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Design and development of a multimedia


What is multimedia?

 Transmission that combine media of communication (text and

graphics and sound etc.)

 Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different

content forms. The term can be used as a noun (a medium with

multiple content forms) or as an adjective describing a medium as

having multiple content forms. ...

 the use of different media to convey information; text together with

audio, graphics and animation, often packaged on CD-ROM with

links to the Internet; of, or relating to this combined use of media; of,

or relating to an application that can combine such media into an

integrated package

 a publication in which images, sound and text are integrated.


 Today multimedia might be defined as the seamless digital integration

of text, graphics, animation, audio, still images and motion video in a

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way that provides individual users with high levels of control and

interaction. The evolution of Multimedia is a story of the emergence

and convergence of these technologies.

 As these technologies developed along separate paths for disparate

purposes, visionaries saw the possibilities for the sum of the parts as

well potential personal application in the broader societal context


 In simple terms multimedia is forms of media integrated together. Media

can be text, graphics, audio, animation, video, data, etc. An example of

multimedia is a web page on Madonna that has text regarding her life and

achievements along with an audio file of some of her greatest hits and

includes videos of her best live performances.

 ―Besides multiple types of media being integrated with one another,

multimedia can also stand for interactive types of media such as video

games, CD ROMs that teach a foreign language, or an information Kiosk.

Other terms that are sometimes used for multimedia include hypermedia

and rich media.‖

 Multimedia is a tremendous force in both informing the public and

entertaining us.

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 Multimedia is usually delivered via CD, computers/online etc…

The history of Multimedia… (summarized)

 Computers: From the printing press to the desktop personal computer of


 Text, Processing and Software: Inventions and innovations that spawned the

development of software enabling computers to move from mathematical

processing to technology that creates and delivers multi media.

 Audio & Communication: From the telegraph signal to cellular telephones,

to digital transmission of voice

 Video & Animation: From manually manipulated negative film and hand

drawn sketches, video and animation develops to sophisticated digital

creation and rendering of motion

Uses of Multimedia


Education: Multimedia is extremely effective in teaching. The human brain learns

using many senses such as sight and hearing. While a lecture can be extremely
informative, a lecture that integrates pictures or video images can help an
individual learn and retain information much more effectively. Using interactive
CD ROM's can be extremely effective in teaching students a wide variety of

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disciplines, most notably foreign language and music. Some multimedia effects
during learning:

 Engrossing – deep involvement

 Multi-sensory

 Creates knowledge connections

 Individualized

 Teacher and student creation emphasized.

Corporate communication, marketing and training: These professions

have taken up multimedia as an effective communication tool.

Advertising: The advertising industry has latched onto this media form to deliver
their messages to the masses in an effective and even interactive manner.

Interactive multimedia: Video games, e-learning

Multimedia and the Future

As technology progresses, so will multimedia. Today, there are plenty of new

media technologies being used to create the complete multimedia experience. For

instance, virtual reality integrates the sense of touch with video and audio media to

immerse an individual into a virtual world. Other media technologies being

developed include the sense of smell that can be transmitted via the Internet from

one individual to another. Today's video games include bio feedback. In this

instance, a shock or vibration is given to the game player when he or she crashes or

gets killed in the game. In addition as computers increase their power new ways of

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integrating media will make the multimedia experience extremely intricate and


Multimedia summarized

The basic elements of multimedia on a computer are:

 Text

 Still images: A still image (or just image) is a 2D array of pixels, which

each has a color. The color is usually specified in RGB (red, green, blue)

colorspace as 3 numbers from 0 to 255, i.e. there are = 16.8 million

possible colors. Two important image classes exist: 24 bit images: Images

which allow for any number of the 16.8 million (24 bit) colors to be present

simultaneously in a given image. 8 bit colormapped images: Images which

allow only for a maximum of 256 (8 bit) colors to be present in a given

image. These colors are drawn from the 24 bit palette, and the mapping

between the up to 256 numbers and the 24 bit colors constitutes a colormap.

(fromats: gif, jpeg…)

 Sound

 Movies: Unlike an animation that we can create from drawings or images a

movie is created by a photographic process and converted or ported to a

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computer so each frame has data stored in every pixel. (formats: mpeg,

QuickTime, animated gif)

 Animations: Animation is a sequential series of still images that create an

illusion of motion.

 Special Effects

What is a multimedia story?

 A multimedia story is some combination of text, still photographs, video

clips, audio, graphics and interactivity presented on a Web site in a nonlinear

format in which the information in each medium is complementary, not


 Nonlinear means that rather than reading a rigidly structured single

narrative, the user chooses how to navigate through the elements of a story.

Not redundant means that rather than having a text version of a story

accompanied by a video clip that essentially tells the same story, different

parts of a story are told using different media. The key is using the media

form - video, audio, photos, text, animation - that will present a segment of a

story in the most compelling and informative way.

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Multimedia stories

There are two basic types of multimedia stories: Reporter-driven vs. editor- or

producer-driven stories

 Those in which a reporter is in charge of putting the story together. The story

is usually a daily beat story, a feature or part of an investigative series or

special project. The reporter -- sometimes called a "backpack journalist" --

goes into the field and uses his digital video camera as a multimedia

reporter's notebook. He gathers video clips, video from which to grab still

photos, audio, and information that will go into text and graphics. The story

is in his head, and he makes the basic decisions on how to assemble the

pieces that make up the whole.

 Those in which the editor/producer is in charge, generally breaking news or

special projects. The editor assigns individuals to produce pieces of a

breaking news story, e.g. tornadoes damaging a city. She asks a

photographer for photos, a reporter to go into the field to do interviews, a

videographer to go into the field and film the destruction, another reporter to

gather information by phone, and a graphic artist to produce maps and

illustrations. The stories in her head, and she makes the basic decisions on

how to assemble the pieces that make up the whole.

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What is NOT a multimedia story

Sites such as CNN, the Washington Post, NPR and are multimedia

sites. They have text. They have video clips. They have audio. They have still

photographs. They have interactive graphics. But the main stories on these sites are

often linear and produced in either text or video or audio to stand alone. The text is

often augmented with photos, as it would be in a newspaper or magazine. The

video is usually the same version that appears on television. Rarely are video, text,

still photos, audio and graphics integrated into the same story. Usually, they are

stand-alone stories, each produced for a different media about the same subject,

that are then aggregated into multimedia packages.

Choosing a story

 Not all stories make good multimedia stories.

 The best multimedia stories are multi-dimensional. They include action for

video, a process that can be illustrated with a graphic (e.g., "how tornadoes

form" or "how this new surgery works"). Most multimedia stories require

that the reporter go into the field to report the story face-to-face with

sources, rather than doing a story entirely by telephone.

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 Before you venture into the field to shoot a story, gather as much

information as possible to put together a rough storyboard - an outline of the

story that lays out the multimedia possibilities. This means doing a

preliminary interview with the source or sources for background, getting a

basic idea of what to expect in the field, and looking up anything the sources

have published in print or on the Web. Then collect as many available

visuals -- photos, videos, maps and graphics -- as you can from your sources

or from the Web to get an idea of what the story's components may be.

Track down any previous stories on the topic -- print, video, radio or Web.


 A storyboard is a sketch of how to organize a story and a list of its


 A storyboard helps you:

1. Define the parameters of a story within available resources and time

2. Organize and focus a story

3. Figure out what medium to use for each part of the story

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How to Storyboard

A multimedia story is some combination of video, text, still photos, audio,

graphics and interactivity presented in a nonlinear format in which the information

in each medium is complementary, not redundant. So your storyboard should be

put together with all those elements in mind.

The first thing to tackle is the part about the story being nonlinear.

1. Divide the story into its logical, nonlinear parts, such as:

 a lead or nut paragraph, essentially addressing why this story is


 profiles of the main person or people in the story

 the event or situation

 any process or how something works

 pros and cons

 the history of the event or situation

 other related issues raised by the story

 Instead of thinking "first part," "second part", "third part", "fourth

part", think "this part", "that part", "another part", and "yet another

part". It helps to avoid linear thinking. The home page comprises a

headline, nut graph, an establishing visual (can be a background or

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central photograph, a slide show or a video), and links to the other

parts, which are usually subtopics of the overall story.

2. Divide the contents of the story among the media -- video, still photos,

audio, graphics and text.

 Decide what pieces of the story work best in video.

 Video is the best medium to depict action, to take a reader to a place

central to the story, or to hear and see a person central to the story.

 Decide what pieces of the story work best in still photos.

 Still photos are the best medium for emphasizing a strong emotion,

for staying with an important point in a story, or to create a particular

mood. They're often more dramatic and don't go by as quickly as

video. Still photos used in combination with audio also highlight

emotions. Panorama or 360-degree photos, especially combined with

audio, also immerse a reader in the location of the story.

 Does the audio work best with video, or will it be combined with still


 Good audio with video is critical. Bad audio makes video seem worse

than it is and detracts from the drama of still photos. Good audio

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makes still photos and video seem more intense and real. Avoid using

audio alone.

 What part of the story works best in graphics?

 Animated graphics show how things work. Graphics go where

cameras can't go, into human cells or millions of miles into space.

