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Date: 08/20/10
ALMIRANEZ, Kristan
CASTRO, Aldrin
KWAN, Evenever
Experiment C3
Fluidization
I. Abstract
An experiment to characterize the fluidization behavior of sand in water was
done. The process started by preparing 500 mesh sand particles and determining
its porosity. In the experiment, water was allowed to flow in an upward direction.
Flow rate was increased by 100cm
3
/min and pressure head loss and velocities were
recorded for every interval. Equilibrium head loss was computed using the data
gathered. Equation proposed by Richard and Zaki was used to get the empiric
exponent x. The terminal velocity needed for the calculation of x is computed using
the Stoke’s Law. Using the empiric exponent x, the length of the expanded bed was
computed.
II. Objective
The main objective of this experiment is to characterize the fluidization behavior
of sand in water.
III. References
[1] McCabe W., et. Al., Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, 7
th
ed., New
York: McGrawHill, Inc., 2005
[2] Perry, Robert H and Green, D., Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook, 7
th
ed.,
McGrawHill, Inc.
[3] www.wikipedia.com
IV. Equipment
Presieve sand (d
s
> 0.5 mm and approximately 0.54 kg)
Electronic balance
50mL beaker (2pcs)
Thermometer (0.1 deg C calibration)
Permeability and Fluidization apparatus
V. Theory
Fluidization, as a unit operation, is the measure of the ability of a granular media
to flow (fluidize). It is the condition where there is suspension of particles in a fluid
media. In liquid fluidization of granular media, the liquid initially passes up through
the porous bed of grains, such that the upward force exerted by the liquid is less
than the downward weight of the grains. The bed is said to be fluidized when the
grains are supported by the liquid drag that takes place when the upward force
equals the weight of the granular media in the liquid. Part of the Darcy’s Law and
KonezyCarman Eq’n applies (head loss α flow rate) for this condition.
Upward force = pressure difference x area
=
ρ
gh
e
A
Downward force = weight of particles in liquid
= AL
e
(1
ε
e
)(
ρ
s
ρ
)g
Equilibrium
ρ
gh
e
A = AL
e
(1
ε
e
)(
ρ
s
ρ
)g
h
e
= L(1
ε
)
( )
ρ
ρ ρ −
S
 eqn. 1
where: h
e
= equilibrium head loss
L
e
= expanded length of the fluidized bed
ε
e
= porosity of the fluidized bed
ρ
e
= density of the grains
A = plan area of the fluidized bed
Relationship between hindered setting velocity (V
h
)and concentration of
grains (c volume/volume) is given by the equation proposed by Richard and Zaki,
and others:
V
h
= V
t
(1c)
n
where: V
t
= terminal settling velocity of a
single grain
At equilibrium in the fluidized bed: V
h
= V
a
, and (1c)=
ε
e
, thus,
ε
e
=
n
t
a
V
V
/ 1
,
`
.

Since (1
ε
) = L
e
(1
ε
e
), and 1/n = x
( )
x
t
a
e
V
V
L
L
,
`
.

−
−
·
1
1 ε
 eqn. 2
VI. Operating procedure
The operation and procedure conducted for the experiment is divided into three
parts: preliminary operation, experimental procedure and shutdown.
For the preliminary operation, startup and preparation of the media in the
column were performed. In the startup, the manometers and valves were checked
for functionality. A steady state condition of the apparatus was obtained by allowing
a constant flow of the water from the water source to the head tank overflow and
column. The air and water in the column were allowed to escape by opening valve
(3). The upward flow rate in the column was observed and air at the top of the
column was released through the airrelease screw (9) in the capping piece. The
flow was reversed to be able to check the downward flow in the column by closing
valve (2) and opening valve (1) and drain valve (4). Air in the column and tubes was
released by further flushing in and up or down flow direction and releasing air in the
column by opening airrelease screw (9).
The manometer was then checked for accurate measurements. Inlet valve (1)
was closed and manometer valves (5, 6, 7, and 8) were opened. Air bubbles trapped
in the tubes of the manometers were checked and removed by applying pressure
by opening and closing valve (1) allowing air to escape through the airrelease plug
at the top of the water manometer. Manometer were read zero at about mid scale
while valves (1, 2) were open and valves (3, 4) closed.
