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INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
ASSIGNMENT-LACTIC ACID
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BY
KAVITA JHA
ROLL.NO:0911PGDMBT003

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PGDM-BIOTECHNOLOGY
INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC ENTERPRISE

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Lactic acid has two optical forms. Bifidobacterium. Lactic acid is the acid ingredient of sour dairy products. is even older. fermented fruits and vegetables and sausages. lactic acid is not derived from milk. Lactic acid found in animals and humans has many functions. It is present in every form of organized life and was supposedly already prevalent in the first forms of primitive life that existed on earth. Pure and anhydrous racemic lactic acid is a white crystalline solid with a low melting point. who isolated the lactic acid from sour milk as impure brown syrup and gave it a name based on its origins: 'Mjölksyra'. with Lactobacillus. however. Pediococcus and Leuconostoc being the predominant examples. Many bacterial species produce lactic acid. The French scientist Frémy produced lactic acid by fermentation and this gave rise to industrial production in 1881. Lactic acid as a product of nature. HISTORY OF LACTIC ACID Lactic acid was discovered in 1780 by Swedish chemist. Metabolic turnover of lactic acid in adult men has been estimated to be approximately 120 to 150 g per day. Lactic acid has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times. LACTIC ACID STEREO ISOMERS 2 . L(+) and D(-) . L(+)-lactic acid is the biological isomer as it is naturally present in the human body. Streptococcus. Carl Wilhelm Scheele. LACTIC ACID Unlike the name suggests. the most important of which is related to the supply of energy in muscle tissue.Lactic acid is produced by the fermentation of sugar and water or by chemical process and is commercially usually sold as a liquid.

The gypsum 3 . since lactate produced in one muscle can be oxidized in another muscle. Therefore training and lactate supplementation may help to increase lactate clearance and subsequently improve performance.LACTIC ACID IN THE HUMAN BODY Lactic acid is naturally present in humans. lactate is actually an important fuel used by the muscles during prolonged exercise. LACTATE AND EXERCISE Lactate has often been considered one of the major causes of both fatigue during exercise and post-exercise muscle soreness. the raw materials are fermented in a fermenter and crude calcium lactate is formed. Lactate was long considered one of the causes of both fatigues during exercise and the stiffness felt after. However. It has been observed that the lactate produced in one muscle can be oxidized within another muscle. lactate may have little effect on either.purac. HOW IS LACTIC ACID PRODUCED? Lactic acid can be produced naturally or synthetically. However. as well as in animals. It is well known that it is formed from glycogen by muscle cells when the oxygen supply is inadequate to support energy production. Accumulation of lactic acid (generated from the anaerobic breakdown of glycogen). rather than causing fatigue. Moreover. Commercial lactic acid is produced naturally by fermentation of carbohydrates such as glucose. It may be that the accumulation of H+ ions during glycolisis contributes to fatigue during short-term maxim exercise. it is believed that during endurance-type exercise. the depletion of muscle glycogen causes fatigue. In such conditions. Due to its insulin independence. because lactate is so rapidly removed from muscle and blood after exercise. The natural production process is shown in the figure below. Better performance is often related to lactate clearance from the blood. it is highly unlikely that lactate is the cause of any resulting muscle soreness. in the muscle. or lactose. There are many misconceptions about Lactic Acid and Lactate in the body. sucrose. The current world market leader in the commercial production of lactic acid is PURAC: www. Oral lactate may postpone fatigue. Wih the addition of lime or chalk. on the contrary. lactic acid and lactate help delay the onset of fatigue and improve sport performance.com. in turn delaying fatigue. occurs only during short bouts of exercise of relatively high intensity and it is usually related to fatigue and muscle soreness. So. The increase in blood lactate levels during exercise is reduced by acclimatization. However. On the other hand. by increasing buffer capacity of the body and reducing acidosis. it may help to improve performance. lactate may serve as an energy source. lactate could prove to be a more readily available energy substrate.

confectionery and essences. The crude lactic acid is purified and concentrated and L(+) lactic acid is the result. LACTIC ACID PRODUCTION PROCESS USES OF LACTIC ACID (i) It is used as an acidulant in fruit juices.is separated from the crude calcium lactate. 4 . It is so because whey is very high in Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD). which results in crude lactic acid. (ii) Derivative of lactic acid such as calcium lactate and iron lactate are used in the treatment of calcium deficiency and anemia respectively. (iv) Lactic acid production from whey also helps removal of pollution of our environment because untreated whey disposed off in our waterways would cause dangerous consequences. (iii) Sodium lactate is used to help retension of moisture by such products as tobacco and as a platicizer.

