easy to find the information we are looking for. 14. Avoid complex URL structures: a simple. This is not bad only for the visitors. unless what you offer is so good tha t I will bear with the registration). but it will also make it easier for t he reader to identify the content of your pages before visiting them. Do not overuse Flash: apart from increasing the load time of your website. Sen ding unsolicited emails around is not the best way to make friends. 8. 11. the better. You probably guessed it. Do not play music: on the early years of the Internet web developers always tried to successfully integrate music into websites. 16. Do not use blinking text: unless your visitors are coming straight from 1996 . 13. 17. Opening new browser windows will break it. for instance. Do not resize the user s browser windows: the user should be in control of his browser. Do not use music.e.6. Make sure to include contact details: there is nothing worse than a website that has no contact details. Never subscribe the visitor for something without his consent: do not automat ically subscribe a visitor to newsletters when he registers up on your site. that is. You might lose important feedback along the way.

33. Make sure to include anchor text on links: I confess I used to do that mista ke until some time ago. clear navigation structure. and not all of them interpret CSS and other languages on the same wa y. for instance. While they appear to make web design easier. incompatible with different browsers and with several bugs. just give me the content! 24. Possibly also make the m underlined. Some users. the output will be a poorly crafted code. else you will lose readers over the long term. 22. Make clicked links change color: this point is very important for the usabil . Do not confuse the visitor with many versions: avoid confusing the visitor w ith too many versions of your website. they should n ot get the idea that something is clickable when in reality it is not. If you are linking to PDF files disclose it: ever clicked on a link only to see your browser freezing while Acrobat Reader launches to open that (unrequeste d) PDF file? That is pretty annoying so make sure to explicit links pointing to PDF files so that users can handle them properly. browse the Internet with images turned off. Using drop down menus might confuse things and hide the informati on the reader was actually looking for. But this is not efficient. 27. you will need to make your website compatible with the most u sed browsers on the market. 23. Use text navigation: text navigation is not only faster but it is also more reliable. Make links visible: the visitor should be able to recognize what is clickabl e and what is not. Make sure that your links have a contrasting color (t he standard blue color is the optimal most of the times). Over the long run. 26. this will reduce your readership base. It will e nsure that the reader knows where he is going to if he clicks the link. Like it or not. and it w ill also create SEO benefits for the external site where the link is pointing. Do not cloak links: apart from having a clear anchor text. the user must als o be able to see where the link is pointing on the status bar of his browser. Make sure that your website has a single. Make sure to include a relevant anchor text on your links. An ann oyed visitor is a lost visitor. This rule usually applies to people and choices. 21. Avoid intros : do not force the user to watch or read something before he can a ccess to the real content. This is plain annoying. 31. Make sure your website is cross-browser compatible: not all browsers are cre ated equal. easily. Do not use FrontPage: this point extends to other cheap HTML editors. What bandwidth do I prefer? 56Kbps? 128Kb ps? Flash or HTML? Man. 29. Just as users need to recognize links easily. Do not blend advertising inside the content: blending advertising like Adsen se units inside your content might increase your click-through rate on the short term. Avoid drop down menus: the user should be able to see all the navigation optio ns straight way. If you cloak your links (either because they are affiliate ones or due to other re asons) your site will lose credibility. 28. The last thing you want is to confuse the reader regarding where he should go to find the information he is looking for. 30. 32.20. Do not underline or color normal text: do not underline normal text unless a bsolutely necessary. and he will stay only if what you have to offer is really unique. however. 25. Use a simple navigation structure: sometimes less is more. It is easier to tell people to click here .

making sure that he will not end up visiting the same pages unintentionally. 38. Design the color palette around your objectives (i. avoid animated GIFs. but i t is one of the most important factors affecting the overall quality of a websit e. There is just one problem with it. Even user requ ested pop ups are a bad idea given the increasing amount of pop blockers out the re. 41. Clicked links that change color help the user to locate him self more easily around your site. deliver a mood. If that is th e case with your website make it shorter and improve the navigation structure. you probably should pick a better color sche me. Make sure that your links and texts do not contain spelling or grammatical mi stakes. No horizontal scrolling: while some vertical scrolling is tolerable. if the user needs to scroll down forever in or der to read your content he will probably just skip it altogether.). Include functional links on your footer: people are used to scrolling down t o the footer of a website if they are not finding a specific information. 42. They make a site look unprofessional and detract the attention from the content.ity of your website. The most used screen resolution no wadays is 1024 x 768 pixels. No spelling or grammatical mistakes: this is not a web design mistake. etc. let th e user focus on the content. . Do not use animated GIFs: unless you have advertising banners that require a nimation. most of the times the user needs to call his whole family to decipher the letters. Make sure to use the ALT and TITLE attributes for images: apart from having SEO benefits the ALT and TITLE attributes for images will play an important role for blind users. Do not use pop ups: this point refers to pop ups of any kind. Avoid long pages: guess what. 36. the sam e can not be said about horizontal scrolling. At the very least you want to include a link to the Homepage and possibly a link to th e Contact Us page. Do not use harsh colors: if the user is getting a headache after visiting yo ur site for 10 consecutive minutes.e. Stay away from them since they often create problems for the us er. 39. 43. 37. 40. 35. Avoid Javascript links: those links execute a small Javascript when the user clicks on them. If you use CAPTCHA make sure the letters are readable: several sites use CAP TCHA filters as a method of reducing spam on comments or on registration forms. so make sure that your website fits inside it. 34.