For the preparation of the media and filling column, the media was presieved to
a uniform size fraction. The media was weighed in dry state to determine mass and
to provide a permeable bed about 300mm deep in the column or about 0.54kg of
sand. Valves (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 ) were closed and airrelease screw (9) and open valve
(4) were opened. The Perspex column was removed from the apparatus by opening
the topcapping piece and the two screws at the side. The media was poured in the
column and wetted thoroughly with water. The water was then drained and the
column was inserted back to the apparatus.
For the experimental procedure, the valves were set for up flow through the
column with manometer valves closed and valve (5,6,7,8) open. The Perspex
column is tapped gently with a pencil to lightly consolidate the media. The drain
tube from valve (3) is inserted into a beaker and a thermometer is placed in it to
determine the temperature of the water leaving. The level of the media surface (L)
is read and the water and mercury manometers are set to a “zero” reading. Valves
(2) and (3) re opened to admit water through the column in a down flow direction.
About seven settings of flow rate (Q) are read with manometer levels noted for each
flow rate. Since there are only low pressure drops, the manometer reading is taken
from the water manometer. After seven readings of increasing flow, another set of
readings are taken with decreasing flow rate back to zero.
For the shutdown operation, water in the Perspex column and water manometer
is drained. Working section is cleaned by removing any sand that accumulated in
the sieve and at the work place. The water supply to the constant head tank is
disconnected.
VI. Data and Results
In this experiment, flow rates, pressure and temperature readings, and
lengths are necessary for the understanding of the concept of fluidization. This was
gathered during experimentation and was tabulated and presented in table 6.1.
Table 6.1 Flow rate, velocity, manometer, expanded length, mm water, and
temperature reading
Flow
rate, Q
(cc/min)
Velocity,
Va
(mm/s)
Manome
ter
(mmHg)
Manome
ter
(mmHg)
Expand
ed
Length.
Le (mm)
height of
water, mm
T,
°C
0 0.0000 42 42 88 88 28
100 1.4696 44 57 104 128 27
200 2.9391 55 46 110 190 27
300 4.4087 57 48 135 330 27
400 5.8783 59 51 150 500 28
500 7.3479 40 31 160 500 28
600 8.8174 43 33 190 500 30
700 10.2870 45 36 220 500 31
750 11.0218 47 38 230 500 32
The velocity of the liquid is necessary for future calculation. It was calculated
by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the area of the column for it is constant. It is
shown in equation 6a.
Equation 6a: for q=100cc/min
( )
s
mm
s cm
mm
mm
cm
A
q
u 4696 . 1
60
min 1
1
10
38
4
min
100 3
2
3
· •
,
`
.

•
∏
· ·
Density of the solid media was determined using the concept of volume
displacement using a graduated cylinder filled with water. Computation is presented
in equation 6b.
Equation 6b:
3
2220 22 . 2
0 . 4 9 . 4
2
m
kg
mL
g
mL mL
g
V V
m
i f
p
p
· ·
−
·
−
· ρ
Porosity is also a major player in this experiment for it affects everything. It
was computed using again the volume displacement method. It is presented in
Equation 6c.
Equation 6c:
40 . 0
5 . 5
9 . 4 1 . 7
·
−
· ·
+solid void
V
ε
VII. Treatment of Results
The head loss was computed just by getting the difference of the manometer
reading and for easy understanding for the treatment of this results, a simpler table
was generated excluding other factors like temperature. It is presented in table 7.1.
Table 7.1 Flow rate, Velocity, Manometer, Head loss, and Temperature readings.
Flow rate,
Q (cc/min)
Velocity,
Va
(mm/s)
Manomet
er
(mmHg)
Manometer
(mmHg)
Head Loss,
h (mmHg)
0 0.0000 42 42 0
100 1.4696 44 57 13
200 2.9391 55 46 9
300 4.4087 57 48 9
400 5.8783 59 51 8
500 7.3479 40 31 9
600 8.8174 43 33 10
700 10.2870 45 36 9
750 11.0218 47 38 9
Using the data in table 6.1, the expanded length of the bed and height of water
was plotted against the liquid velocity. It is shown in figure 7.1 and 7.2 respectively.
Figure 7.1
Plot of the length of media in the column versus the liquid approach velocity
Figure 7.2
Plot of the mm of Water versus the Liquid Approach Velocity
Computation for the equilibrium Head Loss:
Base from table 7.1, figure 7.3 and combining with knowledge of the experiment,
the equilibrium head loss is the constant pressure difference given by the answer at
about 9 mmHg. Using the formula, the calculation is presented in equation 7a.