38 * 10^ -4 pKa 3.4 L (+) lactic acid ECONOMICS OF LACTIC ACID The economics of lactic acid production is influenced to a large extent by:  Raw material costs. Ka 1.08 Physical appearance aqueous solution Taste mild acid taste Melting point 53oC / 127oF Boiling point > 200oC / 390oF Solubility in water (g/100 g H2O) miscible Dissociation Constant.9 pH (0.1 N solution.  Acid productivity in batch or continuous operations. 25oC) 2. 25oC) 2.-No.86 pH (0.  And the product concentration. APPLICATIONS OF LACTIC ACID 5 . [79-33-4] Chemical formula C3H6O3 Chemical name (S)-2-hydroxy-propanoic acid Molecular Weight 90.-Reg.PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LACTIC ACID Chemical Abstracts Registration CAS.1% solution.

solubility and are easily metabolized resulting in administration of some very important drugs like ciprofloxacin as a lactate salt. There are four major categories for the current uses and applications of lactic acid: food. The anti microbial action of lactic acid is taken advantage for use as sanitizers. and chemical applications. Lactated Ringers solution and Sodium Lactate are used in IV Fluid therapy. Sodium . APPLICATION IN PHARMACEUTICALS L (+) Lactic acid is used in pharmaceutical industry as a very important ingredient in IV Fluids. Calcium . They provide the energy and volume for blood besides regulation of pH. Ferrous and other salts of lactic acid are used in the pharmaceutical industry in various formulation. 6 . It is reported that lactic acid finds use in the treatment of dermatological problems like warts.Lactic acid has received a significant amount of attention as a chemical with many potential applications. pharmaceutical. Lactic acid based formulations find use for their anti tumor activity. cosmetic. Lactate salts have better absorption.

Lactic acid is non-toxic and is deemed "Generally Recognized As Safe" (GRAS) as a general purpose food additive in the USA. It is used as a skin rejuvenating agent. CONFECTIONERY Lactic acid finds use as an acidulant in the confectionery industry. has greater solubility than the corresponding salt of citric acid . It is one of the most effective AHAs and has the lowest irritation potential. Since L(+)-lactic acid is naturally present in the skin. Lactic acid and Sodium lactate are extensively used as moisturizing agents in many skin care products. Lactic acid imparts a more mellow and lasting souness. pH regulator. It has a pronounced preservative action. Sometimes a combination of lactic acid and acetic acid is used as it has a greater bactericidal activity. it does not introduce a foreign element into the food.The salts are very soluble.It has been found to very effective against certain type of micro organisms. 7 . It does not have the initial burst of flavour and tanginess of citric acid. and it regulates the microflora. Sodium Lactate is used in anti perspirant preparations. L(+)-lactic acid is used as a pH-regulator in many types of hair care formulations. peservative and pH regulator for quite some time. the use of lactic acid gives products which are clear. Because it occurs naturally in many food stuffs. Skin whiteners. There are many properties of lactic acid which make it a very versatile ingredient in the food industry. It enhances the flavour much more. The use of buffered lactic acid in continuous production lines for high boiled sweets is more recent application. The calcium salt of lactic acid. It has been in use as an acidulant. It is a better acidulant than citric acid since the sugar inversion is less when used for hard boiled candies. L (+) Lactic acid is the natural lactic acid found in biological systems and hence its use as an acidulant does not introduce a foreign element into the body. In such products where turbidity caused by calcium salts is a problem. and this gives the possibility of partially replacing the acid in buffering systems. Lactic acid is also used as a pH-regulator. APPLICATION IN FOOD INDUSTRY Lactic acid occurs naturally in many food products.Sugar inversion will be minimal. The same status is accorded in many other countries too. etc. calcium lactate. It is a common ingredient in Moisturizers. Some of the important applications of lactic acid in the food industry are detailed below. Liquid buffered lactic acid can be easily measured into the molten syrups. anti acne preparations. Lactates are regarded as skin whitening agents that have been shown to produce a synergistic effect when combined with other skin whitening agents. Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid ( AHA ) and is found in the skin. even at the high temperatures used in depositing lines.APPLICATION IN COSMETICS Natural L (+) Lactic acid is used in many applications in cosmetics.