Sometimes graphics can be a story's primary medium, with print, still

photos and video in supporting roles.

 Does the story need a map?

 Is the map a location map, or layered with other information? GIS

(geographic information systems) and satellite imaging are important

tools for reporters. Interactive GIS can personalize a story in a way

impossible with text by letting readers pinpoint things in their own

cities or neighborhoods - such as crime or meth labs or liquor stores or

licensed gun dealers.

 What part of the story belongs in text?

 Text can be used to describe the history of a story (sometimes in

combination with photos); to describe a process (sometimes in

combination with graphics), or to provide first-person accounts of an

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event. Often, text is what's left over when you can't convey the

information with photos, video, audio or graphics.

 Make sure the information in each medium is complementary, not

redundant. A little overlap among the different media is okay.

 Interactivity means giving the reader both input and control in a story. By

making the story nonlinear, you've introduced an element of interactivity,

because the user can choose which elements of a story to read or view and in

which order. By including online forums or chats, you give readers input

into a story. Some news sites have included interactive games so the reader

can construct his own story

 When you're done breaking a story down into its elements - both in terms of

its content and the different media you could use - you need to reassemble

all that into a rough storyboard.

 On a sheet of paper, sketch out what the main story page will look like and

the elements it will include. What's the nut graph? What are the links to the

other sections of the story? What's the menu or navigation scheme for

accessing those sections? What multimedia elements do you want to include

on the main page as the establishing visuals, whether video or pictures.

 Then do the same for the other "inside" pages that will be the other parts, or

subtopics, in your overall story. What is the main element on each page and
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what other information should be included there? What video, audio,

pictures or graphics would best tell this part of the story?

 A rough storyboard doesn't have to be high art - it's just a sketch. And it isn't

written in stone - it's just a guide. You may very well change things after you

go into the field to do your interviews and other reporting.

 What storyboarding does is help point out the holes in your story. It helps

you identify the resources (time, equipment, assistance) you'll need to

complete the story, or how you have to modify the story to adjust to your

resources. A good way to learn storyboarding is to take a newspaper feature

story and sketch out a storyboard of all the elements in it, the multimedia

possibilities if it were more than a print story and how you might break it up

into a nonlinear Web presentation.



Now's the time to make decisions about exactly what information is going

into video, audio, still photos, graphics and text. For this you need to refine your

rough storyboards, figuring out what's changed from your original vision of the

story, and mapping out what you media have and what should appear on each

page. Here are some general guidelines about using the different media:
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 Video: Keep videos short -- three or four minutes, tops, and preferably

around 1 or 2 minutes.

 Audio: It's got to be high-quality. One can use subtitles with the audio if

necessary to get the point across and you have no other options. Subtitles

also can be used to reinforce an important point. Unless it's pertinent to the

story, avoid using music as a background.

 Still photos: The Web is a VISUAL medium, so be sure to include photos.

Use them to replace 1,000 words, not as accessories to words. If used

together, text and photos should complement each other visually, as well as

in their content. Don't be afraid to use Photoshop to put text directly on your

photos, either. Photos can be used two ways -- individually, to set a mood or

introduce a story or section of a story; and sequentially, to tell a story via a

"slide show".

 Graphics: Make them interactive and/or animated (with Flash). Used with

GIS (geographic information systems), you can let readers personalize the

story by selecting a geographic area (such as their neighborhood) and getting

information related to it. You can use graphics as the centerpiece of a story

or part of a story, and, in that case, make the text secondary.

 Text: For headlines, captions, with photos, for history, and for first-person

descriptions. If you've got a page that has a lot of text, ask a graphic designer

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or a photographer or a videographer for ideas for another approach. This is

not to say that some stories shouldn't be text -- many political stories,

analyses, and short updates work best in text. But this is for multimedia

stories; text is what's left when you've put as much information as possible

into every other medium.


 In print, you generally write the story and then find or assign photos to

illustrate or augment the text.

 In television, you pick out the best visuals, write a script, then begin

adjusting each until they work together.

 In multimedia, the best approach is to put together your refined storyboard

first, and then:

 grab the pieces of the video for the stills, clips and audio you've

decided to include

 edit the video, photos and audio and assemble the graphics for each


 finish by writing and editing the text (captions, text blocks, headlines

and nut graph)

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Why does a reporter have to assemble a story?

While a multimedia reporter will use storyboards to map out a story and then pull

together all the different elements to be used, the final design of the multimedia

site is likely to be taken over by a publication's Web designer. However, as

outlined in the Editing section, it's important for you to decide the parts of a story,

the flow of a story, and what's most important in each section of your story. For

example, deciding what visuals need to be the centerpieces of the story and

displayed prominently, vs. what visuals are just ancillary.

Putting it all together


 Digital multimedia is any combination of two or more media, represented in

a digital form, sufficiently well integrated to be presented via a single

interface or manipulated by a single computer program (Chapman &

Chapman, 2004, p.7)

 Contemporary multimedia is defined as the development, Integration and

delivery of any combination of text, graphics, animation, sound or video

through computer (Savage & Vogel, 2009, P.2)

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Types of Multimedia

 NON-INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA: In this case the user has no control

over the flow of information. The developer establishes a sequence of media

elements and determines the manner in which they will be presented.

Examples of non-interactive multimedia are the digitally animated films

such as Toy Story or Shrek.

 INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA: The greatest promise and power of

multimedia lies in its ability to transform passive recipients of Information

into active agents (Savage & Vogel, 2009). The interactive multimedia,

users are able to control the flow of information.


Basic Interactivity: This Interactivity include menu selection, to buttons to

advance screens, VCR-like controls, Clickable objects links and texts boxes for

questions and responses.

Hypermedia: It is a more advanced form of interactive media in which the

developer provides a structure of related information and the means for a user to

access that information.

Adaptive multimedia or Interllimedia: These are more advanced forms of

interactive multimedia in which information is presented to meet the needs or

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interests of users. These applications embody aspects of intelligence or decision

making. These forms of multimedia are likely to expand significantly with

continued development in another major area of computer research artificial


An immersive multimedia: It is a powerful form of multimedia interactivity

which deals with advanced simulations and games that create their own virtual

reality. Virtual reality are not simply responsive to users, they are immersive. An

immersive multimedia draws its users into an alternate world engaging them

intellectually, emotionally and viscerally.

 According to savage and Vogel (2009), advance flight simulations, immerse

pilots in a world of virtual flight that they routinely serve as substitutes for

training in actual air craft. Other examples of immersive multimedia include

video games that draw players into other worlds.

Development of Multimedia

 The digital merger of film, television, Radio telephony and internet is

driving a growing appetite for multimedia communication. No longer is a

phone simply an instrument of conveying sound.

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 As technologies and industries are integrated, they generate a corresponding

merger and integration of media.

 Savage & Vogel (2009) observes that integration of computers in other

devices ‗smart ‗ products of all kinds lead to refinements in sensors and

processing that will improve our understanding and control of existing

media and lead to creation of others.

 Multimedia will include new interactive possibilities with text, images,

video and animation and with devices that produce them. New possibilities

including smell and tactile experience will to eventually be added to

multimedia experience.

 Multimedia is being revolutionalized by the world wide distribution of

computing power.

 Digital communication has dramatically increased both the speed and the

reach of interpersonal contact across all cultures while simultaneously

providing common tool of virtually unlimited flexibility.

“Multimedia continue to shape our world and each of us can

benefit from knowing more about what it is, where it came from,

how it works and where it is likely to go”(savage & Vogel,2009).

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Virtual Reality is an artificial environment that is created with software and

presented to the user in such a way that the user suspends belief and accepts it as a

real environment.

Virtual reality can be described into two parts;

1) The simulation of real environment for training and education

2) The development of an imagined environment for a game or interactive story

Augmented Reality is a term used to describe a view of physical real-world

environment whose elements are augmented by virtual computer generated input

such as sound or graphics.

In this case one‘s perception of reality is enhanced.

According to Ronald Azuma (1997), augmented reality can be described as follows

 Combines real and virtual

 Is interactive in real time

 Is registered in 3D

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 E-commerce (electronic commerce or EC) is the buying and selling of goods

and services on the Internet, especially the World Wide Web. In practice,

this term and a newer term, e-business, are often used

According to Mutula and Wamukoya (2007), e-commerce refers to conducting

business on e-line.

 It includes product display on-line ordering and inventory management.

 In an e-commerce application software resides on the commerce server and

works in conjunction with on-line payment systems to process payments.


 B2B – Business to Business

 B2C – business to consumer

 C2C – consumer to consumer

 G2C Government to consumer

 G2B Government to Business

 Accepting credit cards for commercial sales

 Generating on-line advertising revenue.

 Trading shares on-line

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 Selling to consumers on pay-per view basis through website

 Driving information through company via its intranet.


 Multimedia in education has been extremely effective in teaching

individuals a wide range of subjects.

 ICT in general and e-learning technologies in particular provide the

opportunity to enhance participatory teaching and e-learning from anywhere


 It facilitates group work, provide the opportunity for reduced costs,

encourage self directed learning and enable students to maintain electronic

portfolios of their work.

