You are on page 1of 4

Teaching & learning elements

As faculty design and teach courses, there are a number of basic elements to be considered,
related to which effective use of technologies can often be helpful. CIT is here to consult with
faculty about their specific circumstances, of course, but these general suggestions may be of
interest or may engender ideas about which we can talk with you further.

Course planning The very first steps you take when planning a new course, or when
preparing to teach a course again. Includes setting student learning
goals, choosing relevant assessments, and deciding how your course
will run.
Course materials Course materials are chosen after your course goals are set, and can be
text or media of various types.
Lecturing/presenting Lecturing or presenting is a traditional teaching method, and there are
several ways to incorporate technology tools to help students engage
with your presentations more fully.
Communication A key aspect of any course is communication: between faculty and
students, and among students.
Groups/collaboration Many faculty choose to incorporate some form of student group work,
or short- or long-term collaboration in their courses. Technologies can
help students and faculty manage this process, or even be the vehicle
for the collaborative product.
Managing Especially in large classes, but also in any course where online
assignments submission or review of work would be useful, technologies can assist
with assignment management or grading.
Managing large Large classes can pose particular challenges, with regard to many of the
classes elements listed here. Technologies can help mitigate some of these

Course materials
Making Your Materials Available To Students
Many Duke faculty use Blackboard @ Duke to provide student access to course materials. Blackboard course sites are
automatically created for most Duke courses each term, and students who are enrolled in the course are given access to
the respective Blackboard sites.
However, if your course materials consist heavily of online non-Duke resources such as RSS feeds, blog posts, flickr
slideshows, YouTube videos and similar materials, and you are comfortable using a non-Duke-supported tool, you may
also want to try a more flexible type of course website such asNing, a blog, or a wiki. Keep in mind that there are
student privacy considerations when using these sites; CIT can help you plan if you are interested in trying these.
Once you have determined your course goals or student learning outcomes, and have begun to
think about the design and content of your course, you will consider appropriate course
materials. The key is to target the materials students need to review or read to specific course

Creating course materials • Video and audio recording equipment and tools are available through the Duke Digital Initiative in the Link. for example). blog posts. CIT may be able to help digitize them via our Materials Development program. • Appropriate (as well as inappropriate!) media can be found on YouTube. • Duke University Libraries subscribes to many image resources of which many faculty are unaware. or from Amazon or other online vendors). . image slide shows. • Articles placed on "e-reserves" in the library will be digitized and made available through your Blackboard course site or directly on the library's web site. Contact the Art librarian Lee Sorensen for more information about what's available. • Google searches may locate relevant websites. • Some compile relevant course materials from various sorts and create a course pack. • Searches of scholarly repositories such as Google Scholar may locate useful materials.goals. or parts of one (these can be ordered through the Duke Book Store. • Some use mainly links to online materials of various kinds. and other more "informal"sources. podcasts. and more. Resources for finding relevant e-materials and media • Duke librarians can help search Duke's many licensed databases for relevant journal articles or books for your class (librarians can also come to your class and conduct a workshop for students about how to do research in Duke's libraries). and CIT can help you learn how best to use these to create materials for your course. including online journal articles. rather than designing the course around a group of materials or a textbook which "needs to be covered. Examples are recorded "lecturettes" of 2-10 min.. flickr and other online sites (onflickr be sure to limit your search to Creative Commons licensed images). • Some use online textbooks or e-textbooks of various sorts (see open source course content site Connexions." Textbooks • Many faculty use a hard copy textbook. annotated media presentations. or multimedia resources. • If you have existing non-digital materials. websites.

