Jota Samper

jota@mit.edu

Main Findings
• There is an apparent relationship between the conditions of informal settlements and how they become prone to conflict. The continuum of violence. • The perception of a increased participation. • Making coordinated interventions over a reduced amount of time and space produce a cohesive change momentum. • The quality physical interventions make all the other interventions visible. • State secure public buildings/ spaces are instrumental in conquering unsafe spaces for the use of the community.

Context Conflict and History of Urban Development in Medellin (1930 to 2009) .

The figure identifies two high-violence periods: the first one before 1962. Sanches et al. 2003 . and the second one after 1984.000 people in Colombia (in the y axis) over time (in the x axis) from 1946 to 2002.Historical Development of the Colombian Conflict 90 80 70 60 Homicide rate per 100.000 50 40 30 20 10 0 1946 1948 1950 “La Violencia” First Cycle of Violence 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 Second Cycle of Violence 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Years Plots yearly homicides per 100.

National Armed Conflict in Medellín 400 350 300 Rate per 100.000 inhabitants Medellín Colombia 250 200 150 100 50 0 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Years Death rate in Colombia VS. regional Noroccidente. Medellín since 1975 to 2002 Source: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y ciencias Forenses. Boletin de prensa 2002 .

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200 180 160 140 120 100 80 Rate per 100.000 inhabitants Medellín Versus 4 Colombian Cities Medellín Cali Bogota Barranquilla Cartagena 60 40 20 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2005 2006 2007 year Death rate in 5 major cities of Colombia 2000 to 2007 source: Instituto Nacional de Forencis .

653 -6.45e-12 *** 3.942e+01 4. Error (Intercept) 4.686 18.711 Coefficients: Estimate Std.13 on 37 degrees of freedom Multiple R-squared: 0.095e+02 1.831e+00 citie 1. codes: 0 '***' 0.989 56.HRate ≈ RPEdu + citie Min 1Q Median 3Q Max -57.' 0. p-value: 1.231 7.05 '.277 -18.336e-04 7. Adjusted R-squared: 0.89e-09 *** 5.001 '**' 0.740e-08 t value 10.430e+01 RPEdu -4.6193.017 Pr(>|t|) 2.01 '*' 0.1 ' ' 1 Residual standard error: 27.393 -9.1 on 2 and 37 DF.5987 F-statistic: 30.206e-05 --Signif.96e-07 *** .

The Continuum of Violence .

1200 1 Popular 2 Santa Cruz 1000 3 Manrique 800 The Urban Context: Accomplice of the Violence Continuum 5 Castilla 4 Aranjuez 6 Doce Octubre 7 Robledo 8 Villa Hermosa 600 9 Buenos Aires 10 Candelaria 400 11 Laureles 12 América 13 San Javier 200 14 Poblado 15 Guayabal 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Death rate per Comuna 1994 – 2009 Source: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses 16 Belén Medellín Logarítmica (Medellín) .

Distribution of Violence 1 2 10 Homicide Rate by Comuna Above City Average Below City Average 13 Data Source: Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses 2001 12 .

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1700 .

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Jose Maria Giraldo.Mapa de la Villa de Medellín. 1790 .

Escobar. Parra. Manuel hoyos y Fabriciano Botero. . students of civil engineering at the Universidad de Antioquia in 1875. Manuel J.Figure 2 Plano topográfico de Medellin _1875_Fransisco H.

Mule-drawn tramway at El Eden source: Juan Santiago Correa .

Plano Medellin Futuro (Map Future Medellin) by Jorge Rodriguez la Linde Source: jaramillo and Perfetti 1993 .

Plan of future Urban Development dated 1932 Source Guillermo palacios published by the Alcaldia de Medellin .

. Source: Luis Marden. known as Birney 37. was climbing the hill on Calle 55. The trolley.The October 1940 edition of National Geographic Magazine contained an article entitled "Hail Colombia!" which included the color photograph .

” . “The core. 8th International Congress for Modern Architecture. CIAM 8. 1951.El Plan Piloto 1950 Wiener y Sert . Source: CIAM 8[1 International Congress for Modern Architecture.

Alpujarra administration center as is today and how it was planned in the MMP Source: Jota Samper and the CIAM 8 .

189 772.630.000 1.000 0 1905 1912 1918 1928 1938 1951 1964 1973 1985 1993 2005 Years Medellín Population 1905-2005 Source: DANE .252 1.266 358.815 2.146 120.223.500.887 1.077.000 500.468.500.009 2.59.000 1.044 168.000 70.089 1.078 2.547 79.000.000.

Non-Planning in Medellín History and Consequences .

.50s Metrocable Line cable Comuna 1 and 2 from 1950 and 1990 Showing current locations of MetroCable source: PUI Nororiental EDU.