 When an electronic portfolio is posted on the web, it can allow viewing and

sharing in the works of other people (Livingstone, 2004). The internet is thus

critical in the delivery of e-learning materials.

 According to the Federal Networking Council (FNC, 1995) the ‗Internet‘

refers to the global information system that;

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1) Is logically linked together by globally unique address space based

on the internet protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/follow-


2) Is able to support communications using the transmission control

protocol/internet protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent

extensions/ follow-ons and/ or other IP compatible protocols

3) Provides, uses or makes accessible either publicly or privately high

level services layered on communication and related infrastructure

 A computer network that spans a relatively small area usually confirmed to a

single building or group of buildings is called a local Area Network (LAN)

 Multiple LANs can be connected to form a wide Area Network (WAN).

 The interconnections of LANS and WANS on global scale spurred by the

development of open standards such as TCP/IP culminated in a global

network of networks known as the internet (Mutula & Wamukoya, 2007).

 The internet is made available through gateways, routers, dial-up

connections and internet service providers.

 Although internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably, the

World Wide Web or the web is a system of servers that contain specially

formatted information which can be accessed through the intervention of a

web browser.

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 e- Learning refers to the delivery of a learning training or education

programme by electronic means using such technologies as a computer or an

electronic device (e.g. mobile phone or M- learning) to provide training

education or learning material (Mutula & Wamukoya, 2007)


Definition of design

 To design is to plan, organize something for a specific use or to create

something to meet specific needs. An often design provides solutions to

problem situations.

 A good design incorporates principles and guidelines that govern the

relationships of variety of elements used to organize the composition as a


 Elements such as line, color, shape, space and texture are used together with

the principles such as balance, rhythm, unity and harmony to bring out a

design for effective communication.


Design has many varied definitions.

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―Design is what links creativity and innovation. It shapes ideas to become practical

and attractive propositions for users or customers. Design may be described as

creativity deployed to a specific end.‖ Sir George Cox, former chairman of the

Design Council, UK

―Design is all around you, everything man-made has been designed, whether

consciously or not.‖ Anonymous

―Design is the elimination of clutter.‖ Anonymous

“Design can help you improve your sustainability credentials, create products and

services that make people happy and it has positive benefits on business's bottom

line.‖ Design Council, UK

Design attributes

There are several attributes of design according to Mat Hunter, the chief design

officer of Design Council UK.

 Design makes ideas tangible - Abstract thoughts are translated into

something concrete.

 Design is human-centered - Great designers are concerned about how

the needs of the end user of the product, service, building or experience are

met. Design is about solving problems.

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 Design is the elimination of clutter - Design has a particular ability to

make things simple. Anything that is too complicated to understand,

communicate or operate is considered as bad design. That is perhaps why

great design can seem as obvious as common sense.

 Design is collaborative – The design process should be very good at

engaging others.



The ICT sector has been identified as key in the realization of the 2030 Millennium

Development Goals. The younger generation in Kenya are early adopters of

technology. The arrival of affordable and faster bandwidth is reinforcing a high

dependability on internet usage. This is evident from the rapid growth of the web

design sector in Kenya.

Advertising agencies like Scanad have already set up their own digital

agencies to capture the growing online community. Development of online

newspapers and magazines will facilitate this transition. The Daily Nation, The

East African, Business Daily and Taifa Leo newspapers are now accessible online.

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Kenya is also experiencing an explosion in Mobile advertising. This will in turn

bring about a reduction in outdoor, print and TV advertising.


The growth of the design industry would be hastened greatly with the

establishment of strong guilds to regulate the Industry. Design Kenya is one of

such guilds, recently established with the aim of brings together designers and

educators from all fields of design.

In photography

If you‘re shooting for color, make sure that the colors compliment each other.



Light is the single most important aspect of photography. the essence of the

photographic art is the process of capturing light from the scene in order to create

an artistic rendering. In a very real sense, photography is painting with light.


 Light is absolutely the foundation of photography, but equally important is

the subject.

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 A strong subject is more than a good looking model. The setting, clothing,

props, accessories, pose, and emotional expression all work together to tell a

story. It‘s up to the photographer to make sure it‘s a story worth telling.


 Focus isn‘t just about what to focus on, it‘s also about how much depth of

field to show in the portrait

 How much do you want to blur out background/foreground elements? How

much of the subject really needs a sharp focus?

 With the right set of lenses, you can really have a lot of control over that

aspect, and it makes a significant difference in the resulting images!


 For backgrounds, the general rule is to keep it simple.

 It is possible to do nice environmental portraits, but it‘s very easy for

backgrounds to clash and distract from the focus of your image.

 One thing to watch out for when you‘re just starting out is mergers —

background and foreground images have a tendency to seem to merge

together in a photograph, so, for example, watch out that it doesn‘t look like

trees are growing from the subject‘s head, and so on.

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 One key difference between an amateur shot, and a professional shot is


 A great portrait photographer considers shapes, lines, framing, angles,

negative space, where to place the point of focus in the frame for maximum

impact, and so on.


When you can coordinate all of these things, and get them working in harmony,

that‘s when magic starts to happen. Like in music, visual arts rely on harmony

(shape, color, and exposure), rhythm (texture), and plot elements to tell a story

(setting, model).


Is the structure of the shapes that comprise the photo. It gives it a 3rd dimension to

the photo. Form is constructed by the use of light and shadow and makes a photo

‗pop‘ off the page.

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Photographs are two dimensional, which makes it challenging to get a good sense

of texture. The best way to play it up is to use strong shapes, composition, and light

angles that compliment the textures in the scene.


Pattern is the use of repeating elements in a photography, thus creating a pattern.


Line is the way that a person looks at a photograph. It is how a persons eye looks at

a photograph, what lines does the persons eye follow?

Designing tips

 Know Your Customer First.- will allow you to better understand what

needs to go into the packaging – from the amount and type of information to

be included on the package to ease of use of the product.

 Develop a Brand, then Design the Package- Your packaging should be a

seamless extension of your brand. If you haven‘t yet done the work to

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develop your brand, then complete this step first. It will make your design

process much easier when it‘s time to complete the packaging.

 Keep it Simple, yet Informative- You should include enough on your

package to educate your customer about the benefits of your product, but at

the same time keep it short and to the point. Too much information on a

package becomes overwhelming.

 Quality, Quality, Quality- Don‘t run for the cheapest packaging option.

Just keep in mind that low quality packaging can cheapen your product.

 Stand Out from the Pack- Make sure your packaging is unique so that it

stands out on the shelf and will be noticed. In the end, it‘s all about sales and

good packaging can help support sales for even the most boring product


 Check out the Competition- Stop by your target retailer and look at the

shelf where you would ideally like your product placed. See what your

competitors are doing for their packaging design. Take note of fonts, colors

and package size.

 Have Fun with Your Packaging- It‘s important that you have fun when

designing your packaging. Let those creativity juices flow freely. Even your

wildest concepts should be considered during the first few rounds of your
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design process. At the very least, these concepts will help you become a

better designer now and in the future.

Packaging comes in all types of shapes, sizes, colors, and textures. When designing

great packaging, keep these tips in mind and most importantly, especially for those

with retail products, stick to a design that will stand out on the shelf.



Editing is often narrowly defined as making corrections after a document is written

However, a skilled and experienced editor takes on far more responsibility than
simply ‗making marks on paper‘, with benefits to the organization as well as to the

The organization saves time and money, gains an improved product and greater
customer satisfaction, and maintains a professional image.

The editor gains greater job satisfaction and possibly better pay

What is editing?

Editing is the process of reviewing information to improve its:

1. organization

2. content

3. accuracy
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4. completeness

5. coherence

6. methods of presentation

7. literary and pictorial quality

8. consistency

9. retrievability

10. ease of use

Editing may also include:

1. designing and planning a document

2. copy-marking to indicate typography and layout

3. discussing the edited information with the author

4. teaching classes

Editing Responsibilities

An editor:

1. helps writers communicate information effectively (accurately, clearly,

concisely, usably and consistently)

2. acts as a consultant to information planners and writers

3. influences writers‘ thinking toward readers (applies a fresh point of view)

4. acts as a quality controller

5. coordinates the information package

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6. links writers and production staff (graphic artists, photographers, printers)

Editorial Authority

1. The editor‘s degree of authority is influenced by the culture of the

organization itself.

2. The collection of rules and expectations about writing is called the

organization's ‗discourse etiquette‘.

3. Employees who are successful writers in one organization have learned

what‘s acceptable, and when they move to a new organization, they must
learn its discourse etiquette to fit in.

4. Acceptable editing relies on the editor having a similar knowledge.

5. Organizational Culture and Editor

6. The organizational culture also decides the status of the editor.

7. Even though the editorial activities may be similar, editors may be given
either high or low authority within their organizations.

