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Advanced Adaptive Control for
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitors
N. Djagarov1), M. Kolcun2), Zh. Grozdev3), M. Bonev4), L. Beňa5), D. Hlubeň6)
1) 3) 4)
, , , Technical University of Varna, Electrical Faculty, 9010, Varna, Studentska str. Bulgaria, email:
2) 5) 6)
, , , Technical university of Košice, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Department of Electric
Power Engineering Mäsiarska 74 041 20 Košice Slovak republic, email:

ABSTRACT The main trend is to make these controllers adaptive
In the article is proposed a new adaptive control of se- [4,5,6,7].
ries compensator in power systems. This control represents However, this is related to the need for large computa-
series connected adaptive stabilizer to the conventional PI- tional resources, which will worsened their performance and
regulator. With the help of identification parameters and hence - the quality of regulation.
variables is created control signal for the compensator .By The suggested adaptive stabilizer from us used optimal
mathematical modelling studies are performing the investi- singular adaptive observers. These observers based on
gations of work of the power system in various disturbing measured parameters of the controlling object identify the
influences. Experimental results show the efficiency of the parameters and variables of minimal model of Frobenius.
proposed adaptive control. The main difference of this identification from the known is
Keywords: FACTS, TCSC, Adaptive Control, that not only the current vector is estimated but and the ini-
tial vector. That avoiding iterative solution of Riccati equa-
1 INTRODUCTION tions and hence is achieve very high speed of identification
and calculation of control signal. Thanks to this, the calcula-
The development of power systems put requirements to tion time of the control signal and feedback is negligible
increase the power transfer capabilities of existing transmis- small in comparison with the speed of running processes in
sion system. Because of this, the interest is increasing for the system.
maximizing the utilization of transmission systems by oper-
ating them closer to their thermal limits. That is performs by Therefore, these regulators improve all parameters of the
using the so-called Flexible AC Transmission System transition process, damping the oscillations and improving
(FACTS) devices, such as for example, the thyristor con- power system stability like whole.
trolled series capacitor (TCSC) [1,2,3]. The thyristor-
controlled series capacitor is promising as a powerful device 2 TEST SYSTEM
to increase power transfer capability and transient stability. In the article is presenting power system realized from
The basic configuration of the TCSC consists of a series of one module thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC),
capacitors connected antiparallel with thyristor-controlled transmission line, static active/inductive load and synchro-
reactors, so that firing angle control of the thyristors makes nous generator. As can see from Fig.1 the synchronous gen-
the TCSC capable of achieving impedance control in a wide erator is connected to infinity bus through transmission line
range with quick response. and TCSC.
The controllers for FACTS can also balance the power
flow and thereby use the existing power system network Line
most efficiently. Because of their fast response, FACTS SG TCSC
controllers can also improve the stability of an electrical
power system by helping critically disturbed generators to
give away the excess energy gained through the acceleration Load Infinity
during fault. Thyristor controlled series compensator is an bus
important device in FACTS family, and is widely recog-
nized as an effective and economical means to solve the
power system stability problem. Fig. 1 Investigated power system scheme
For control of FACTS is using all known methods from
Figure 2 shows a one-line diagram of a single phase of a
the theory of control: classical PI-regulators, methods of
TCSC. The operation of TCSC involves discrete actions and
fuzzy logic and neural network, regulators with adjusted
is periodic in nature whereby one of the anti-parallel thyris-
parameters, regulators with variable structure and others.
tors of the TCSC conducts during a portion of a half-cycle