Figure 7.3
Plot of Head Loss versus the Liquid Approach Velocity
Equation 7a:
( )
( )
( )
( )
mmHg mm mm h
mm mm h
mm L h
P P P h
e
e
S
e
e
65 . 9 55 65 . 64
55
998
998 2220
4 . 0 1 88
55 1
1 2
· − ·
−
−
− ·
−
−
− ·
− · ∆ ·
ρ
ρ ρ
ε
Equation proposed by Richard and Zaki, equation 7b, will be used to get the
empiric exponent x.
Equation 7b:
( )
x
t
a
e
V
V
L
L
,
`
.

−
−
·
1
1 ε
Linearized form of Equation 7b:
( )
,
`
.

·
]
]
]
− −
t
a
e
e
V
V
x
L
L L
ln
1
ln
ε
The terminal velocity is needed for the calculation of x. It is computed using the
Stoke’s Law, equation 7c.
Equation 7c:
( )
( )
s
mm
gr
V
f P
t
4975 . 166
001 . 18
00025 . 81 . 9 998 2200
18
2
2
·
•
• • −
·
−
·
µ
ρ ρ
Tabulating y,
( )
]
]
]
− −
e
e
L
L L ε 1
ln
vs. x,
,
`
.

t
a
V
V
ln
:
Table 7.2 the tabulated data for linearization.
(LeL(1
Є))/Le Va/Vt
ln(LeL(1
Є))/Le
ln(Va/V
t)
0.60888888
9 1.5 0.496119476
0.40546
5
0.648 2 0.433864583
0.69314
7
0.67 2.5 0.400477567
0.91629
1
0.72210526
3 3 0.325584357
1.09861
2
0.76 3.5 0.274436846
1.25276
3
0.77043478
3 3.75 0.260800271
1.32175
6
Plotting
( )
]
]
]
− −
e
e
L
L L ε 1
ln
vs.
,
`
.

t
a
V
V
ln
:
Figure 7.3
Plot of the linearized form of Equation 7b
From the linearization of Equation 7b, the resulting equation of the line is
y=3.4437x1.8246, where the slope (empiric exponent), m (x), is equal to 3.4437.
Using Equation 7b and the computed empiric exponent x, the expansion length
of the bed, Le is:
( )
mm
mm
L
e
80 . 52
4975 . 166
9391 . 2
1
4 . 1 88
·
,
`
.

−
−
·
VIII. Analysis/Interpretation of Results
As shown in figure 7.1, the length of the expansion of the bed is directly
proportional to the velocity of the liquid. This is logical because as the velocity of
the liquid increases, the force at which the water force the sand upward also
increases, thereby promoting dispersion which resulted to an increasing length of
the expansion of the bed.
In figure 7.2, it is shown that the length of water in the column increases as
the velocity of the liquid increases but at a certain point, it became constant. This is
also logical because as time passes, the column is being filled with water thereby
increasing its length. The constant reading only means that the column is full of
water. The important aspect of this graph is the steepness of the line. As one can
see, as the velocity of the water increases, the steeper is the line. This indicates
that the higher the velocity, the higher is the rate at which the length of the water
in the column increases.
If one will analyze equation 2, one can see that x is related to the length of
the expanded bed (Le), initial length (L), porosity (Є), hindered velocity (Va), and
terminal settling velocity, (Vt). Furthermore, porosity is related to the diameter and
in most cases, the larger the diameter, the larger is the porosity (void volume
increases) and the terminal settling velocity, as shown in Stoke’s Law, is related to
the diameter of the radius of the grain, the density of the solid media, and the
density and the viscosity of the fluid medium. Therefore, the empiric exponent x
indicates the relationship of the initial length, grain diameter, the behavior of the
bed expansion, the density and viscosity of the fluid medium, in this case, the flow
regime, and the density of the sample to each other.
Based from the experiment, the expansion length of the bed is obviously
affected by the initial length of the bed because as it increases, hindering also
increases thereby decreasing the rate of expansion. Grain diameter also affects this
because it relates to porosity and as the diameter of the grain increases, the
porosity increases and if this is the case, the fluid will just pass the bed instead of
dispersing it which result to a decrease in the rate of length expansion of the bed.
Lastly, it relates to the empiric exponent x even though the effect is little compared
to the first two stated above.
X. Answers to question
1. Give practical applications of the principle of fluidization. In what areas in
chemical engineering can we apply fluidization advantageously?