8. If editing is valued by the organization, the editor is given significant

authority, for example, to participate in projects, oversee writers, make
changes and even create an organizational style. Status goes with this

Changing the Editorial Role

1. Editors can gain authority in two ways:

2. by increasing their editorial skills

3. by changing the culture so that editing work is valued

4. The key to changing the culture lies in educating others about the editor‘s
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5. Too often the editor‘s role is:

6. defined differently in different organizations

7. poorly defined

8. not always explained to the people the editor will be working with

9. not seen as needing management support

10. not seen as requiring authority appropriate to the responsibility

11. Changing the Editor's Role Cont'd

12. The individual editor needs to be involved in negotiating an appropriate role

within a given organization. At a minimum, this negotiation needs to cover:

13. management issues – responsibility and authority

14. ensuring writers know what the editor‘s role is

15. determining the timing and type of editorial involvement

16. setting priorities on the editor‘s time

17. setting editorial policy

The Editor-Writer relationship

1. Writers like an editor who…

2. restructures information so that the train of thought is smooth and logical

3. points out unclear ideas and explanations

4. catches misspellings

5. improves the document‘s general readability

6. returns the document quickly

7. communicates with the writer about changes

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8. edits fairly and without malice

9. shows patience


1. doesn‘t say what‘s wrong or give direction

2. makes changes according to personal style

3. is overly conservative about the material (excessive qualifiers and


4. makes comments or changes that are inconsistent or unacceptable within the


5. requires too many rewrites

6. Thoughts on Improving the Relationship

7. Successful editing depends on a good relationship with the writer. To reach

the goal of a readable, successful document, both the editor and the writer

need to work as a team, unified in reaching this goal.

8. This goal is jeopardized if writers view the editor as a ‗problem‘. To prevent

this, the editor needs effective communication to deal with individuals and

groups working on a writing project.


Active listening

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 This means concentrating on what the speaker means and checking
information through paraphrasing and asking probing questions, such as
‗What do you mean by…‘.

 Editors need to demonstrate that they are confident in their abilities without
becoming aggressive with writers.

 Editors may become so intent with changes that they forget the writer‘s
sense of professionalism is involved. Writers themselves may find it difficult
to separate criticisms about the writing from criticisms about the person.
Nonverbal strategies

 Editors can underline their authority by using effective nonverbal strategies,

such as environment (e.g. the setting of an editing conference), dress, and
facial, voice and other body cues.

Strategies for Editing

Get involved early

 Help define the audience.

 Help design the information package.

 Suggest usability and readability aids.

 Edit the information plan and the table of contents.

 Set rules on what‘s required and what‘s negotiable (i.e. set your editorial
Collaborate rather than confront

 Different perspectives improve the product.

 Put the emphasis on improvements, not corrections.

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 Use negotiation, and define what‘s negotiable and what isn‘t.

 Talk about what helps readers understand or retain a message.

 Tell the author why you do what you do.

 Listen actively.
Teach and assist authors and managers

 Establish editorial authority (teach managers).

 Help new writers or people new to the company to minimize need for

 Demonstrate how editors can help and when they should be involved in a

 Keep up with latest on writing, usability, etc.

 Help people from other disciplines who need to write technical or business

 Help anyone who is weak in some areas (e.g. indexing).


Putting marks on paper is the most basic task that an editor does. More complex is

the range of interpersonal and technical skills that an effective editor uses to help

writers and documentation teams manage a project and reach their goal. The

editor‘s ability to demonstrate these skills and have them valued by others

determines the editor‘s role and level of authority. In these ways, the editorial

status is determined within the organization.

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Designing, writing and editing using Adobe


 Adobe illustrator (Ai) features several tools that allow you to edit the shapes

you draw.

 Using the selection tool (black arrow in the top left column of the tool box)

will invoke what is known as the bounding box.

 The bounding box outlines the slides of the shape and shows the points used

to draw the shape.

 Generally wherever there is a corner, you will find a point.

 When dealing with an elliptical shape there will be four points, one at each

of the extreme edges.

 If for some reason you do not see the bounding box when using the selection

tool you can choose ‗view‘ from the menu bar at the top of the screen and

then show bounding box.

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Editing using Adobe InDesign

 Using styles in Adobe InDesign allows for great flexibility in creating a

layout, whether in creative process or when making changes.

 One of the best reasons for using paragraph styles, character styles, and

object styles in an Adobe InDesign layout is the ability to make large-scale

changes to a design quickly.

 Instead of editing paragraphs, text or objects individually while going

through the layout, styles applied to groups of items can be edited in the

style panels and will affect every instance of that style throughout a


Before editing

 Adobe Photoshop offers an impressive variety of ways for users to later their

original photography and images.

 Edits can range from removing red eye to making an entire composition

appear as a watercolor painting.

 Selection tools allow you to precisely control which portions of an image

will be affected by your images.


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What is editing?

It means selecting certain portions of an event or events and putting them into a

meaningful sequence to tell a story with clarity and impact. And it occurs during

the postproduction phase.


Selecting shots from one videotape and copying them in a specific order onto

another tape. Why linear? Simply because once the footage is recorded on tape,

you can no longer retrieve it randomly. Nevertheless, it consists on assembling and

inserting shots


Allowing random access to all source material, multiple editing versions, and any

number of transitions and effects. Why nonlinear? Because it consists of playback

facility for the source media, a high-speed computer with software for capture,

storage, and manipulation of audio and video clips, and video recorder for the

final edit master recording.

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Editing functions


This is the simplest kind of editing which consists on combining program portions.

Accordingly, the more aware you are of the desired sequence during the actual

shooting, the easier it will be to combine the various shots during editing phase.


Often you edit to condense the material. Simply put, it happens to reduce the

overall length of the program or program portion. The condensing function of

editing requires recognition of the essence of an event and the selection of shots

that best express that essence.


This is the time to fixing production mistakes, and seemingly one of the most

difficult, time consuming and costly postproduction activities. Here the point is

that careful attention to preproduction and production details can obviate most

corrective editing.

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This is the process of building for instance a show from a great many carefully

taped shots. It also refers to as the most difficult and also the most satisfying

editing assignments.

Aesthetic principles of editing


It means creating seamless transitions from one event detail to the next so that the

story seems to flow even though a great deal of information is purposely left out.

Here are the major points to consider: (1) story continuity, (2) subject continuity,

(3) vectors and mental map, (4) screen position continuity, (5) light and color

continuity, (6) and Motion continuity.


It is done primarily to intensify an event and to give it meaning. Simply put, to

help the viewer gain deeper insight into the event. Basically, there is no need to

follow the rules of continuity editing but instead opt to edit for heightened

emotional impact, even at risk of jarring the viewer‘s mental map.

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Definition of the key terms


Is whatever story a newsroom (professional reporters and editors) find: (1)

Relevant, (2) Usefulness, and (3) Interest for the perspective of its audience. In fact

those are the broad guidelines for judging the news values of any event, issue or

personality, but within those standards, journalists look for more specific elements

in each potential story. The most are impact, conflict, Novelty, prominence,

proximity, timeliness.


Such TV format involving a face-to-face talk used in many programs, especially

news, documentaries, features, corporate and educational programs, and of course,

entertainment interview shows. It refers to as the television reporter‘s performance.


Anything that deals with nonfiction treatment of subject in a format that is not

straight news or interview or discussion is often called, interchangeably, a feature

or a documentary. Some practitioners and critics consider the documentary the

highest form of the news and information art. Documentaries provide information

and present a point of view (POV).

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It basically refers to as TV genre or content that is scripted and (normally)

fictional. This excludes, for example, sport, news, reality and game shows, stand-

up comedy and variety shows. Also, by convention, the term is not generally

usually used for situation comedy or soap opera.

Editing: How it works?


―Much of the TV editing is done in the control room while the Newscast is in


Aesthetic principle of continuity editing

The editing is done by selecting the most effective shots from the continuous video

feed of the cameras and the others video inputs, such as video-recorded inserts or

computer-generated graphics (images).

This is the so called SWITCHING or INSTANTANEOUS EDITING. Simply put

such process of selecting and sequencing of shots while the televised event is


Aesthetic principle of complexity editing

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Here the complexity editing violates continuity principles, such as crossing the

vector line, and multi screens to intensify the screen event. Similarly, the jump cut,

wipe, dissolve, montage, animated transitions, and special complexity effects such

as instant replays employed as energizing devices.

Switching process

Basically, the editor flows the material by means of the switcher. Those white

arrows suggest various decisions made by the editor during the overall news

program from the news theme up to sports news.

Such editing decisions call for continuity editing in terms of subject continuity for

instance within news reports, and also the maintenance of screen position screen

during interviews and anchors conversation as well. The complex editing comes

into play, specifically for news features. It includes several transitions such as

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jump cut, wipe, dissolve, as well as montage, animated transitions and generated

graphics (various three-dimensional titles or moving images), and, of course, the so

called multi screens often to show related events that occur in different locations



―Basically, the editing principles of fiction and documentary are the same, only the

context makes principles moving.‖

Aesthetic principle of continuity editing

The editing is done by selecting the most effective shots to tell the desired story or

point of view.

Here the point is that there is no need for the latest complex editing system if all

the editor need to do is just order his shots and join them mostly with cuts and a

few dissolve. But still the editing phase will simply and obviously make use of

graphic, index and vectors in order to establish and maintain continuity from shot

to shot.

Aesthetic principle of complexity editing

The editing is done not by selecting the most effective shots but also by adding

more special effects such as computer-generated graphics (images), extensive color

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correction or saturation, whilst engage in elaborate audio mixing and audio/video


Let‘s keep in mind that here there is a need of high-end editing system that will

provide the tools to go beyond the cut-and-paste approach.