(4) v (k ) = u(k ) + z (k ) .2 Th2 LC Fig. The duration and timing of the thyris. π served that a parallel resonance is created between the in- ductor L and the capacitor C at the fundamental frequency. fu1nction of firing angle α is depicted in Fig. The other anti-parallel thyristor re.x(k ) + b. XC  XC XC  tan π− α  − tan(π − α ) ther increase or decrease the voltage across the capacitor. the TCSC voltage is directly proportional to the the studied power system is using a standard PI-controller TCSC impedance and this is an effective way to obtain and scalar modal adaptive stabilizer. 4 Block diagram of advansed Capacitive adaptive control region The observed system might be present by a following type of a linear model in the state space describing from Fig. which can ei. corresponding to the C values of firing angle αres. X TCSC = X C − .  . XL  XL XL  On the Fig. where: x(k). Since al other parameters are model of low order and the formation of control signal.4cos 2 (π − α )  XC X L  X −X  tor conduction is based on the triggering logic and is con. x(0) is an .2. From the figure can be ob. On the inputs of accurate information on the fundamental TCSC impedance stabilizer is feeding a discrete sample from the output of a [8]. 4). x(k+1) are an unknown current state vector in two neighbour moments of discretization. (3) y (k ) = c t .x(k ) . a circulating current flows in both the inductor and the capacitor.v (k ) .of the power frequency and it’s turned-off during the re. 3 TCSC steady state impedance characteristics following differential equations: x(k + 1) = A. 2(π − α ) + sin 2(π − α ) mainder of the cycle. In constant. Inductive Prohibited region region Zm αLmax ≤ α ≤ αCmin Inductive 0 ≤ α ≤ αLmax PI Scalar modal αTH adaptive αLmax αres αCmin π/2 regulator stabilizer 0 α Zref Capacitive Adaptive control αCmin ≤ α ≤ π/2 Fig. The equivalent impedance may be defined by using the PI-regulator. 3 is shown the reactance of the TCSC as a   function of the firing angle α. it is noted from Eq. x(0)=x0. When a thyristor conducts.  C L  trolled by the synchronization system and adaptive X C + + (1)  XC − X L  XL regulator. measured line impedance at the point of following equation: placement of TCSC and reference line impedance (Fig. 3. 2 One-line diagram of a single phase from TCSC 3 ALGORITHM FOR ADAPTIVE CONTROL The value of the reference thyristor angle is varied in The main function of adaptive control is continually interval between 0 and π/2 and for each angle the value of identifying the controlled object in real time using a linear the TCSC voltage is observed. k=0. The variation of TCSC reactance (XTCSC/XC). After that is forming the control XL(αres)=XC signal for firing of anti-parallel thyristors for thyristor controlled reactor.1. as a This resonance corresponds to the firing angle αres. π peats the conduction/non-conduction during the next half-  XC X L  cycle and vice-versa. Scalar modal adaptive stabilizer identify in real time the controlled object on the base of estimated parameters and variables of the model. given by: πω αres = (2m − 1) (2) 2ωr L Th1 1 where: ωr = . (1) that the parallel resonance is created between XL and XC at the fundamental frequency. m=1.

] =h1.. 6 Active power through TCSC ) ) δSG [deg] F = A − g . 20 20..k (k ) (14) -10 ) −1 k0 (k ) = c T I n − Az  ( )−1 ..y(k ) (9) -3000 xˆ (0 ) = xˆ 0 .b)(k − 1) (15) -20 20 20.4 Y1 =   ..+hn−1. b = 1 .xˆ (k ) + b.. V1 =  . 5 Synchronous generato voltage Y12 =   PTCSC [MW]  y (1) y (2 ) 5000 The vector estimate â is calculating by following ex- 4000 pression: Y12 .1. g 2 . Following difference equation ‘’input-output” corre- sponds to equations (3) and (4): 4 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS y(k + n) −an. 2. 1.u(k +n −2) +..yref + k (k ). (5) 1.u(k).  y (1)  y (3 )  v(1) 20 20.1.cT (10) gT = [g1 . which ensures high rapidity and sufficient accuracy. 7 Load angle of synchronous generator . z(k) is a I q.. 1. k = 0. 2000 lates by the optimal estimator of following type: 1000 xˆ (0 ) =Y 1 (8) 0 The initial steady state vector x̂ (0 ) is estimates by cur- -1000 rent state vector xˆ (k ).6 k =0. with the help of full opti- mal singular adaptive observer from the type: -2000 ) xˆ (k + 1) = F..aˆ = Y 2 − V 1 (7) 3000 The initial steady state vector x̂ (0 ) estimation is calcu.x (k − 1) (16) limited input sequence for identification..6 and vectors..5 22 time [sec]  y (0 ) y (1) Fig. where: yref is reference signal given from the operator.5 21 21..2 A..y(k +1) −a1.k n (k )] (13) 0 ) ) ) Az = A − b (k − 1).g n ] (11) 50 The determination of formulate problem with the help of 40 suggested algorithm exist only if matrix Y12 is singular detY12 ≠ 0 (12) 30 The stabilizing signal Iq.5 21 21. u(k) is an input signal.5 22 time [sec] where: Fig.y(k) = USG [p.ref calculates by using of astatic 20 modal state regulator with scale factor k0 from following type: 10 k (k ) = [k1 (k ).  y (0 )  y (2 ) v(0 ) 0. c = 0  (6) 0.u(k +n −1) + h2..y(k + n −1) −an−1.−a2.u..5 22 time [sec] Fig. ….y(k +n −2) −. The investigation [9] shows that for TCSC control could 1.8  a  a 1 a 2      The input/output data are shaped in following matrices 0..4 be used minimal models from 2-nd order.k 2 (k ). Y2 =   . k=0..ref (k ) = k0 (k ). ) unknown initial state vector.2. .....u(k +1) + hn.5 21 21.2. b and c are unknown matrices and vectors of the fol- lowing type: 1 0 1  0 1  0   1 A= t =  .v (k ) + g.