.90s Metrocable Line cable Comuna 1 and 2 from 1950 and 1990 Showing current locations of MetroCable source: PUI Nororiental EDU.

Source: Urban Dwelling Environments and Area Google Earth 2010 .Villa de Socorro Before (as plan ) and today Comuna 1.

Source: Urban Dwelling Environments and Area Google Earth 2010 .Villa de Socorro Before (as plan ) and today Comuna 1.

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la Cuidad Mas Educada” Medellin the most educated: the policy interventions .“Medellin.

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320 % FARK.637 8. ELN. others 16.SEGURIDAD Y CONVIVENCIA (Peaceful Coexistence and Citizen Security) Process of Demobilization. Disarmament and Re-integration (DDR) AUC Colombia Antioquia Medellín 31.727 4.238 % 28% 13% 851 5% DDR and Amnesty (De-mobilization in Colombia) Table 1 National policy on reinsertion source: Alcaldia de Medellín[1] .

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Disarmament and Re integration (DDR) •Participative Budget •Banco de los Pobres (bank of the poor) •Indice de Desarrollo Humano (IDH) Indice de Calidad de Vida (ICV).•Process of Demobilization.) Policies underlying the “transformation of Medellin” . •Urbanismo Social •EDU Empresa de Desarrollo Urbano Medellín (Enterprise Of Urban Development -EDU-.

la cuidad más educada” Physical Transformations • Colegios de calidad Quality Schools.• Parques bibliotecas Library Parks “Medellín. • Proyecto Urbano Integral PUI (Integral Urban Project) . • New Police Stations Centro de Atencion Inmediata CAI (Center of Immediate Attention CAI) • The CEDEZOs Centros de Desarrollo Empresarial Zonal Local (Center for Enterprise Development). And schools repositions.

PARQUES BIBLIOTECAS LIBRARY PARKS .

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AND SCHOOLS REPOSITIONS Location of 143 reformed Schools over the ICV index. Source: Alcaldia de Medellín .COLEGIOS DE CALIDAD QUALITY SCHOOLS.

Quality School San Antonio de Prado Source: EDU .

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NEW POLICE STATIONS CENTRO DE ATENCION INMEDIATA CAI (CENTER OF IMMEDIATE ATTENTION CAI) New police CAI and police Stations over the ICV index. Source: Alcaldia de Medellín .

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Source: Alcaldia de Medellín THE CEDEZOS CENTROS DE DESARROLLO EMPRESARIAL ZONAL LOCAL (CENTER FOR ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT). .CEDEZOs over the ICV index.

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PROYECTO URBANO INTEGRAL PUI (INTEGRAL URBAN PROJECT PUI)
CEDEZOs over the ICV index. Source: Alcaldia de Medellín

PUI components
• Inter- Institutional coordination. • Social component of community participation • Physical component this includes public space, environmental recovery, housing and transportation.

Inter- Institutional coordination

Social component of community participation .

Physical component this includes public space, environmental recovery, housing and transportation.

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Implementation PLANNIING Diagnostic Figure 20 Time line PUI project from Design to Operation source: EDU Formulation GESTION Execution Operation Design Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6 Stage 7 Stage 8 Stage 9 Stage 10 Survey Selection of pojects Schematic design Desing Development Bid Contracting Construction Planning Preparation Delivery .

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46 Railings Retaining walls and sidewalk Other impruvement projects Barrio Villa del Socorro CRA. Andalucía Barrio Moscú 1 CRA. 49 Comunity developed projects Road paving Río Medellín Est.Barrio La Avanzada Secretaria Public Works Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est. Acevedo . Domingo Cerro Santo Domingo Landscape Est. Sto. Popular Barrio La Isla Park Public ligthing Barrio La Francia Est.

Sto. Acevedo IE IE .IE Barrio La Avanzada IE Barrio La Esperanza 2 Secretaria Education Barrio Santo Domingo 2 IE IE Est. 49 CRA. Popular Barrio La Isla IE Franca Barrio La Francia IE IE IE IE IE IE Quality Schools Est. Domingo IE IE IE Cerro Santo Domingo IE IE IE IE IE IE Est. 46 IE Public Schools School remodel. Andalucía Barrio Moscú 1 IE IE IE Barrio Villa del Socorro IE IE IE CRA. School remodel (with EPM funds) IE IE IE IE IE Río Medellín Est.