Story continuity and subject continuity guide the editing phase of a Drama. The

continuity editing occurs when the editor emphasis on the recognition of characters

from one shot to the next one; this is what Zettl (2009) refers to as subject


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This figure presents a series of

shots in two sequences.

Respectively, S 1 (sequence 1)

was purely assembled for the

purpose of this discussion

while S 2 (sequence 2) was

excerpted from such American

Drama.An evaluation of S 1

shows that the sequence does

not provide any story

continuity. On the other hand,

the shots are ordered to provide story continuity whereby the editor seemingly

avoided editing between shots of extreme changes in distance by jump-cutting a

medium shot from a different angle (see shot 1 and shot 2 of sequence 2). Thus, it

brought the viewer closer to the ongoing action whilst being able to recognize

subject on screen.

Further, we learn from that figure that the mental map comes into play as

well. The lady‘s screen-right gaze (See shot 2/sequence 2) suggests that something

must be located in the off-screen space to the right; apparently the editor is

automatically expected to reveal it into the next shot (see shot 3/sequence 2).

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In Drama, another major point considered is the screen position especially

during characters‘ intense conversation whereby the over-shoulder-shot approach

reveals the maintenance of screen position earlier discussed.

Drama‘s editing is also a realm of the aesthetic principle of complexity

editing in terms of intensification of the screen event, whereby the editing process

―goes beyond the seamless sequencing of shots‖ (Zettl, 2009, p. 459). From this

point, Zettl stressed that the selection and sequencing of shots is guided no longer

by the need to maintain visual and aural continuity but by ways of getting and

keeping viewers‘ attention and increasing their emotional involvement. Therefore,

here comes into play:

 Intensification by crossing the vector line (no longer faithfulness of subjects‘

screen positions);

 Transitions (Cut, Dissolve, Fade, and so forth), whereby a dissolve is used

gradually from shot to shot then caused two images temporarily to


 Motion graphics, specifically for titles and various indicators such as Cities

or locations name;

 Special complexity effects such as instant replays, and multiple screens;

 Montage (deliberate assemblage of shots) considered as the basic building

block of complexity editing.

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For instance, when the judge reads the jury‘s decision, the montage

principle, often determined not so much by its content as by its length and rhythm,

is often used to look around the courtroom, using quick close up (CU shot) cuts of

the principals involved. In fact, such intensification of actual tension is done by an

assemblage of shots; progressively shorter up to the guilty verdict (Zettl, 2009).

Therefore, the editing of a Drama is irrefutably guided by its dramatic development

rather than by the dialogue or background music and sound effects.


Despite some major operational differences the basic editing principles and the

approach to the actual editing phase as described are basically common to all

programs. The editor is ultimately responsible to the viewers for any choice made

during the actual editing phase. Thus Zettl (2009) argues that the most important

principle for the editors, especially those who deal with nonfictional events (News

and Documentaries) rather than Drama, is to remain as true to the actual event as

possible. Accordingly, ethics becomes the overriding editing principle.


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Audio Defined

The audible part of transmitted signal. Sound within the acoustic range that is

available to humans. Audio means the range of frequencies within human hearing,

which is approximately 20Hz at the low end to a high of 20,000Hz


 The sensation produced by stimulation of the organs of hearing by vibrations

transmitted through the air or other medium.

 Vibrations in air, water, etc. that stimulate the auditory nerves and produce

the sensation of hearing.

 A mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a

solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing

and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in

organs of hearing by such vibrations.

(American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language)

Examples of Sound


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 Words composed into a melodious sound, accompanied by musical

instruments, or varied musical tones with no sound, in the case of Accapella


 Breaks the monotony of talk, talk, talk in radio.

 Intended to be relaxing and allow the listener to engage in other activities as

well as listening to radio. An accompaniment.


 Often used to engage a listener in a discussion.

 The listener can take an active role in the conversation, or an

―eavesdropping‖ role.

 Used to move the discussion from one point to another.

 Used most commonly in radio by DJs, continuity announcers, newscasters,

advertisers, radio drama performers and in interviews

 Can be dry and continuous, on a theme/topic

 or presentation /radio drama

Sound Effects:

Inventive experts used various items to achieve the effects

 Used to paint an imagination to the mind of the listener about what is being

talked about on radio.

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 Can be produced by rapping coconut shells produced horses' hoof beats;

crumpling cellophane and dripping water into a pail.

 Other methods included opening and closing doors, firing blank pistol

cartridges, or using recorded sounds: careening automobiles, railroad trains,

airplanes, chiming clocks, and farm animal noises.

 All contributed to "the paint brush of imagination."

Audio Production for Broadcasting

 Audio Production for Radio is about broadcasting, i.e produced for mass


 Before the age of television, there was a period spanning 50 years during

which radio was the primary popular medium for entertainment and an

important channel for news and special events

 Jack Benny defined radio as a ―do-it-yourself-television‖


 Transmissions used telegraph keys to modulate the radio signal

 Morse code and a variety of other specialized codes

 1906 First Radio signal sent out by Lee DeForest in CA, USA.

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 In 1916, a small vacuum tube transmitter was being used by Frank Conrad

of Pittsburgh, PA to entertain his neighbors

 1921 Herald of San Francisco adopted tube technology and began

broadcasting with the call sign KQW.

Early Radio Content

 Early broadcasts used home-made crystal radio sets.

 Content tended to be live performances or music recorded on phonograph


 A microphone was located in front of the phonograph speaker to broadcast a


 Sound quality was marginal. But Musicians were happy to appear for the

publicity, the novelty, or both.

 Signals were weak. Headphones had to be used to listen to the detected radio



 Operated a broadcasting service in San Jose, CA.

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 His programming included regularly scheduled talks and music for a small,

but loyal, group of friends, colleagues and enthusiasts.

 Broadcasts were unsponsored and non-commercial, done on a regular

schedule for the entertainment of any with the equipment to receive them

 Broadcasting service ended in 1917 as a result of WWI, which caused the

US government to forbid private radio transmissions for security reasons.

 Other early broadcasts include: ABC (1920), NBC 1926,CBS (1928), The

Armed Forces Radio Service was formed during WWII to provide news and

entertainment to American troops

Then came the Transistor radio.

 Transistors, invented in 1948.

 Extended the life of radio broadcasting.

 They permitted the rapid development of inexpensive, small radios that

consumed less power and were easy to package as personal, portable


 Also vastly improved the reliability of automotive radios.

 The first transistor radio, the Regency TR-1, appeared in 1954.

 It had four germanium transistors, cost about $50, and had several times the

battery life of competing tube radios.

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 The convenience and low price of the transistor-based radio greatly

contribute to radio's longevity as a broadcast medium.


 Programmes

 Music

 Advertising/Announcements

 Disk Jockey/Presenter shows

Technological advancement in Radio


 An Audio format

 Also called MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3

 It is a lossy compression algorithm that removes certain frequencies that

humans can't hear.

 When creating an MP3 file, a bit rate is set that has a big effect on the

quality of the sound. Setting a bit rate that is too low can produce a poor

sound quality.

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 The term MP3 has become synonymous with digital music files and is the

de-facto standard that everything else is compared to.

 The ‗lossy‘ compression algorithm was invented by a group of European

engineers who used a component from an earlier invention as early as 1979.


 MP4 files are container formats that can hold a mix of multimedia objects

(audio, video, images, animations, menus, etc.)

 It was introduced in late 1998 and designated a standard for a group of

audio and video coding formats and related technology agreed upon by the

ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) .

 Absorbs many of the features of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2and other related

standards, adding new features such as (extended)VRLM support for 3D

rendering, ob-object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and

VRML objects), support for externally-specified Digital Rights Management

and various types of interactivity.

 MPEG-4 is still a developing standard and is divided into a number of parts.

 Most of the features included in MPEG-4 are left to individual developers to

decide whether to implement them

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1. Pre- recorded content

2. Live transmissions


Some Radio stations are housed in their own buildings. Others, because of

financial reasons or geographic considerations, can be found in skyscrapers, strip

malls, and other locations.


 Typically do not require the overhead of a traditional radio station

 Can be run minimally, e.g. at the corner of a room as in the case of a


 More involved Internet radio stations that operate for profit will obviously

require more space for employees, etc.


 Many Radio stations do not have their actual transmitter and broadcast tower

on the same property as the studios.

 The tower above is a microwave relay tower.

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 The signal is sent by microwave to a similar microwave receptor on the

grounds where the transmitter and tower are.

 It is then converted into a signal that is broadcast to the general public.

 It is not uncommon for a Radio station's studios to be located 10, 15 even 30

miles away from the actual transmitter and tower.

 You'll notice there are several microwave dishes on this tower. That's

because it is relaying signals for several different Radio stations


 Many Radio stations, especially those which air syndicated radio shows

receive these programs via satellite.

 The signal is fed into the Radio station's control room where it travels

through a console, and is then sent to the transmitter

Digital Radio Station:

Comprises an audio Console, Computers, and Microphone


 A device that is used to control the audio mix and output from either a live

studio broadcast or recorded sources.