One practical application of fluidization is for transferring of coals. Coals where
grinded and then fluidized for it to be transferred to another place. This can be done
to reduce transport expenses. Another important application of fluidization is in the
catalysis of gas reactions, wherein the excellent opportunity of heat transfer and
mass transfer between the catalytic surface and the gas stream gives performance
unequaled by any other system. Fluidization can be applied in several unit operation
processes involving transport processes especially mass transfer.
2. Would there be a difference in the overall experimental results if the column were
configured horizontally? Explain your answer.
Yes. There will be a difference in the overall experimental result when the
column is configured horizontally. This is because the effect of the gravitational
force to the flow is different in the horizontal configuration. If it is vertically placed,
gravitational force is directly opposite to the flow. When horizontally configured, the
gravitational force is perpendicular to the flow. Also, the initial height of the bed
changes when the configuration changes.
XI. Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
Using the data gathered in this experiment, the equilibrium head loss was
computed and is equal to 9.65 mmHg. The slope (empiric exponent), m (x), was
found out to be 3.4437. The expansion length of the bed was also computed and is
equal to 52.80 mm. Based from this experiment, the group can conclude that the
sand media used could be fluidized.
For the next group that will perform this experiment, the group recommends
that alternative samples should be used to determine their fluidization capability
e)( s. In liquid fluidization of granular media. Theory Fluidization.)g ε ρ ρ Equilibrium ρ gheA = ALe(1 ε e )( ρ s ρ )g .V. Part of the Darcy’s Law and KonezyCarman Eq’n applies (head loss α flow rate) for this condition. as a unit operation. is the measure of the ability of a granular media to flow (fluidize). Upward force = pressure difference x area = gheA ρ Downward force = weight of particles in liquid = ALe(1. such that the upward force exerted by the liquid is less than the downward weight of the grains. the liquid initially passes up through the porous bed of grains. The bed is said to be fluidized when the grains are supported by the liquid drag that takes place when the upward force equals the weight of the granular media in the liquid. It is the condition where there is suspension of particles in a fluid media.
For the preliminary operation.he = L(1. ε e ε = Va V t 1/ n Since (1. 1 where: he = equilibrium head loss Le = expanded length of the fluidized bed e = porosity of the fluidized bed ε ρ e = density of the grains A = plan area of the fluidized bed Relationship between hindered setting velocity (Vh)and concentration of grains (c volume/volume) is given by the equation proposed by Richard and Zaki. and (1c)= .) ε ( ρS − ρ ) ρ . and others: Vh = Vt (1c)n single grain At equilibrium in the fluidized bed: e where: Vt = terminal settling velocity of a Vh = Va . Operating procedure The operation and procedure conducted for the experiment is divided into three parts: preliminary operation. and 1/n = x Le = L (1 − ε ) V 1− a V t x .eqn. 2 VI.) = Le(1 ε ε e ). A steady state condition of the apparatus was obtained by allowing . experimental procedure and shutdown. thus.eqn. In the startup. the manometers and valves were checked for functionality. startup and preparation of the media in the column were performed.
For the shutdown operation. 7. the valves were set for up flow through the column with manometer valves closed and valve (5. About seven settings of flow rate (Q) are read with manometer levels noted for each flow rate. Manometer were read zero at about mid scale while valves (1. 4) closed. The level of the media surface (L) is read and the water and mercury manometers are set to a “zero” reading.7.7. the media was presieved to a uniform size fraction. and 8) were opened. mm water. The upward flow rate in the column was observed and air at the top of the column was released through the airrelease screw (9) in the capping piece. Valves (1. Data and Results In this experiment.5. The manometer was then checked for accurate measurements.4. The media was poured in the column and wetted thoroughly with water. Since there are only low pressure drops. Inlet valve (1) was closed and manometer valves (5.8 ) were closed and airrelease screw (9) and open valve (4) were opened. and lengths are necessary for the understanding of the concept of fluidization. and temperature reading . manometer.6. 2) were open and valves (3.a constant flow of the water from the water source to the head tank overflow and column. pressure and temperature readings. The water was then drained and the column was inserted back to the apparatus. Working section is cleaned by removing any sand that accumulated in the sieve and at the work place. The media was weighed in dry state to determine mass and to provide a permeable bed about 300mm deep in the column or about 0. another set of readings are taken with decreasing flow rate back to zero. Air bubbles trapped in the tubes of the manometers were checked and removed by applying pressure by opening and closing valve (1) allowing air to escape through the airrelease plug at the top of the water manometer.6. For the experimental procedure. 6. velocity. flow rates. Table 6.2.54kg of sand. The air and water in the column were allowed to escape by opening valve (3). For the preparation of the media and filling column.1. The drain tube from valve (3) is inserted into a beaker and a thermometer is placed in it to determine the temperature of the water leaving. The Perspex column is tapped gently with a pencil to lightly consolidate the media. Valves (2) and (3) re opened to admit water through the column in a down flow direction. the manometer reading is taken from the water manometer.1 Flow rate.3. water in the Perspex column and water manometer is drained. Air in the column and tubes was released by further flushing in and up or down flow direction and releasing air in the column by opening airrelease screw (9). expanded length. This was gathered during experimentation and was tabulated and presented in table 6. VI. The flow was reversed to be able to check the downward flow in the column by closing valve (2) and opening valve (1) and drain valve (4). After seven readings of increasing flow.8) open. The water supply to the constant head tank is disconnected. The Perspex column was removed from the apparatus by opening the topcapping piece and the two screws at the side.
