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Tuladhar / Our Nature (2003) 1: 26-29

Comparative Study of Fish Yields with Plant Protein
Sources and Fish Meal
Babita Tuladhar*
Central Department of Zoology, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu

Two iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated using Azolla, Soya bean and oilcakes
as a sole protein source in diet B and fishmeal as sole protein in diet A. Six ponds were used as
experimental ponds. The fishes of three ponds were supplied with Azolla diet B while the fishes of
other three ponds were supplied with fish meal diet A. Growth of the fish in three ponds with plant
protein sources was significant than in the fishes of other ponds with fish meal diet A. The yield of
fish supplemented with Azolla, Soya beans and Oilcakes was higher than that of fish supplied with
fishmeal diet.

Introduction Oilcakes
Nepal is an agricultural country where Of the available plant proteins, Oilcakes
nearly 90% of the total population is involved are the most promising alternative to
in agriculture. The total productivity of fish in fishmeal diets. Oilcakes are the residues
Nepal is 1.99 tonnes/hectare (FAO 1991, after the removal of the greater part of oil
FAO1992) which comes to be 0.6% of the from oil seed. Most are tropical origin and
total agriculture .The total production and are rich in protein (20%-50%) and include
productivity of fish culture is very low in Soya bean, Cottonseed, Groundnut, Sun
Nepal as compare to other countries due to the flower seed etc (Jauncy and Ross1982).
fact that fish culture is totally dependent upon Oilcakes contain 30.5% of crude protein and
natural food and very less or no supplementary 14.7% of fat (Capper 1979).
food is provided to fishes by farmers. There is
a great scope to enhance production of fish by Azolla
supplementary feed. (Pantha 1993) Azolla, a small aquatic macrophyte which is
a common in most Asian rice fields, ponds and
Soya bean roadside ditches has considerable potential in
Soya bean meal is an excellent fish culture, especially in rice fish system
source of dietary protein for animals. (Amalzan et al.1986). Fresh Azolla was
Whole Soya bean contains about 40% of preferred by a variety of both herbivorous and
protein and 18% of Fat. The fat can be carnivorous fish. This aquatic macrophyte has a
used by a feed formulator to add high content of protein; more over it has a high
appreciable amounts of essential fatty productivity for which it was selected for
acids to diet, and can also be used as a protein source for the experiment.
source of protein sparing energy
(Jauncy and Ross1982) Materials and Methods
The experiment was performed at the
Kathmandu Central Hatchery, (KCH) Balaju.
*Correspondence: Birat Science Campus,
The Total farm covers an area of 25 ha in which
water surface covers 0.78 ha .6 ponds were

