Summary for

"The Foundations of Chemistry" Chemistry is a science that deals with matter's properties, changes they undergo, and how energy is affected by those changes. Chemistry is "the central science," that is, it rests on Physics and Mathematics, and is rested upon by Biology and Medicine. It is thus vital for the understanding of the latter subjects. Just as well, some comprehension of the former subjects is essential for a student to fully understand chemistry and the reasons behind it. Chemistry is a hard broad science, that's why it is divided into a lot of branches, some of which are: o Organic Chemistry , which studies the chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds, which are essential to life. o Inorganic Chemistry , on the other hand, is concerned with the study of other compounds.  Ancient chemists thought that living and nonliving things were completely different, thus the naming. However, today, we discovered that bodies of living things can contain inorganic compounds just as well. o Qualitative Analytic Chemistry is the branch concerned with the detection and identification of substances present in a sample. o Quantitative Analytic Chemistry , on the other hand, is the branch concerned with the amount of each substance present in a sample. o Physical Chemistry uses Physical and Mathematical theories and models to study the chemistry of matter and energy changes that accompany it. o Biochemistry is the branch concerned with chemical processes in living organisms. Simple chemical systems are easy to understand precisely, since they're based on exact formulas derived from Physics and Mathematics.

Electricity. The Law of Conservation of Energy is "Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction or a physical change. Energy (Heat. (Burning) o Endothermic reactions. Matter is anything with mass and volume. (Melting) The Law of Conservation of Matter is "There is no observable change in the quantity of matter during a chemical reaction or during a physical change. or composition. are reactions which absorb energy from the surrounding environment. The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy is "The combined amount of matter and energy in the universe is fixed. o Exothermic reactions are those which release energy to the surrounding environment. Energy has many types. condition. and can easily be transferred from one object to another. Mass is the quantity of matter in a sample of any material. but can be divided into two main types: o Kinetic Energy is the energy an object possesses due to motion. Light. our understanding of complex chemical system. We keep learning about new stuff yearly. Combination Chemical and vice versa) can be converted from one form to another in both chemical and physical changes. on the other hand. All chemical processes are accompanied by energy change. requires that we make approximations. at its best. It represents the capacity to do work directly. o Potential Energy is the energy an object possesses because of its position. It can only be converted from one form to another. " nly in 1940 CE did the modern world prove matter could be converted to energy. and is far from complete. Energy is the capacity to do work.n the other hand." Matter can be divided into three states: o Solid: Substances are rigid and have definite shapes which are not altered much with the change of temperature and . " A scientific/natural law is a general statement about an observed pattern with no counterexamples.

pressure. i. ne which has uniform properties is homogeneous . When the different parts of a mixture can be distinguished easily because of recognizable difference in properties among its components. it is heterogeneous . and may denote a chemical change. when it is not uniform. however. o New substances are formed. All chemical properties are intensive. on the other hand. All mixtures can have variable composition. Sublimation is the opposite of deposition. Physical changes do not change chemical properties. and is common. . When this was discovered in the 1700's CE. o Gas: Can be infinitely expanded and can be compressed easily with their lower density. Some can vary.e. o Physical properties. which can fit into one of two categories: o Chemical properties are properties which are demonstrated when the substance undergoes change in composition. o Liquid: Liquids have definite volumes but no definite shape. o Those which don't are intensive properties. Different substances are distinguished using their different properties. three things happen o At least one of the substances are at least partially used. When chemical changes occur. A mixture is a combination of pure substances in which each retains its own composition and properties.. according to the condition of the sample.g. but cha nge physical properties usually significantly. o Those which do are extensive properties. taking the shape of their container up to its volume. OTOH. it opened the way for the chemical theory to develop. They are hard to compress. o Energy is released or absorbed. Another way to divide properties of matter is considering whether they vary depending on the amount of matter present (e. mass). Its strength is determined by how strongly its particles attract each other. are properties which can be observed without attempting to change the composition.

Elements are pure substances which cannot be decomposed using chemical changes. and has no legal force. SI units are the standard in most of the world.5%. (Pure) Substances are samples of matter which are not mixtures.e. near Paris.Mixtures can be separated by physical means." Compounds have different properties from their components. while silicon for 25. The law of definite proportions states that "Different samples of any pure compound contain the same elements in the sam e proportions by mass. Which are most common depends on the subject. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). isolate it. . and do so in with a definite ratio. One way to purify water is to freeze some of it. 10 of the 88 naturally occurring elements constitute 99. Compounds are ones which can. Oxygen accounts for 49. weight relationships are valid as well under that condition. while weight is the force of attraction between two objects. Mass is the amount of matter in an object.7%. SI prefixes represent fractions and multiples of 10. France.2% of the atmosphere and crust of Earth. but is considered authoritative. and is based on 7 basic units upon which all others are based. since dissolved solids tend to stay in the liquid part. The symbol of tungsten is based on German Wolfram. Mass remains constant. which (1~109) are either one capital letter or one capital letter followed by one small letter. Weighting is one way to find mass. In the US. A nickel (5 cents) weighs (i. while weight changes depending on the mass of and the distance between the two objects. has a mass of) about 5 grams. Other symbols are based on English/Latin names. Since most chemical reactions discussed occur in constant gravity. Elements are represented by symbols. then melt it. NIST governs how measuring system are used. and has almost no biological role . 25% of the naturally occurring elements occur in nature as free. defined as the mass of a platinum±iridium cylinder stored in a vault in Sèvres. IUPAC represents more than 40 chemical societies from different countries.