4696 • A ∏ s ( 38mm ) 2 1cm 60s 4 Density of the solid media was determined using the concept of volume displacement using a graduated cylinder filled with water.0mL mL m Porosity is also a major player in this experiment for it affects everything.2870 11. mm 88 128 190 330 500 500 500 500 500 T. Q (cc/min) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 750 Velocity. Equation 6c: . Le (mm) 88 104 110 135 150 160 190 220 230 height of water.4696 2. Computation is presented in equation 6b.8174 10. °C 28 27 27 27 28 28 30 31 32 The velocity of the liquid is necessary for future calculation.9mL − 4. It is shown in equation 6a.4087 5.Flow rate. Equation 6b: 100 cm 3 min 3 ρp = mp V f − Vi = 2g g kg = 2. Va (mm/s) 0. Equation 6a: for q=100cc/min q mm 10mm 1 min u= = • = 1. It was calculated by dividing the volumetric flow rate by the area of the column for it is constant.3479 8. It was computed using again the volume displacement method.8783 7.9391 4. It is presented in Equation 6c.0000 1.22 = 2220 3 4.0218 Manome ter (mmHg) 42 44 55 57 59 40 43 45 47 Manome ter (mmHg) 42 57 46 48 51 31 33 36 38 Expand ed Length.
4087 57 48 9 400 5.1 and 7. It is presented in table 7.3 and combining with knowledge of the experiment. Manometer. Head loss. Figure 7. a simpler table was generated excluding other factors like temperature.0218 47 38 9 Using the data in table 6.3479 40 31 9 600 8. the equilibrium head loss is the constant pressure difference given by the answer at about 9 mmHg.2 respectively.1 − 4 .1.1.5 The head loss was computed just by getting the difference of the manometer reading and for easy understanding for the treatment of this results. Treatment of Results Vvoid +solid = 7 .1 Plot of the length of media in the column versus the liquid approach velocity Figure 7.ε= VII.2 Plot of the mm of Water versus the Liquid Approach Velocity Computation for the equilibrium Head Loss: Base from table 7.9 = 0. the expanded length of the bed and height of water was plotted against the liquid velocity. Table 7.1. and Temperature readings. It is shown in figure 7. Using the formula.40 5 . Manomet Flow rate.8174 43 33 10 700 10. Velocity. Velocity. Manometer Head Loss. the calculation is presented in equation 7a.9391 55 46 9 300 4.1 Flow rate. Va er Q (cc/min) (mmHg) h (mmHg) (mm/s) (mmHg) 0 0.8783 59 51 8 500 7. figure 7.0000 42 42 0 100 1.2870 45 36 9 750 11. .4696 44 57 13 200 2.
It is computed using the Stoke’s Law.001 : = 166. Equation 7c: Vt = Tabulating y. equation 7c.000252 18 • . (LeL(1ln(LeL(1Є))/Le Va/Vt Є))/Le . will be used to get the empiric exponent x.65mm − 55mm = 9.4975 mm s vs. Equation 7b: Le = L (1 − ε ) V 1− a V t x Linearized form of Equation 7b: L − L (1 − ε ) Va ln e = x ln V Le t The terminal velocity is needed for the calculation of x.2 the tabulated data for linearization.65mmHg ( 2220 − 998) − 55mm Equation proposed by Richard and Zaki. L − L (1 − ε ) ln e Le V ln a V t ln(Va/V t) Table 7.Figure 7.3 Plot of Head Loss versus the Liquid Approach Velocity Equation 7a: he = ∆P = P2 − P1 he = L(1 − ε ) ( ρS − ρ ) ρ − 55mm he = 88mm(1 − 0.81• . x. equation 7b.4) 998 he = 64. (ρ P − ρ f ) gr 2 18µ = ( 2200 − 998) • 9.