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 This is where all the sound sources are mixed before being sent to the

transmitter. Each slider/ ―pot‖ controls the volume of one sound source:

microphone CD player, digital recorder, network feed, etc.

 Each slider channel has an on/off switch at the bottom and various switches

at the top which can divert to more than one destination.

 A VU meter, such as the square box-like area toward the top of the console

with the two green horizontal lines (center top), shows the operator the level

of sound output. The top horizontal line is the left channel and the bottom

line is the right channel.

 The audio console converts analog audio (voice via microphone) and phone

calls to a digital output. Also allows for the mixing of digital audio from

CDs, computers, and other digital sources with the analog audio.


 A device that converts sound waves into electrical energy

 Most radio stations have an assortment of them.

 Some microphones are especially designed for voice and on-air work. Often,

these microphones will also have wind-screens over them to keep extraneous

noise to a minimum

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 This microphone does not have an external windscreen. It is also on an

adjustable mike stand and in this case is usually used for studio guests.



Wireless microphone

“The whole technology of the microphone depends on the diaphragm

because it is the only thing that captures the sound waves to create
the signal.”

 Widely used for recording and broadcasting sounds.

 Portable and can be connected to camera, recorder, or speaker without the


 Have a system of three components that work together to create and transmit

a signal to the place where it is recorded and amplified.

a. The actual microphone which is a tiny clip fixed around the ear

or in the lapel.

b. The transmitter that converts the audio signal to a signal either in

the FM, VHF, or UHF bands of the radio spectrum.

c. The antennae, which broadcasts the produced signal to a short


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 These microphones are used in different kinds of shows like television

shows, stage shows or shows by bands.

Dynamic Microphones

 Work with the help of electromagnetic induction.

 There is a magnet that induces current to flow in the wire. When the

diaphragm vibrates due to sound waves , the magnet gets moved and this

movement creates a small current.

 Are strong and resistant to moisture, mainly used in the stage performance

by the singers or the bands.

Condenser microphones

 Also called capacitors

 The diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, Producing vibrations that

changes in the distance between the plates. These changes are amplified to

create a measurable signal.

 They require a small battery to provide a voltage across the capacitor.

 Are are capable of producing high quality sound, thus they are used in the

laboratory and studio recordings

Ribbon microphones

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 They run with the help of a metal ribbon that is suspended in a magnetic

field and is connected electrically to the microphone.

 This ribbon is moved by the sound waves that change the current flowing

through it and thus electric signal is generated.

 The ribbon microphones are used mainly for the cymbals in drums.

Crystal microphones

 A crystal is attached to the diaphragm that creates the signal when the

diaphragm gets vibrated by the sound waves.

 Uses the phenomenon of piezoelectricity., that is, there are some materials

like crystals that produce a voltage when subjected to pressure, to convert

vibrations into electrical signals.

 Crystal microphones are used with vacuum tube equipments like the

domestic tape recorders.

 They are even used as contact microphones to amplify sound from acoustic

musical instruments.

Carbon microphones

 These microphones were used in telephones in the past.

 They basically use carbon dust that has a thin metal diaphragm on one side.

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 When the sound waves hit the diaphragm they compress the carbon dust that

changes its resistance.

 This changing resistance changes the amount of current that passes through.


All microphones work by sensing the pressure difference on either side of a thin

sheet known as a diaphragm. Ultimately, there are really only two fundamental

microphone principles:

a. Pressure-operated (Omni-directional) and

b. Pressure-gradient (directional).

c. Cardioids: combination of both (new kind).


Most radio stations have entered the digital age where, not only is all the music,

commercials, and other sound elements stored digitally on hard drives, but

sophisticated software is also used to either automatically run the station when a

human can't be there or to help in assisting a live DJ or personality in running the


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 Radio personalities and deejays wear headphones to avoid feedback.

 When a microphone is turned on in a radio studio, the monitors (speakers)

automatically mute.

 This way, the sound from the monitors won't re-enter the microphone

causing a feedback loop.



 For keeping the sound of radio personality's voice sounding as good as


 Sound proofing takes the "hollow sound" out of a room. The sound waves

bounce off of smooth surfaces, like porcelain or tile (to avoid being heard,

like in bathrooms).

 Soundproofing flattens the sound wave by creating a special texture on the

radio studios walls.

 Cloth and other designs on the wall are usually employed to flatten out the


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Radio Station Software


 Some studios still use Carts (Primarily used before advent of digitial

technology, made of analog tape that loops back to the beginning after it

plays and is used to store recorded sound.)

 Although most stations have switched over to completely digital operations,

some still use CDs.

 It's very unlikely any actually use turntables or vinyl records anymore,

except KBC which still has ―old school presenters e.g Leonard Mambo still

uses turntables for his shows!

Radio Presenters/DJs

 Describes how a DJ creates a Radio show by interacting with a

computerized system. Used for live shows.

 Provides live talk, chat, liners, etc. and then activates the computer system

which automatically runs commercials (spots), jingles, promos and songs.

 When it is time for the DJ to talk again, he/she deactivates the automation

and goes live at the appropriate time, repeating as necessary during an air


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 An example of a handheld recorder used to gather sound from external

source, both indoors and outdoors.

 Was not made for hand-held purposes, but most users tend to ignore the

strap and hold it, thus compromising the quality of sound collected due to

the hand movement

 Has an inbuilt mic, but an external mic that is omni, improves on the sound

quality for broadcasting

 Very good for professional use, can go to rough terrains with the recorder

for sound collection since it is very portable.

 Useful for multimedia journalists. Old models used mostly by

print/newspaper /magazine journalists

 Easy to use functions built in the recorders. very practical

 Easier to extract sound from the recorder, than most digital recording




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Brief History of Radio

 Radio waves were first used by Heinrich Hertz, a Germany physicist in


 Gugliemo Marconi, an Italian, who is also referred to as the father of radio

used Hertz‘s discovery to build a wireless communication that could send

dashes and dots from a transmitter to a receiver.

 Later, Reginald Fessenden and Lee De Forest worked on ideas that would

make broadcasting possible instead of sending dashes and dots.

 Fessenden constructed a high speed continuous wave generator that

broadcasted a human voice and music.

 His friend, De Forest invented a vacuum tube called the audition at fist,

which easened the reception of radio signals.

 Radio waves were being improved on step by step.

 It was not until 1915 when the true broadcasting went into effect.

 This is the time speech was first transmitted across the North American

continent, from New York to San Francisco, and also across the Atlantic


 Radio was the first electronic mass medium and the first national broadcast


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News Radio-sources

 Police station

 Market place

 Hospital

 Railway station and many others


• Proximity

• Timeliness

• Conflict

• Human interest

• Consequent and impact-what effect will it have on the readers

• Audience


 Writing for the ear is different from writing for the eye. For a broadcasting

to be effective and professional, certain rules have to be followed.

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 Use of proper format— scripts should be all in caps and double spaced;

information to provide sound cuts, including speaker, type of cut (actuality,

wrap, voice) length, out cue.

 Write conversationally– write as though you are telling a story to a friend.

Should be akin to normal speaking style.

 Use of word economy— don‘t use ten words if five words can convey a


 Use present tense---in radio news the emphasis is what is happening now.

All scripts must be in present tense.

 Use of short sentences.---Spoken language is comprised of short sentences.

Material written for radio should reflect the same. The lead should serve as

introduction to what listeners can expect to hear.

 Ensure clarity and flow— the flow has to be conversational ,and not like

when reading for a news paper.

 Avoid he/she ambiguity— in referencing more than one name in a script

always refer the person by name.

 Only mention what is necessary- lengthy stories are for news papers

 Avoid repetition:- when writing sound cuts, read wrap, don‘t repeat

information. Lead sentence should serve as introduction to what listeners

expect to hear

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 Use of numbers— Estimate, for example don‘t say 195 students, but

mention nearly 200 students. In writing numbers, write out one to ten, and

from eleven onwards, enter them numerically.

 Avoid clichés and groaners— they distract; they are void of meaning, they

pull listener away from story.

 Provide pronunciation guides— this applies to uncommon or difficult names

to pronounce. Provide annotation.

 Downplay unconfirmed or unknown information— credibility is harmed

when an anchor begins a story by information not known to the station.

Characteristics of a good Story

 Accuracy— getting correct information; never assume something is correct-

always ask, always check; watch over titles, places; confirm.

 Verification— anything controversial find out whether it real exists by

yourself; get documented to prove information is true; ask for witness to

confirm; visit key places

 Objectivity— report facts in a neutral way; keep away your own opinion,


 Attribution— cite the source of the information in order to be believed

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 Balance and fairness— tell all sides of an issue; story should not favor one


 Clarity— be concise, specific, use short words and short sentences; use

simple words that ordinary people understand; don‘t use jargon.

 Completeness— a story must not leave out any element (5Ws and H); think

clearly; understand the things you are writing about


There are principles that apply when writing radio drama:

The beginning— it is everything; if this part fails, the listener will desert you; it

means you have failed and you don‘t exist as a dramatist.

The moment of arrival— meaning how to drop your listeners into the story: don‘t

relax them; parachute the listeners into a top dramatic moment but not the climax;

know when too join the story; avoid being slow; kick listeners into high energy and

keep them through the rapids.

