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When flying manual, all mode selections and AFS setting including FMS operation should be made by PNF upon order from PF.


Turn with 45° bank shall be performed without FD and with or without FPV. Attitude indicator should be used as primary instrument with V/S indicator and
altimeter as secondary instruments. Before starting turn, pilot should note pitch attitude and thrust setting for a level flight.
Enter the turn slowly. When passing through 30° bank increase back pressure on control column to maintain pitch and altitude. Increase thrust to maintain
speed. Pitch attitude should be maintained during turn and cross check with V/S and altitude. Thrust corrections must be made as soon as the speed starts to
drop or increase. The throttle setting must also be well coordinated with any altitude deviations, should they occur.
If PFV is used, keeping the FPV symbol (bird) on horizon will maintain zero V/S.
Check the vertical speed indicator and the altimeter during turn, and make small corrections to the backpressure on the stick in order to maintain altitude.
Do not use stabilizer trim during turn.
Start roll out from the turn 15-20° before reaching the specified heading. While exiting the turn increase control column push force to prevent pitch up resulting
in altitude increase and reduce thrust when passing 30° bank again.
Common errors:
- Entering turn with too high roll rate.
- Excessive elevator control movement.
- Varying bank angle.
- Slow instrument scan resulting in jerky flying.
- Not maintaining altitude at transition from one turn to another.
- Slow/missing thrust control.

Follow the procedure laid down in AOM.
The key points are;
- Hold altitude until stall warning activated.
- Do not trim stabilizer below V (clean config)/ V (landing config).
- While the aircraft is accelerating out of the stall, start a gentle rotation with small pitch changes to stop the descent. Be careful not to induce a secondary

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stall while rotating the aircraft. Precise and smooth pitch controls are very important as excess thrust available at high altitude is quite small.
- Start climb immediately as the speed reach V in order to loss minimum altitude. Maintain VLS during climb to stall entry before further acceleration.
- For stall recovery in landing configuration, delay flaps retraction until speeds show acceleration to avoid secondary stall. Confirm positive rate of climb
before retracting gear.

To entry dutch roll, PNF kick half rudder until bank 40° at PF’s request then release.
Instructor may demonstrate automatic damping with YAW DAMPERS ON, then dutch roll recovery without YAW DAMPERS.
Be noted on the necessity to descend maintaining pitch at 0° or below.
Recovery technique is as follows :
- Freeze rudder by applying equal pressure on each rudder pedal.
- Use liberal amount of aileron to keep wings level.
Do not try to use rudder during the recovery, as this may result in increased oscillations, because of the pilot tendency to get “out of synch” with the
movements around the yaw axis.


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