325584357 0.77043478 3 Plotting 1. the column is being filled with water thereby increasing its length.496119476 0.3 Plot of the linearized form of Equation 7b From the linearization of Equation 7b.274436846 0. This indicates .76 0. The important aspect of this graph is the steepness of the line.433864583 0. is equal to 3. As one can see.0. where the slope (empiric exponent). the length of the expansion of the bed is directly proportional to the velocity of the liquid.2.40546 5 0.09861 2 1. The constant reading only means that the column is full of water.5 3.75 vs.1. as the velocity of the water increases. This is logical because as the velocity of the liquid increases.5 2 2. Using Equation 7b and the computed empiric exponent x.67 0.8246.648 0. Le is: Le = 88mm(1 − .400477567 0. This is also logical because as time passes.60888888 9 0. the resulting equation of the line is y=3.91629 1 1.72210526 3 0.260800271 : 0. In figure 7.4437. the expansion length of the bed. 0. Analysis/Interpretation of Results As shown in figure 7.80mm 2. it became constant. m (x).4975 VIII.69314 7 0. the force at which the water force the sand upward also increases.4437x1. it is shown that the length of water in the column increases as the velocity of the liquid increases but at a certain point.25276 3 1.5 3 3.4 ) = 52. the steeper is the line.9391 1− 166.32175 6 L − L (1 − ε ) ln e Le V ln a V t Figure 7. thereby promoting dispersion which resulted to an increasing length of the expansion of the bed.
m (x). the behavior of the bed expansion. the density of the solid media. the porosity increases and if this is the case. the initial height of the bed changes when the configuration changes. Lastly. initial length (L).that the higher the velocity. There will be a difference in the overall experimental result when the column is configured horizontally. This can be done to reduce transport expenses. (Vt). Give practical applications of the principle of fluidization. the larger is the porosity (void volume increases) and the terminal settling velocity. Yes. and terminal settling velocity. the larger the diameter. the expansion length of the bed is obviously affected by the initial length of the bed because as it increases. Also. as shown in Stoke’s Law. porosity (Є). XI. This is because the effect of the gravitational force to the flow is different in the horizontal configuration. When horizontally configured. the flow regime. Answers to question 1. Based from the experiment. In what areas in chemical engineering can we apply fluidization advantageously? One practical application of fluidization is for transferring of coals. Another important application of fluidization is in the catalysis of gas reactions. Fluidization can be applied in several unit operation processes involving transport processes especially mass transfer. Grain diameter also affects this because it relates to porosity and as the diameter of the grain increases. Coals where grinded and then fluidized for it to be transferred to another place. the empiric exponent x indicates the relationship of the initial length. Would there be a difference in the overall experimental results if the column were configured horizontally? Explain your answer. If it is vertically placed. porosity is related to the diameter and in most cases. grain diameter. the gravitational force is perpendicular to the flow. the fluid will just pass the bed instead of dispersing it which result to a decrease in the rate of length expansion of the bed. the equilibrium head loss was computed and is equal to 9. the density and viscosity of the fluid medium. If one will analyze equation 2. was . Furthermore.65 mmHg. X. Conclusion and Recommendation Using the data gathered in this experiment. The slope (empiric exponent). 2. is related to the diameter of the radius of the grain. one can see that x is related to the length of the expanded bed (Le). wherein the excellent opportunity of heat transfer and mass transfer between the catalytic surface and the gas stream gives performance unequaled by any other system. Therefore. gravitational force is directly opposite to the flow. Findings. the higher is the rate at which the length of the water in the column increases. hindered velocity (Va). and the density of the sample to each other. in this case. it relates to the empiric exponent x even though the effect is little compared to the first two stated above. hindering also increases thereby decreasing the rate of expansion. and the density and the viscosity of the fluid medium.
the group recommends that alternative samples should be used to determine their fluidization capability .80 mm. the group can conclude that the sand media used could be fluidized.found out to be 3. Based from this experiment. For the next group that will perform this experiment.4437. The expansion length of the bed was also computed and is equal to 52.
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