Accurate measurements are rarely imprecise. Measurement are frequently repeated to increase both. in that case. while electronic balances can be as accurate as 0. Best estimates are not essentially exact.001 grams. which are absolutely true. Zeros used to place the decimal point are never significa nt. and is defined as the distance light travels in 1/299792468 seconds. Nonzero digits are always significant. The best tool to measure volume depends on the required accuracy. But. Exacts numbers have an infinite number of significant figures. the last digit retained in the sum is determined by the first doubtful digit. cm3 is often represented as cc. then. Zeros between nonzero numbers are always significant. In addition. If it doesn't contain a decimal point. Scientific notation is a way to represent very big/small numbers by leaving only one significant digit to the left of the decimal point and multiplying by an appropriate power of 10. while 1 liter is one dm3. A precise measurement can be inaccurate due to a systematic error. precision is how close individual measurements are. The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter . 1 milliliter (ml) is 1 cm3. . Analytic balances can be as accurate as 0. Significant figures represent precision. Lines on measurement objects are called calibrations. the centimeter may be more convenient.00 01 grams. Numbers obtained from measurement are not exact. Significant figures (digits) are ones believed to be correct by the person who measured the sample. While accuracy is how close a given value is to a correct value.A meter is the SI unit for measuring length. Zeros at the end of a number that contains a decimal point are. but are close enough to the exact number. Burets are accurate. we're only allowed to show one best estimate digit. In medical laboratories. They may be written with a decimal point at the end if precise. Numbers obtained from counting or definitions are exact number . thus we could consider them significant figures. then they may. For smaller distances.

Heat changes accompanying them can inform us a lot about Ch. It is also called the factor-label method and the unit factor method. Dimensional Analysis is multiplying by a unit factor to do useful conversions without changing the value of the number being mul. Density depends on temperature and pressure.Re. In rounding. Those can be used as unit -factors. Density can be used to distinguish materials otherwise similar. In multistep calculations. The reciprocal of any unit factor is a unit factor. The special gravity of a substance is the ratio of its density to that of liquid water at the same temperature. They can be converted to each other by moving the decimal point a number of places. If all quantities in the unit factor come from definitions.Do not forget to add and subtract identical units. Only usually is the density of a solid greater than its liquid. Calculators are not that accurate. it's safest to round only in the last step.00g/mL till 25C. but varies only slightly in solids and liquids due to them compared to gases. and is equal to Mass/Volume. are the same around the average room temp. The density of water never exceeds 1. Science employs many terms which are nothing but a relation between more than one unit. An infamous exception is water. Since SI prefixes are powers of 10. the unit has infinitely many significant figures. The power of a unit factor is a unit factor. . A percentage is used to measure how much a part constitutes of a whole. but in g/L for gases. Estimation before solving can be useful. at about 4C. figures after which is 5 are rounded to the nearest even number for easier calculations. Intensive properties can depend on extensive properties. Percentages are a type of unit-factors.000g/mL. since they relate the whole and the part. It is expressed in g/cm3 or g/mL for s or l. In multiplication. the product cannot have more significant figures than the least number of significant figures in one of the products. Gr. Measurements must always be followed by units. Density and Sp. It is however safe to assume that its density is 1. Density is one of those.

15) Thus. A Fahrenheit degree is smaller than a Celsius degree.184J. in which he used two reference points (0 -100 C).Temperature is the measure of the intensity of heat in a given body. The more the specific heat.Z. all numerical changes are the same in the 2 systems. End of Chapter 1 . Heat always flows from hotter objects to colder ones. K and C degrees are the same size but K starts 273 degrees earlier. The specific heat of a substance is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of it by 1K or 1C without changes in phase. It changes from one phase to another. the Kelvin scale (K) is the one used by scientists for its zero is the A. equal to 1 km*m 2/s2. the less the temperature change. A calorie is exactly 4. While the Gabriel Fahrenheit scale is the norm in the US. thus the equation. The SI unit of energy is the Joule.5 C to 15. EK=1/2mv2. It is the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water from 14. It takes 180F to form 100C. (273. Heat flows from a hotter to a colder body till they reach thermal equilibrium. Changes in phase require a lot of energy changes. The specific heat varies slightly as temperature and pressure do. Andres Celsius invented the Celsius (centigrade) scale of temperature. Mercury is specially suitable for thermometers because of their sensitivity to heat compared to other liquids. Specific heat = The heat capacity of a body is its mass*its specific heat.5 C.

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