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AB6 TYPE RATING TRAINING GUIDE

APPENDIX 6: ILS APPROACH


Index
The objective is to be stabilized on the final descent path at V with landing configuration at 1000 ft minimum in IMC (500 ft in VMC). If not a go-around should
A
be carried out.
Both ILS switch should be selected to ILS prior to the intermediate approach phase and all navigation aids should be identified and displayed as necessary.
A check of the TO waypoint will indicate that the F-PLN is correctly sequenced. If necessary update the F-PLN.
Two useful guides:
- 9000 ft at 250 kt 30 NM to touchdown
- Slats 15 extended no later than 5 NM prior to Final Approach Fix.
When cleared for ILS approach:
- Check aircraft speed reduced properly for interception. High interception speed may cause the aircraft to overshoot LOC. Normally aircraft should be at
or below green dot speed when intercepting LOC (except for a very long straight-in ILS approach).
- Check intercept angle. High intercept angle may cause the aircraft to overshoot LOC. If intercept angle is too high, use basic NAV AIDS raw data such
as VOR or NDB needle on RMI to establish lead point/lead angle and reduce intercept angle to 30° or below to avoid overshoot. Too early intercept angle
reduction may cause the aircraft to cut in.
- Check ILS coverage distance.
- Select PF’s ND to ROSE/ARC. PNF’s ND may leave at MAP or as required.
- Check both NAV-ILS-VOR selectors are selected to ILS.
- Press LAND pushbutton, G/S and LOC modes will be armed, check FMA and callout accordingly.
- Engage 2ND A/P as required.
Follow the guidelines to intercept LOC/GS and follow GS to below 1,000’ AGL in FOM:
- Check ident
- Cross check ILS with other NAV AIDS.
- Intercept LOC before GS.
- Check (and callout) altitude crossing OM or equivalent position.
- Etc.
At Localizer capture (LOC*), HDG/S, HDG or NAV is disengaged automatically. Adjust the RWY HDG.
Be aware of NAV position error when intercepting ILS. Make sure that NAV accuracy is high when using NAV to intercept LOC and always cross check with
basic NAV AIDS raw data. Watch out for early turning of NAV to parallel LOC before intercepted. It is recommended to use HDG/S to intercept LOC.

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If the AP is still in LOC* mode (LOC capture, not LOC track) pilot is still able to override the AP to smoothen the interception or for a smooth turn back after
small overshoot. If the aircraft overshoot LOC too much, disengage to HDG/S then re-adjust intercept angle and arm LAND again.
Be aware of LOC false capture. Make sure that the LOC deviation bar move to center after LOC capture and always cross check with basic NAV AIDS raw
data.
After glide slope capture set the missed approach altitude.
Always intercept GS from below, avoid interception of GS from above. For a normal interception the aircraft should be at or below green dot speed and at one
dot or more below the GS.
PF should announce any FMA modification.
PNF calls out:
- V/S greater than 1000 ft/min
- Airspeed deviations of more than +10 kt or -5 kt
- LOC or G/S deviation is greater than 1 dot
Emphasize the calls out and the correct decision at the DA: LAND or GO-AROUND (CAT I)
When the autopilot is disconnected, the aircraft will be stabilized and tracking towards the runway. Avoid the tendency to turn towards the runway in a
crosswind or to "duck under" the glide slope.

GLIDE SLOPE INTERCEPTION FROM ABOVE


The A/C may be above the glide slope for many operational reasons:
- ATC constraints or no clearance for a complete ILS.
- Radar vectoring given by the ATC to shorten the procedure.
- Poor top of descend planning including altitude profile checking/correcting during descend.
Procedure
- Aircraft in normal configuration for LOC interception.
- Cross check and verify that LOC is tracked ("LOC" green is on FMA).
- Establish the landing configuration and reduce to V .
APP
- When the aircraft is clear for interception :
· GA altitude set on FCU (or higher altitude if GA altitude is the same as the present altitude).
· V/S engaged (max 2000 fpm).
· Land mode engaged.
- Monitor the G/S diamond movement and adjust the V/S to facilitate and smoothen the establishment on the glide path.
- When GS* capture, set or verify the GA altitude.
- The A/C must be in landing configuration, established and stabilized on ILS at the latest by 1000 ft AGL (IMC) (or 500 ft VMC). If not, a GA must be
initiated.

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Maximum descent path is obtained with configuration FULL with the gear down.
Nevertheless the rate of descent should be carefully monitored to avoid exceeding speed limits (reversion mode) and with respect to CFIT precautions.
Like a standard approach the aircraft must stabilized by 1000 ft AGL in IMC.
V/S reversion
The reversion may occur when V/S mode is used for a glide slope interception from above.
Reversion mode: when reaching V + 5 kt (V/S positive) or V (V/S negative) the AFS will automatically change to LVL/CH mode with selected speed as
LS MAX
reference and FCU selected altitude as target (with MOD 11900 the aircraft will maintain V/S controlled).
How to demonstrate this reversion :
- Establish the A/C on the localizer at normal interception altitude + 1000 ft.
- A/C configuration F20 and speed just below V .
FE
- G/S interception from above with V/S mode - 3000 ft/mm.
- GA altitude or higher one set on FCU.
- A/C speed above V .
FE
- Verify the reversion.
LVL/CH reversion from descend to climb
While the aircraft is descending in LVL/CH mode | RETARD | SPD | and ALT SEL window below present altitude, if ALT SEL is set to altitude higher than
present aircraft altitude, the aircraft will revert from descend in | RETARD | SPD | to climb in | THR | SPD | with ALT selected as target.

MANUAL APPROACH WITHOUT FD (HSI APPROACH)


HSI approaches require fast instruments scanning and precise aircraft control. Knowing of pitch attitude and power setting at different configuration and flight
path will help to make to HSI approaches much easier.
Pitch attitude shall be primary instrument in pitch, with V/S indicator and altimeter (together with GS indication when on ILS glide path) as secondary
instruments. Fly pitch attitude to a predetermined value, cross check with secondary instruments and make a small adjustments. Pitch attitude of 4.5° nose
up should make the aircraft fly steady on nominal 3° GS. If the aircraft deviated 1 dot from GS, a pitch correction of 1-2° would be enough to bring the aircraft
back on GS within few miles. As the aircraft back on GS, return pitch attitude to 4.5° nose up to avoid overshoot/undershoot GS. Avoid over correction of
pitch attitude.
In roll, heading (or track) shall be primary instruments in straight flight, with bank angle together with other NAV AIDS such as LOC and VOR course as
secondary instruments. Consider crosswind component and establish some crab angle so that the aircraft will fly on the desired track. Green diamond track
indication on ND can be used to fly the desired track. If the aircraft drift out from LOC or VOR course, make a small heading (track) correction to
predetermined value. Normally a heading correction of 5-10° should be enough to bring the aircraft that deviated 1 dot from LOC back on course within few
miles. As the LOC coming, gradually reduces heading correction to avoid overshoot LOC to the other side. Remind to keep wings level after established on
the required course or heading. Avoid over correction of heading.
FPA/FPV can be used as guidance when flying without FD. Select FD-FPA switch to have flight path symbol displays on ND. Set the desired course on ILS or

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VOR selector and select NAV-ILS-VOR selector to ILS or VOR as required. Press the FPA button on FCU to have the FPA display on ND and set the desired
FPA (-3). Fly attitude and heading to bring aircraft flight path into the FPA/FPV (bird in cage). When bird is in the cage, the aircraft will fly on the desired flight
path (track and approach angle).
Raise minima according to RM.

oOo
Index

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