1.52% higher in diet B than diet A. although the average The different water quality parameters were depth of the ponds was 0. weeds were cleaned and standard methods of APHA (1989). Azolla. with diet A.1gm concentration range in between 1.5.248 and 248 The colour. Soya bean and Oilcakes in sole of the fish. were analyzed before stocking the fingerlings.1gm. Mean 18.9o C in all ponds.05ha and 0. pH. Then the ponds were left few days for production of a pond.8 kg stocking 281 gm day-1 of diet A and 260gm day-1 within 42 days. Total feed required per day was whereas the growth per day is similar in Rohu calculated according to the total body weights of and Mrigal in both the diets (Diet A and diet B). LoveLand. The stocking rate of Total hardness ranged in between 149 to fish was 6000 fingerlings per hectare.1 and 2. with diet B was higher than diet A in common Physico-chemical parameters (temperature. temperature recorded with the help of Hachkit (Hach recorded was 21.8. The total 209mg/l. Tuladhar / Our Nature (2003) 1: 26-29 selected for the experiment. It was also observed After 21 days growth check up was done and that yield of fish was higher with diet B than calculated the total growth of each variety of fish.29gm respectively. The growth performance dissolved oxygen. the common carp. B. texture and the smell of the diet corresponding with 50.8m. Colorado-USA) Dissolved oxygen before stocking ranged in Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). and Mrigal were 824. free CO2 and of Rohu and Mrigal were similar in both the diets. CO2 weight of these fish were 30. The ponds were total hardness) of water were analyzed by using drained completely. A pond having a depth of complete drying and were filled with water up to 2m was considered congenial from the 60 cm. 20. Company.330. numbers of fish used were 1650 out of which the During this experiment diet A and diets B number of Common Carp. Rohu and Mrigal.7 to 8. Silver Carp. Rohu (Labeo found in between 6. treated with hydrated lime at the rate of 500 kg/ha before the experiment.3mg/l. 15 and 15 stocking throughout the experiment period appeared to percentage respectively. ponds were manure once a week to B. Alkalinity ranged rohita) and Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) were from 153 to 190mg/l at stocking and 170 to selected for the experiment. Rohu were observed to be equally accepted by fishes.6mg/l to 10. Water samples in the experimental ponds viewpoint of biological productivity of a pond.05 ha were limed at the rate of 25 kg Depth of pond has an important role in the per pond.5 to 2. 27 . Silver Carp between 5.9o C to 23. are given in Table. The ponds having Results and Discussion area of 0. In the present experiment. So yield percentage increased in 8 months produce natural food. pH ranges was (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix).5kg/week of manure were supplied in ponds fish weight and mean total length of the fish fed of 0. Two types of diets were have no effects on the voracious feeding nature selected. alkalinity.10kg in Diet A and 3839. Fingerlings were fed at the rate of 5% of body Growth rate of common carp and silver carps weight per day avoiding the feed required for were high in diet B as compare to diet A silver carp. day were found higher on fishes having diet B.0375 ha respectively. 25 kg /week and was 49. The yield in 8 months period To supply the remaining nutrient requirement was 2568.1mg/l. An average initial 195mg/l at harvesting period. protein source as diet B and imported but locally Within the experimental period growth per available fishmeal as diet A.90kg in diet of the fish. Thus after In this experiment average yield was 25. carp and silver carp.0gm. and 16. The total yields in all the ponds of diet B were given to the respective ponds.

24 176. In the experiment 89. which is an optimal temperature for was produced within 42 days.5gm (diet B) and 174. Mrigal 2.93 2. Common Carp 13./8 Kg.8mg/l.56 2.167 40.16 278. (Kg) Wt.2 to 1. Tuladhar / Our Nature (2003) 1: 26-29 Weight increment of common carp showed important factor affecting growth and causing that in the 1st year.12 66. which helped to 49.1 1.5mg/l.7gm with diet A.02 1.68 4. 50 cm long Silver carp in 2nd year gain carp.5 to 9 (Woynarovich 1981). Dissolved Oxygen is one the most 1 kg of fish.63 4.9o C to feeding 66.729 7.2 Table 2. 1.) Yield % 42 days 0.73 62. it attained 300gms (Alikunhi mortality. Yield as comparison to both the diets.14 12. Similarly Rohu from 82 mg/l to 209mg/l through out the measured 75.4 3.1 in all 213.94 63. Total alkalinity was 100 mg/l.1 79.051 0. By experimental period ranged from 21.22 4.1983) while Rohu 0. The experimental periods common carp weighs optimum pH recorded was 6. Table 1.9 6.60 0.97 19.08 49. (Kg) 1.716kg.47 2.663 79.07 100 28 .06 92.65 1.1 2.5 67.41 Yield/Day 1.83 1.729 7. 0.53 80.5 11. Mrigal 2.94 63.22 4.7 mg/l at the end of 2nd year measured 1.053 3.9o C.6gm with diet A.051 0. Thus to produce carp culture.1 mg/l and 0. Common carp 13.73 62. The optimum pH recorded value of the present experiment within 42 days of fish ranged 6. Rohu and Mrigal are 0. Silver carp 0.08 292. Rohu 0.944 5.8gm with experimental period.7 to 8. (Kg) Wt . Dissolved oxygen and Jhingran 1975) and Mrigal in the 1st year recorded in this experiment was 5.101 24.7gm(Khan and Jhingran 1979).24kg of diet B. ha. produce 62 kg fish.05 5.06 16.77 Total 17.3 to 1.84 2568.1 to attained 245.60 2.) Kg/day month per month per (Kg. For the production of 1 kg The temperature recorded through out the of fish total diet required was 143 kg.3gm with an ideal for fish growth. In 10.05 3.. Silver carp. Silver ponds.038 9.78 7.944 5. Rohu 0.6 Total 17.80 49. Diet A Total Yield Yield Fish Species Initial Final Fish Yield Yield Kg.01kg diet A and Mrigal of 46.46 351.803gm weight (Chang et al. Silver Carp 0. Total hardness ranged diet B and 85.4kg of fish 23. about 92. Oxygen requirement of Common 1966).75kg (Khan respectively (Boyd 1988).60 109. Species (Kg.9 4.78 7.05 3.65 1.7gm with diet B and 52.4 2032.66 79. Diet A Diet B Fish Species Stocking Harvesting Stocking Harvesting Yield (Kg) Yield (Kg) Wt. Projected yield within eight months/hectare. (Kg) Wt.8gm (diet A)./8 Wt.05 18.33gm with diet B and of diet was fed within 42 days. B.08 3. which is carp attained average weight of 151. Wt.) (Kg. total feed required was 0.27 0.27 1.137 ha.