Kozleski. The adult may simply look expectant. because teaching takes place in natural settings and activities.) Milieu techniques are often referred to as errorless teaching methods because the child successfully performs the skill at every session. This might be placing favorite toys visible but out of reach. 1993. 1992. then the adult may try one or more of a variety of prompts. A target skill is chosen. The environment is arranged or an activity organized in a way that encourages the child to make requests. When the child appears to want the item. Kaiser. albeit sometimes with assistance. or if the child dislikes being touched. the adult begins by specifically asking (i. anticipating the child’s asking for the item. (See Fading prompts. The main difference between incidental and mand-model procedures is that. 1991. However. If he or she does not respond appropriately. & Alpert. the child will still get the same natural rewards for communicating a request. modeling the request for the child (adult uses the child’s AAC to make the request). These include: providing the child with a natural prompt ("What do you want?"). & Sigafoos. or "forgetting" to provide a key component of a familiar activity. It is usually not a good idea to use too many prompts because this can confuse the child. is able to produce the target skill). including rewarding a child for successfully communicating a target message. the adult makes eye contact with the child. 1995). Ostrosky. or physically guiding the child in making the request (adult physically assists the child in using AAC to make the request). York. with incidental teaching. This ensures the child’s motivation. If the child makes the request (i. usually starting with the least intrusive. or make the child prompt-dependent. Milieu techniques necessitate that the environment be arranged in such a way that the child is encouraged to initiate interactions.e. while. They are very similar and.) The three most well-known milieu teaching procedures are incidental teaching. 1991. See Teaching different modes of AAC. (Note that physical guidance can not be used with speech. manding) the child to make the request: "What do you want?" . The most prominent are incidental teaching.e. but is still learning to master. Milieu teaching methods are based on principles of behaviorism. the adult’s first reaction is to simply look expectantly at the child. rewards are natural positive consequences (i. usually a request. he or she receives the item along with social praise. consist of the following steps (Beukelman & Mirenda. (See Prompting and prompt-free strategies. mand-model and time delay.e. Milieu procedures are typically used to increase the frequency of a child’s communicating a specific request.Milieu Teaching Milieu teaching techniques are thus called because they are used in the midst of regular activities during the day. mand-model teaching and time delay. Typically it is one that the child is familiar with. This means that after the skill has been mastered and formal teaching is discontinued. with slight variations. explicitly asking the child to make the request ("Make the sign" or "Point to the picture"). then he or she is praised by the adult and receives the item along with social praise. presenting the child with a new activity. Reichle. Westling & Fox. the child gets the item that he or she requested). with mand-model teaching. although they may be used to teach new communicative forms or vocabulary. This eliminates the need to fade out artificial reinforcers.) When the child has produced the target skill using whatever assistance was necessary. increasing the likelihood of success.

The child begins reaching for it. For additional information: Visit YAACK Permission granted 4-28-03 . "You said 'train. and the time delay used at the next session may be increased. although additional prompts may being given. however. the wait period can be reduced.Time delay utilizes predetermined periods of waiting for the child to respond. If the child requires prompting. When only a single physical prompt is used as needed. before starting the progressive increases again. If the child seems to be getting overly frustrated (i. Incorrect responses usually are followed by a single physical guidance prompt before the child is offered the item. The following is an example of an incidental teaching procedure. (See Prompt-free and verbal prompt-free strategies. the adult physically takes the child’s hand and guides the child in pressing the button on the VOCA that says "Train. here it is.e. depending on the schedule determined in advance. the adult may start with a waiting period of 10 seconds. Time delay also starts with the adult looking expectantly. the ensuing waiting period is carefully chosen." Then the adult smiles and says. The adult then asks. The adult looks at the child expectantly.' Okay. or too many prompts are used making the child give up or become too frustrated. Finally. frustration is beginning to interfere with learning). the skill is too difficult. once the child "gets it. continues to reach." and gives the train to the child. At each session following one in which the child did not respond correctly. The child. "What do you want?" The child simply continues to reach. time delay is an excellent way to prevent a child from becoming dependent on prompting." the delay often dramatically shortens. or kept the same. Prompts may be used if the child does not respond correctly after the designated time. the waiting period may be lengthened. Even though the wait period may seem to be growing very long if the child does not respond correctly over many trials. at the next session the adult may add two seconds so that the waiting period is now 12 seconds long. A toy train is placed so that it is visible but on a high shelf. it may be because the items are not sufficiently motivating. however. For example. Correct responses are dealt with by praising and giving the child the desired item. or to wean one who has already become overly prompt-dependent.) If the child is not making progress.