Structure— if the set up is more explosive than the resolution, reverse the order.

The order is : Set up>Struggle>Resolution. Regard your play as a series of phases.

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The plot– it is a story with a lot of twists and turns; the more of them, the merrier;

no good plot, nothing worthwhile.

Surprise— people are hungry with entertainment, don‘t bore them; make them

afraid but also excited.

Character— the main character must have the sympathy of the audience; audience

has to identify with main character, if not you have created a failure.

Conflict. Drama=Conflict=audience. Let there be emotional, financial, human,

moral, physical struggle so your listeners can laugh or cry. If listeners are not

laughing or crying-then give up.

Polarities or Extremes— story telling is exploring the extrreme limits of our

psychological or physical existence. It is pitching one polarity against another.

The climax— good radio drama must be developed step by step-raising the

emotion of the listener from one phase to another until it explodes.

Dialogue— is how we engage dramatically with the world; characters inform,

argue, amuse, outrage, through the ebb of and floe of dialogue; great radio plays

are made of talk, talk, talk, by talking in dramatic dialogue.

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Atmosphere/Ambience— determines spirit of play; determines whether listeners

believe the world you have created. Proper detail found in music, sound effect,

writing determine atmosphere and attitude

Emotion— generate emotional response from the audience-love, hate, admiration

mainly to the main character. Emotional connection between the writing and the

listener is good radio drama.

Balance character and plot— both are a must; one may predominate over the


Purpose— every word, every line. Every scene must serve a dramatic purpose;

anything short of drama-drop it.


1. A radio interviewer needs two basic skills: How to ask the right questions;

and how to listen.

2. Sides of an interview: the best interview is a conversation the listener is

invited to listen to.

3. The two important parts to every good radio interview are: the person asking

questions and the person answering them; and the way the two parties

interact with each other.

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4. The interaction is important for a number of reasons:

5. it answers questions the listener most wants answered;

6. it tells the listener something they perhaps dint know about the interviewee;

7. it makes the interview entertaining, revealing and interesting.


Do the research: know and learn as much about the subject; look into the

background of any interviewee or story; the interviewer should at least be

knowledgeable; A good interview often depends in good research.

Before the interview be thoroughly prepared: have some questions ready,

but be prepared to react to answers; arrive early and allow time to set up for

remote interviews; for studio interviews test all required equipment before hand

(use equipment, test results, check on improvements).

The Interview: normally either a new person or an experienced interviewee must

react to the person interviewer. Consider the following: politeness; go through the

necessary introduction; ensure the subject is comfortable; start recording before

formal interview takes place, tell them recording is starting and ask the first

questions; ask open questions and avoid closed questions, avoid ohs, ahhs, uhus,

yes/see and laughter—eye contact, nods of agreement and smiles arre enough;

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when interviewing a crowd of people, concentrate on one or two and their

contribution; record more audio than needed-more is always better.

After the interview: show politeness again; thank the subject/subjects for their

time and interview; check points that may have come up during interview that need

confirming off mic; be sure the subject knows how to contact you and where the

interview is being used; incase of any follow up from the interviewee confirm

contact details; immediately after interview, the interviewer must make notes about

anything that might be useful during the editing process---good answers, the

surrounding, dress of the subject, where they came from and any other useful

background information.


Definition: According to McLeish (1997), ‗a documentary is wholly fact based on

documentary evidence-written records, attributable sources, contemporary

interviews and the like. Its purpose is essentially to inform, to present a story or

situation with a total regard for honest, balanced reporting‘ (p 239). The subject

matter covered include: historical events, people of influence, and current issues.

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Narrative-subject matter is described with facts, figures, and articulate narration

to create interest.

Musical-explains topic in a script frequently punctuated with musical insertions. It

is a documentary in nature- birds, rivers, tourism. It can be on a personality closely

linked with music.

Dramatized- at times it is essential to elaborate a theme, although done sparingly.

Imagination- here the producer has to show his/her imagination in giving

treatment to the subject matter. It doesn‘t mean elements of objectivity are

overshadowed by the subjectivity.

Insertions- a good radio documentary is punctuated with insertions from the

relevant material. If there is mention of painting, some quotation from books are

necessary or talking to experts who know what it is all about. Such documentary

need more application of the mind and an elaborate post production. It requires a

very dedicated team to complete the task of making a documentary of such a type.

Close to places- producer is supposed to visit the place to get the real feel of the

surroundings to involve listeners in this type of radio production. Producers sitting

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in the studio cant reach even the shade of a documentary which is made by actual

visit of the site


 Develop an idea- It is the first proponent of creating a documentary

program; must be appropriate for the desired audience.

 Outline project and define details- materials for recording; budget; team to

work with.

 Decide who to approach with the newfound concept:- visit executive

producers, local stations, university/college stations when looking for the

right match

 Write a proposal: this include program‘s subject matter, length of time,

people to be involved, purpose of the project—this will help the producer to

organize how the documentary will move forward.

 Research: proper research is mandatory for accurate , reliable, and current

information. Research is accessed through internet, library, schools, local

health clinic in case of diseases; getting people who can contribute

something to the documentary

 Write a script: must have a beginning, middle, and an end. Radio is

dependent on sound-incorporate music, background noises; ideas to be

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communicated clearly and effectively; written language to avoid stigma and

marginalization of specific groups.

 Record the show: It can take a whole in the studio to record a 30 minutes

radio program; patience is very vital; ask questions; station producer can

send someone to help in recording and to ensure everything goes on


 Edit: after record, it is good to listen before it goes to audience; check

language appropriateness for audience; will audience be engaged; which

parts may be repeated to ensure clarity.

 Broadcast: ensure appropriate timing; timing will depend on the audience.


 Decide what you want to say.

 List your points in a logical manner.

 Make sure the opening is interesting and informative.

 Write for the individual listener; - visualize him or her as you write.

 Speak out loud what you want to say, then write it down.

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 Use ‗signposts‘ (an example is in finishing a point and join it to the next one

by saying, ‗Let‘s go on from there to see how this one works in practice.‘

This is an indication to your audience that you are turning from theory to its

practical application. Such indicators are called signposts) to explain the

structure of your talk

 Paint pictures, tell stories, and appeal to all the senses.

 Use ordinary conversational language.

 Write in short sentences or phrases.

 Use punctuation to aid clarity for the reader.

 Type the script, double spaced, wide margins with clear paragraphs.

 When in doubt, keep it simple, - remember, the idea is to express, not to


 Fact check your script and review your grammar


 Definition: Editing for radio is to prepare a program or piece by starting with

raw sound elements of obtaining a finished product which is ready for

broadcast. It is also taking raw elements, treat them and end up with an ―ear
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pleasing‖ product. It can be thought of as cutting and swing different pieces

of sound together.

 Process: a). Taking raw elements, b). Preparing them, c). Writing down the

plan for the production in a orderly fashion, d). assembling the different

parts into a finished product.

 Purpose of editing:- To arrange recorded material into a more logical

sequence; to remove the uninteresting, repetitive, or technically

unacceptable; to compress the material in time; for creative effect to produce

new juxtapositions of speech, music, sound and silence.

 Editing must not be used to alter the sense of what has been said or to place

the material within an unintended context.

 Editing methods:- Physical cutting, for reel to reel tape; dubbing, for audio

cassettes; digital assembling editing for DAT (Digital Audio Tape); by

computer, for any digital recording.

 Technological advancement:- It has moved editing a notch higher. Instead of

the old manual mode, now various software have been developed that are

used for editing. Some of these are the Adobe Sound Booth, Audacity, and

Sound Forge. With audio production software you can create, record, edit,

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remix, remaster and publish entire trucks and projects through your



 Hosts: they are also called presenters. They are the ones to put the listeners

at ease with the show or the program being aired at a particular time of the


 Editors: they ensure that the end product of a program is to the expectations

of the radio station standards, it is audience appropriate, it is quality.

 Producers: they plan and develop live or taped production. They determine

how the show will look and sound

 Program directors: they are in charge of on – air programming in radio


 Broadcast news analysts or news anchors: they analyze, interpret,

and broadcast news received from various sources.

 News directors: overall responsibility for the news team made up of

reporters, writers, editors, newscasters,

 Studio operators: these will include such as sound engineer, control room

directors, maintenance engineer. master control supervisor, broadcast

technician. Their major responsibility is to monitor strength, clarity,

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reliability of incoming and outgoing signals, adjust equipment as necessary

to maintain quality broadcasts.


The coming of television challenged the existence and viability of radio in

informing, educating and entertaining the masses. Over time, radio has still

remained the electronic medium with a large segmented audience, especially in

Kenya. The mushrooming of FM radio stations is an indication that radio is still a

power to reckon with in the electronic media. Mobile technology is equipped with

radio components, which is a great attraction to the youth. With this kind of

powerful audience, it is imperative to always maintain quality writing and

reporting for radio.

Typography comes from the Greek words typos, which means ―mark, figure‖ and

grapho, which means ―I write.‖

 It is basically the discipline of shaping written information.

 Authors write the text, designers and typographers manage the typography,

and users read through it.