pp. 73.434.08 0. Asian Fisheries Soc. 24th Asso. Fish Synop. G.0 4. Food & Kirtipur. Agriculture Development.50 2.H. G.. Rome pp. Amer. 29 . Diana and W.11 26.S. Rome.) (Kg.97 100 Acknowledgements Boyd. Uni. The author express deep sense of gratitude to Dr. K and B. Synop. Fish.. Madhab Bahadur Pantha.pp. B. R. 1758) (Asia Regional Expert Consultation on Farm – made & Far East). A. F. Phillipines. Dan 5543-G- indebted to Prof. V. Agbayani & M.. Tribhuwan University. Post Graduate campus. 1981.4 73. Common carp 12.30 Zoology.7 5. 1993. C. Synopsis of providing necessary laboratory facilities and biological data on labeo rohita (Hamilton 1822) opportunity to conduct the present work.97 19. T. J./8 Wt. Department of Fish & Duck feed production .137 ha.Y.60 109. 1979.) Kg/day month (Kg.A.pp. K .53 80. Tuladhar / Our Nature (2003) 1: 26-29 Diet B Yield Total Yield Fish Species Initial Final Kg. aquafeeds. manufacture in Nepal with particular reference to Fisheries Development Division.05 5.International P. 1988. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Animal feed formulation & gratitude to Mr. for her guidance.45 192.90 Total 16. B. Jhingran 1975. E.A. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater treatment. Pantha. R. 1992. 5-11 Dec. Jauncy.08 73. FAO 1992.13 3839. FAO. M. Chuapochatz 1983.77 0. Amalzan. In Proceedings of the FAO/AADCP Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) (Linn.pp. References Scotland. Angeles. regular supervision Workshop report to agency for international development Strengthening of South – East Asian and constant encouragement. S. Bangkok. Aquafeeds and feeding strategies in Alikunhi. Rohu 1. Head of the biological data on Cirrhinus mrigal (Hamilton Department of Zoology. S.63 0.97 1. C. Chairman.68 4. Fish. Synop.053 3.5 67.06 92. of Stirling.12. M. The author is also Agriculture Institutions ( Grant No. Biratnagar for his suggestions and encouragements.1979. A.83 1. Pullin.. Tribhuvan University. B.2 753. Auburn University. Jeevan Shrestha. Woynarovich. Dr.30 Department of Zoology. Water Quality Management for pond The author wishes to extend her profound fish culture.Institute of Aqua.120. 1. Silver carp 0. Fish for food & development. Nutrition the Global Challenge. Elementery guide to fish culture Azolla pinnata as a dietary component for Nile in Nepal. Bharat Raj Subba.43 103./8 Fish Yield Yield Kg.II. Ross 1982. 1822) FAO. pp.042 10. 14-18 Dec.61 386. Albama.05 18.4 2820. 1966. Publ. T. Harihar Bhawan.192 526. Synopsis of biological data on Nepal.45 2. Central SS-2103-00 ) pp. pp. for his guidance. E. Chief. Khan. G. Central Department of Conference on Nutrition. J.57 1. The first Asian Fisheries Forum. Trono 1986. Manila.3 19. Manalo. 523-528 APHA 1989. A guide to Tilapia feeds & feeding.60 3.) per Yield % 42 days per ha.100. M. . H and V. Jhingran. B. B. N. Kirtipur for Khan. W. Mrigal 2. Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Chang. H and V. Washington D. I am FAO.Synopsis of the grateful to Dr. 0. Thailand. month Species (Kg. S. Wt. Mishra. 1992. FAO 1991. U. Capper. Pulchowk.