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Approach Guidance
Non Precision Approaches can be performed using two different AP/FD guidances:
a) FMS guidance
- NAV mode down to the MDA or until LOC interception (lateral)
- PROFILE mode until FAF then V/S mode down to the MDA (vertical)
b) Selected guidance
- HDG SEL mode down to the MDA (lateral) or until LOC interception
- V/S mode after leaving the FAF down to the MDA (vertical)
When the approach is stored in the NAV database and the NAV ACCURACY check is positive, the FMS guidance can be used. Otherwise, the selected
guidance must be used.
Either V/S or FPV/FPA may be used as the flight reference display for Non Precision Approach.
Approach preparation
Before commencing the approach, pilot should perform approach preparation as follows:
- FD bars or FPA/FPV preset.
Set MDA using the altimeter amber index and set a DH = -5 on the EFIS control panel to cancel the “MINIMUM” auto call out.
Approach briefing
Should be split in 2 parts:
- 1 part: Standard briefing for the relevant procedures.
- 2 part: Technical briefing or additional briefing concerning the way to perform the approach (Step down or CANPA, use of AP/FD - HDG/S or NAV -
V/S, PF/PNF ND MAP or ROSE/ARC, point to start descend, ALT preselect after FAF, descent angle or V/S after FAF, point to initiate go around, etc.)
If CANPA is used, check V and head/tail wind component, and pre-calculate V/S from the GS/ROD table in approach chart to obtain desired FPA after FAF.
CANPA can be used only when GS/ROD table is provided in the approach chart.
Determine the MAP. If VOR/DME or ILS/DME is available it can be used to determine the MAP. If DME is not available, check V and head/tail wind

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component, then calculate time from FAF to MAP from the table in approach chart.
If MAP is steeper than 3.5°, calculate VDP (Visual Descent Point) from
VDP (Nm from threshold) = MDH (feet) x 0.003
VDP is the last point that the aircraft can descent from MDA to threshold with normal approach angle of 3°. Beyond VDP approach angle will be steeper than
3°. Approach procedure in many AD specified the MAP at NAVAIDS, which is sometimes beyond RWY threshold. For step down approach PF shall decide
and brief whether he will execute go around at VDP, but no later than MDP.
Consider the difference between Step down and CANPA.
Procedure Step down CANPA
ALT preset when Missed approach
approach FAF altitude
Leaving intermediate FAF 0.3 Nm before
approach altitude at FAF
Rate of descent after Steep enough to According to
FAF reach MDA before GS/ROD table in
MAP or VDP approach chart
1,000 fpm)
Missed approach at MAP (or VDP) MDA + 30 ft
Complete briefing with all details regarding FD or FPA/FPV use.
Comments on task sharing during approach and notify which call outs are requested.
Initial Approach
Aircraft position should be checked before commencing approach by using basic navaids and compare with FMS. If holding or procedure turn is required,
determine the sector and holding/procedure turn entry accordingly.
Check navigation accuracy using navaids raw data to determine approach strategy. When the approach is stored in NAV database and NAV accuracy is
checked positive, FMS guidance can be used, otherwise selected guidance must be used.
Raw data must be used as a crosscheck throughout the approach.
Set ALT preselect to Initial Approach Altitude.
Tune frequency and course on VOR control panel and also remote tune VOR on CDU. VOR course on PNF side may leave at final approach course if PF’s
ND is selected at MAP. VOR course on PF side shall progressively set for intercepting outbound, inbound for procedure turn. For VOR approach PF VOR
course shall be set for final approach course.
For a LOC approach, select NAV/ILS/VOR selector to ILS position prior to LOC interception.
For NDB approach, set final approach course on ILS control panel. Select NAV/ILS/VOR selector to ILS position prior to final approach interception.
PF set ND to ROSE or ARC and select NAV/ILS/VOR selector to VOR or ILS as required.
If FMS accuracy check is positive, PNF set ND to MAP. Otherwise set PNF’s ND to ROSE or ARC.

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Intermediate Approach
The aircraft must be in landing configuration with landing gear down, flaps full and speed stabilized at V before reaching FAF.
Consider crosswind effect when perform procedure turn and while intercepting final approach course. Use track indication (green diamond) to compensate for
wind effect.
For VOR approach, use HDG SEL to intercept final approach course, DO NOT USE VOR ARM.
For LOC approach, select NAV/ILS/VOR selector to ILS and select LOC arm (not LAND arm) when intercept final approach course.
For NDB approach, select NAV/ILS/VOR selector to ILS to obtain final approach course on both side.
Do not descent below Intermediate Approach Altitude before FAF.
Approaching FAF
Preset ALT according to procedure used.
- Step down: preset ALT to MDA.
- CANPA: preset ALT to missed approach altitude. If missed approach altitude is lower than Intermediate Approach Altitude, leave ALT until aircraft
descent below missed approach altitude before setting ALT.
If FPV/FPA is used, select FPV just before FAF at the latest.
At FAF (or 0.3 Nm before FAF for CANPA)
For CANPA, select V/S mode and set V/S to pre-calculated value to obtain desired FPA.
During descend aircraft altitude must be checked against required descend profile using HAT/ distance table in approach chart (if available) or distance/altitude
relationship to ensure that the aircraft is on the required descend profile. If a DME distance is available, determine NAV AID position and transform to distance
from threshold, then it can be used to check the profile using distance/altitude relationship.
For Step down, select V/S mode and set V/S steep enough (approximately 1,000 fpm) in order to reach MDA before VDP.
Start timing if MAP is determined by time from FAF.
If there are crossing altitude specify in the procedure, check it accordingly. Do not fly below altitude requirement.
Approaching MDA
For Step down, if no visual contact call “Minimum” and maintain MDA and proceed to VDP or MAP.
Strictly adhere to task sharing during short final. From “Plus hundred” PF shall continue monitoring instruments while PNF start deviate attention and looking
for visual reference.
Go around shall be made when there is no visual contact at:
- CANPA: MDA + 30 ft (PNF calls “Minimum” - “Go around”)
- Step down: MAP or VDP (PNF calls “Missed approach point” (or “Visual descent point”) or “Time is up” if MAP is determined by time from FAF- “Go
Normal transition sequence from instrument to visual

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Using FPV Using FD

1. FPV on 1. A/P disconnect
2. A/P disconnect 2. Request - RWY heading
3. Request - RWY heading - V/S 700 down
- FPA - 3° - MISAP altitude
- MISAP altitude -V
When planning for a circling approach the landing RWY should be inserted in the SEC F-PLN. Once on downwind having completed the instrument approach,
activate SEC F-PLN. Additionally the landing RWY will be shown on the ND to assist positioning onto final.
Common mistakes
- Speed reduction not initiated when approaching IAF.
- NAV accuracy not checked before using FMS guidance.
- Wind component and lead point/lead angle not considered during interception.
- Late configuration preparation, aircraft not stabilized before reaching FAF.
- Leaving initial approach altitude before FAF (or before 0.3 Nm before FAF for CANPA) – CFIT.
- Not initiating descent at FAF.
- Improper rate of descent after FAF.
- For CANPA, descend angle/rate of descend after FAF not properly checked and adjusted.
- Poor task sharing. Both pilots head up looking for visual clues, miss call “Plus hundred”, “Minimum – go-around” or “MAP/VDP – go-around”.


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