5 time [sec] 15 16 17 18 19 20 Fig. 11 Synchronous generator active power αTh1.control.8 TCSC at three-phase short circuit at bus between line and TCSC in 20.994 20 20.u. The results from USG [p.9 red line – with conventional PI .] 2 1.002 1. On the Fig. On the figures below are illustrated part of 1 parameters of power system and TCSC as in steady-state mode as in dynamic mode. 15 16 17 18 19 20 time [sec] ωSG [p.5 22 -0.5 21 21.] performed investigations are compared with system with identical parameters witch the control of compensator is performed from conventional PI-regulator [10]. 10÷ 0.5 21 21. 10 Synchronous generator voltage PSG [p. 9 is shown the parameters of synchronous generator and 0.2 sec from infinity bus side at time 15. Different 1.5 22 15 16 17 18 19 20 time [sec] time [sec] Fig.5 0.00 sec with duration 30msec. 5 ÷ Fig. 9 Firing angle for TCSC thyristors Fig. On figures with blue line are illustrated parameters with adaptive modal control and with 0.1 disturbances causing transient processes have been simulated. On Fig. For proving effectiveness of the investigated system was created computer model in Matlab space.7 Fig.] Fig.996 0 0.2 [deg] ZTCSC [Ohm] 90 145 85 140 80 135 130 75 125 70 120 20 20. 12 TCSC impedance . 8 Angular speed of synchronous time [sec] generator Fig.00 sec.004 1.5 1 1 0.998 0.u. 12 is shown the parameters of power system at voltage drop with 30% with duration of 0.u.

[3] Astolfi A. pp. Pinto and J.1304-1310.1÷4. Escobar G.. Sevilla. IEEE Trans.3 August 1997. IEEE Trans. 1998. Paper 4. 12. Jowder A. IEEE Trans. which control thyristors of the TCSC. Yang.C. 2008.. 2002. – TCSC Controller design for damping interarea oscillations.. Session 10. REFERENCES [1] Mattavelli P.D. Faur Z. pp. pp. Feb. IEEE trans. Seattle. Vol. This control combines con- ventional PI-controller and adaptive regulator using an identi- fication method. Harley R. Based on the identified parameters and variables is forming control signal. 2006.5. 1455-1461. – Analysis of SVC and TCSC controllers in voltage collapse. . 14. pp. Vol. Reference. Paserba. 24-28 June. The MathWorks.– Steamsuperheater Modelling with Modal State ontroller. Issue 1.. 13.77-85. The obtained experimental results show the improvement the stability of research power system and quality of transitional regimes. vol. No. 5 CONCLUSION In the paper is suggested a new adaptive control of series compensator in power system.P. USA 2000..J. – Phasor Dy- namics of Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor Sys- tems. representing work of synchro- nous generator with infinity bus. Stankovic A. on Power System. T. Q. A. vol. [8] Rahman F.XII-5-XII-8. McCalley. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This publication is the result of the implementation of Join Research Project: TU-Varna – TU-Košice: Utilization of FACTS devices in electrical power systems. Stankovic A. – Indirect Adaptive External Neuro- Control for a Series Capacitive Reactance Compensator Based on a Voltage Source PWM Converter in Damp- ing Power Oscillations. [10]Matlab & Simulink.1259-1265 [2] Qiao W. 14th PSCC. – Using a TCSC for line power scheduling and system oscillation [5] damping-small signal and transient stability studies”.Sofia.. International Journal of Emerging Elec- tric Power Systems. Article 7. Febr. No. International Conference “Automatics and Informatics’08”. H. [7] Canizares C.1. – Steady State Overvoltages of TCSC Terminals and Their Impact on Degree of Compensation and Transmitted Power of Radical Power System. 2007. [4] N. Different disturbances caus- ing transient processes was simulated. [6] N. On Power System. Oct. – An Adaptive Controller for the TCSC Based on the Immer- sion and Invariance Design Technique. Martins. Liu and J. 2. November. Verghese G. The studied power sistem.. [9] Nikolov N. Ortega R. page 5. Vol 54. Vol. No. A. 1999. Proceedings of Power Engineering Society IEEE Win- ter Meeting. pp. pp. Sim Power Systems 4. On Industrial Elec- tronics... With the help of identification model from minimal order is identify its variable and parameters. 158-165. on Power Systems.. 4.