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“Today we are inundated with such an immense flood of printed matter that the

value of individual work has depreciated, for our harassed contemporaries

simply cannot take everything that is printed today. It is the typographer’s task

to divide up and organize and interpret this mass of printed matter in such a

way that the reader will have a good chance of finding what is of interest to

him.” Emil Ruder, Famous Swiss typographer


Type face: The design of a set of printed characters. A major difference in

typefaces is whether there are tiny horizontal lines at the top and bottom of any

straight lines. i.e. serif

Font: This is a coherent style used in a set of type. This may include normal, italic,

bold, bold italic etc.

Serif: These are tiny finishing strokes on the end of the letter. Typefaces are

classified as either ‗serif‘ (with serifs) or ‗sans serif‘ (without serifs)

Times New Roman


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Anatomy of typography

 Baseline- The invisible line on which the characters sit

 X-height- The height of lower case letters disregarding the ascenders and

descenders. The height of a lower case x

 Mean line- a horizontal line drawn parallel to the base line at the x-height

 Ascender- The part of a lower case character that extends above the x-


 Cap height- The height of capital letters from the baseline to the top of


 Descender- The part of a character that goes below the baseline

 Ascent- The distance from the baseline to the top of the highest ascender

 Point size- determined by adding the ascent and the descent


 In typography, leading is the vertical spacing between lines of type


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 Leading is measured in points and includes the point size of the type face

and the actual space between the lines.

 Example: 15 points of leading using 12point type really mean 3 points of

space in between lines

 Leading can increase or decrease readability depending on how tight the

type blend together


 Good typography should enhance readability and strengthen the message

 The type on a page should attract the reader‘s attention and create a visual

path for the eye to follow.

 In design, the blend of typeface, image, layout and color will create a

distinct personality in each piece of work.

 Be aware of what you want to communicate

 If leading is too loose, each text stands alone and this may reduce


 When the leading value is greater than the point size of type, it is positive

leading e.g. 16pt type, 20pt leading

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 When the leading value is less than the point size of the type, it is negative

leading e.g. 16pt type, 14 pt leading

 When the leading value and the type point size are the same, it is set solid

e.g. 16pt type, 16pt leading


 Magazines communicate through text, photography, art work, headlines,

cartoons and advertising.

 A magazine like Newsweek is meant to be read and as such its type is plain,

straightforward and readable.

 Salon magazine is for browsing and is filled with colorful shots of hairstyles

and make-up. It is often difficult to tell the difference between the editorial

and the ads.

 True love is an example of a hybrid that features both visuals and real


 Success lies in using type dramatically and readably.

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 Fontlab and other applications allow designers to create functional fonts that

work seamlessly with standard software programs such as InDesign and


 The first step in designing a typeface is to define a basic concept i.e. Serif/

sans serif, display/text.

 The next step is to create drawings. Some designers start with pencil before

working digitally, while others build their letterforms directly with font

design software.

 Fonts may be inbuilt or part of design softwares. Some common fonts like

Comic Sans are reviled by designers.

 To increase your font vocabulary you could buy fonts from digital foundries

like Adobe or Font shop or create your own. You could also find some

distributed free online.


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Framing is the process of creating composition. A frame is the basic unit of visual

material from which films and videos are constructed. A continuous series of

frames constitutes a shot.

Shots and sequences in video

A series of shots on the same subject that are edited together to tell a story

constitute what we call a video sequence. In a sequence we put together wide

shots, close ups and other types of shots to come up with a dynamic composition

that tells a story from our desired point of view.


According to Grula (n.d) a sequence is to video storytelling what a sentence is to

written storytelling.

Composition. Shots are all about composition. Rather than pointing the camera at

the subject, you need to compose an image.

Basic considerations when framing a shot according to Zettl include:

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 How much territory you include in the shot

 Aspect ratio is the relationship of the width of the screen to its height.

 Standard AR for video is 4*3 i.e. 4 units wide and 3 units high.

 HDTV is 16*9

 Bigger AR allows you to frame wider vistas without too much event impact


 Directional force with various strengths

 The screen has forces and the concept of vectors will help you control these


 The screen forces are generated by someone looking, pointing or moving to

a particular direction. Sometimes it can be horizontal and vertical lines

 Three types of vectors include: graphics, index and motion vectors

Graphic vectors:

 Created by lines or arrangements of stationary objects that lead the eye in a

general direction

 It could be the electricity lines of a fance

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Index vectors

 Created by something that points unquestionably in a specific direction e.g.

an arrow, someone looking and pointing in a direction, street sign e

Motion vectors

 Created by a moving object or an object perceived to be moving.


 where to place the object relative to the screen edges

 the most stable picture area is screen centre

 remember that the video screen edges tend to act like magnets and attract

objects close to them

 therefore you need to provide a headroom and a lead-room/nose-room

 the head room neutralizes the pull of the upper screen edge while the

lead/nose room neutralizes the the index or motion vector force and the pull

of the frame.


 Psychological closure entails combining visual clues or filling in missing

visual information to arrive at a complete configuration.

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 how to make viewers perceive a complete object when only a parts of it are

visible on the screen.

 One of the most important principles of framing a CU in which only parts of

the subject is shown is to provide sufficient visual clues that enable the

viewer to complete the figure mentally in off-screen space.


 Refers to how close an object appears to the viewer or how much of the

scenery in front of you is in the shot

 There are five basic field of view designations

 Extreme long shots (XLS/ELS)

 Long shot (LS)

 Medium shot (MS)

 Close up (CU)

 Extreme close up (ECU/XCU)

Picture depth: Defining the Z-axis

What happens if you point the camera to the sky? What you perceive is a long z-

axis that does not show in depth. The z-axis is the imaginary line that stretches

from the camera lens to the horizon regardless of where the camera is pointing. To

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show screen depth you need to define the z-axis. You define the z-axis by placing

objects or people along it. The illusion of depth is achieved by placing objects such

that you have the foreground, the middle ground and the background.


 Video consist of lens generated and computer generated images (Zettl 2002).

 Graphics are images that are electronically manipulated or generated or

totally computer generated.


 The elements of graphics are pretty much the same as the elements of

framing of lens generated video and they include: aspect ratio, essential area,

readability, colour, animated graphics and style.

 Aspect ratio describes the basic shape of the screen in terms of the

relationship between the with and the height. STV AR is 4x3. HDTV has an

AR of 16x9.

 Zettl (2004) observes that the advantage of HDTV AR lies in the fact that

you can include horizontally stretched scenes and titles that you would have

to crop or rearrange in in the standard AR.

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 The essential area also known as the safe title area is the centered area

within the television screen. as a designer you need to keep all the necessary

information within the essential area.

 Readability entails choosing lettering that can be read. In graphics the titles

dance and move so much and it is important to choose fonts and font

attributes that will enhance readability.

 In graphic and scenic displays color is very important. Use high energy or

bright colors for foreground and low energy or dark colors for the



 Animation involves creation of some movement of video images in some



 Style as a basic principle in graphics design involves displaying of common

visual elements that are appropriate for the message. Style used should be

appropriate for the general message that is being communicated.

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Standard electronic video effects

 Electronic effects are achieved with an electronic switcher and a special

effects generator.

 Most of these special effects have become so mundane that they are no

longer special.

 Three most commonly used special effects are: the superimposition or super,

the key and the wipe.


 Superimposition – is a simultaneous overlay of two pictures. It is simply a

dissolve at about midpoint (Zettl 2004) .


 The Key – the key also combines two video images electronically but unlike

a super where the base picture is seen through the superimposed image, the

keyed image, normally text images, blocks out potions of the base picture

and appears to be layered on top of it. Some keys are transparent though.


 In a wipe a portion of or a complete video image is gradually replaced by

another. It could be a horizontal or vertical wipe. We also have a corner

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wipe and a diamond wipe and all these special effects are only effective if

they help clarify or intensify the intended message.


 The computer has greatly expanded the range of possibilities for

manipulating lens generated images.

 With digital video effects video signals can be manipulated to create a

variety of possibilities.

 From an analog camera you will need to convert the analog video signals to

digital and of course from a digital camera you will need a firewire port and

cable to capture.

Uses of motion graphics and space


 The computer generated graphics offer other alternatives for adapting new

environments to your video needs. The synthetic environment can be created

in three ways:

 Computer generated settings: indoor sets or parts of an indoor set can easily

be computer generated in post production or generated through various blue

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screen techniques similar to chroma-key process. A computer generated

office will have real office settings and all the interior decors of an office.

 Virtual reality – these are computer generated environments and events that

are animated (Zettl).

 For example if you have a lens generated footage of a peaceful scene of an

entertaining match you can turn it into a frightening event by replacing the

crowd watching the game from peaceful spectators to rowdy, unruly and

abusive spectators.

 In virtual reality you can also generate objects, animals and even people and

have them move about. A good example is in video games like the play

stations where we even have virtual football world cups.

 Computer controlled environments – According to Zettl (2004) there are

programs that produce from a floor plan actual scenic environment. Using

these programs you can set up a virtual scene and manipulate it as and when

you want and the best way that you think.

 With these programs you simply select items by the mouse and drag them

into the desired positions.

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