Lactic acid is directly added to certain types of fermented dough crispy biscuits. Lactic acid is also used as an acidulant in dairy products like cheese and yogurt powder. Lactic acid is preferred over citric acid for these reasons. PICKLES. A mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid in pickled products such as gherkins. which have been used for canned fruits and vegetables. CABBAGE. It does not mask or over power the natural flavour.The sodium and calcium stearoyl lactyllates find use as emulsifiers in the baking indistry as they provide substantial quality improvement of baked products besides reducing shortening levels. Its flavour enhancing property makes the beverage more palatable and leaves a lingering taste. and improves microbial stability.BEER AND WINE Lactic acid is a natural beer acid. Calcium lactate is reported to be used as firming salt. in dairy products such as cottage cheese. lactic acid and water. a larger loaf results per weight of bread with improved bloom. Large quantity of gherkins in brine with Lactochems’s L (+) Lactic acid is exported from India to many countries world wide. and hence it is used for pH adjustments during the mashing process and in wort cooking. Gherkins and others are often packed in a solution of salt. silver skin onion etc imparts a milder taste and flavour. The lactic acid acts as a preservative and improves the clarity of the brine and flavour. 8 . BAKERY PRODUCTS For direct acidification of certain breads. DAIRY PRODUCTS Direct acidification with lactic acid. Lactic acid improves the microbial stability and also enhances the flavour. Lactic acid added to dough increases the shelf life due to its retarding action on molds and rope. is preferred to fermentation as the risks of failure and contamination can be avoided. and color of crust. The general appearance of a loaf of bread is greatly improved by the use of bacterial lactic acid. BEVERAGES Lactic acid due to its mild nature is the acidulant of choice in delicately flavoured soft drinks and fruit juices. GHERKINS Green olives. lactic acid is the natural sour dough acid. OLIVES. Almost all the breweries in India use the L (+) Lactic acid manufactured by Lactochem Limited. The processing time also can be saved. Lactic acid and calcium lactate are used extensively in the production of Channa and Panneer by direct acidification.

bathrooms etc. harmless products. methyl lactate etc are used for degreasing since they have excellent action for oils. These polymers find use in the pharmaceutical industry in dental. drug delivery systems and other applications.50 2000 0. Lactates find use as neutralizers in the production of certain type of surfactants used in special detergents and personal care products. Lactate esters like ethyl. Lactic acid is produced commercially for use in pharmaceuticals and foods. As can be seen from the table the supply of lactic acid for the last eight years was on average 3. indicates the use of hot lactic acid spray on carcasses where reduction of over 99 % of E. It acts as a pH buffer and stabilizer for the bath. It is also used in production of acid fermented foods.44 9 . sodium lactate is used to reduce water activity and achieve higher shelf- life.90 2002 0.Coli has been observed.30 2004 1. Lactic acid is used as a pH regulator and complexing agent in various binder systems for water- based coatings such as electro deposition coatings. Lactic acid is used in Ni-plating processes because of its unique complexing constant for Ni. Lactic acid is mainly an import product. inks and lacquers. solvents. INDUSTRIALAPPLICATIONS Poly (lactic acid) or Lactic acid polymers are environmentally compatible because they degrade into natural. in leather tanning and textile dyeing and in making plastics.30 2006 3.70 2001 16. In sausages. surgical implants. LACTIC ACID MARKET Lactic acid is used to impart flavor as well as in the preservation of some foods. Decontamination of beef.35 2005 2. Lactic acid has better descaling properties than conventional organic descalers due to which reason it is used in many decalcification applications such as cleaners for toilets. The polymers degrade primarily by hydrolysis after exposure to moisture.45 2003 0.37 tonnes annually. oligomeric and polymeric stains. poultry and pork carcasses in slaughter house operations is practised to reduce Salmonella infection.MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS Lactic acid is widely used in meat products as an anti microbial agent. Year Import 1999 1. Recent research publication.

54 US$/kg (for 88 % purity).9 2014 5.6 2011 4. and the commercial prices of food grade lactic acid range between 1. such as ethyl lactate.As an import product the supply of lactic acid is assumed to grow at least by 10% annually. The demand projection is. PROJECTED DEMAND FOR LACTIC ACID (TONNES) Year Projected Demand 2008 3. Technical grade lactic acid with 88 % purity has been priced as much as 1.8 2016 6. 10 . Thus the current effective demand for the product is estimated based on 2004-2006 average annual import at a growth rate of 10% and is estimated to be 3 tonnes.2 2012 4. The demand for lactic acid is a raw material for the pharmaceuticals.-related industries. the worldwide consumption of lactic acid is estimated to be 130 000–150 000 (metric) tonnes per year. is expected to expand 19 % per year.4 2017 6. but the emerging markets for PLA polymer would cause a significant increase in growth of lactic acid consumption Currently. therefore.59 US$/kg.38 US$/kg (for 50 % purity) and 1.9 CONCLUSIONS The current major markets for lactic acid are food.3 2009 3. made based on GDP growth rate of 8. Lactic acid consumption in chemical applications. leather.4 2015 5.5 2010 3. which include PLA polymer and new green solvents.7%. textile and plastics sector is determined by the demand and supply of products under these industries.6 2013 4.