500 subcidies Cerro Santo Domingo Population not cover but afiliated 80. Acevedo .217 individuals Maltrato físico: 489 families treated Riesgo nutricional: 1284 children atented Salud Oral: 6493 familes treated Barrio Moscú 1 CRA.800 students treated New hospital Nutrición: 11.955 families – 52. 49 Río Medellín Est. Sto. Popular Barrio La Isla Barrio La Francia Est. Domingo Population cover by goverment subsidies 179. 46 Est.000 individuals Famlity and comunity healt 11.Barrio La Avanzada Secretaria Health Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est.000 students treated Salud Auditiva: 11. individuals Sex education at scholls Saludstudents 1800 visual: 13. Andalucía Healt Programs at schools Salud Oral: 11887.000 Unidad Hospitalaria Santa Cruz Barrio Villa del Socorro CRA.

Andalucía Unit for attention to the Senior population Senior housing PROTECCIÓN SOCIAL AL ADULTO MAYOR CRA.Barrio La Avanzada Barrio La Avanzada Secretaria Social Welfare Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est. Popular Barrio La Isla Program Homeless POR UNA VIDA MAS DIGNA Unit for Displaced population Unit fro senior homeless Barrio Moscú 1 CRA. 49 Barrio Villa del Socorro Center for senior homeless Atention to disable population Río Medellín Est. Sto. Domingo Infant protection Program BUEN COMIENZO – BUEN VIVIR School Restaurant Cerro Santo Domingo Food Provision Food for Seniors Unit for criminal youth Unit for Homeless youth Est. Acevedo . 46 Barrio La Francia Est.

Andalucía G G G Río Medellín Barrio Moscú 1 CRA. control and training for the use of public space Assistance for population affected by Human Rights violations . Popular Barrio La Isla G G Barrio La Francia Est.Barrio La Avanzada Barrio La Esperanza 2 Secretaria Goverment Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est. 46 Barrio Villa del Socorro CRA. 49 G G G G Program of follow up with DDR Members Surveillance. Domingo G Cerro Santo Domingo G Est. Sto.

Sto. Andalucía C C C C C C C C C Río Medellín C C C C C C C C C Barrio Moscú 1 C C C C C C C C C Barrio Villa del Socorro CRA. 46 C C C C C C C C C C CRA.C C C Barrio La Avanzada Barrio La Avanzada Secretaria Citizen Culture C C C C C C Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 C C C Est. Acevedo C C C C C C . Popular C C Barrio La Francia C C C C Est. Domingo C C C C C C C C C Cerro Santo Domingo C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C Program of comunity self regulation Program MEDELLÍN CIUDAD MULTICULTURAL Cultural Program MEDELLÍN UN GRAN ESCENARIO Program of Libraries and colection of cultural history Preogram for youth MEDELLÍN CIUDAD JOVEN Gender equality Program Participative Budget C C Barrio La Isla Est. 49 Est.

Popular Barrio La Isla Recreation Sport schools Barrio La Francia Est.Barrio La Avanzada Barrio La Avanzada INDER (Recreation) Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est. 49 Barrio Villa del Socorro Río Medellín Est. Andalucía Barrio Moscú 1 CRA. 46 Program adopt a park Aerobics CRA. Acevedo Program CLUBES DE VIDA . Domingo Cerro Santo Domingo Daycare facilities LUDOTEKAS Est. Sto.

Popular Barrio La Isla New Neighborhood Park New Small Park (mirador) Barrio La Francia Est. Sto.Barrio La Avanzada General Projects Metro Line A Metro Cable line K Public Space and movility Barrio La Esperanza 2 Barrio Santo Domingo 2 Est. 46 Housing Resettlement plan (Housing) New park terraces New Mixed use buildings Public Buildings Improvement o public buildings New public Buildings CRA. Andalucía Barrio Moscú 1 CRA. Domingo Street Improvement Urban Roads type A Street Improvement Urban Roads type B Continuity of urban Roads Connections between neighborhoods Street Improvements Neighborhood Roads New and improve Pedestrian Roads New Bridge (pedestrian and Cars) New Bridge (Pedestrian) New Sector Park New Park along river Cerro Santo Domingo Est. 49 Barrio Villa del Socorro Improvement Neighborhood center New Neighborhood center Río Medellín Barrio Santa Cruz Expansion .

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Evaluating the intervention. la ciudad mas educada” . “Medellin.

Source El Universo .Infrastructure as Security Routine enforcement of security on the streets in Medellín.

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Think about the teacher who taught there and now does so on the best chalkboard that the city can offer.Think about the kid who went to that school. Think about her mother who left her in that school and today leaves her in this one. But the quality of education starts with the dignity of the space. Sergio Fajardo PROJECTS CHANGING THE PERCEPTION OF SECURITY THROUGH DESIGN . and who now goes to this one. Think about the community… we arrive and we eliminate violence … the man on the street he does not go there [to urinate] anymore. And inside we have a traditional project of improving the quality of education.

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com and Alcaldia de Medellin .medellininfo.Tourist maps of Medellín before and after the interventions in red is the comuna 1 and 2 with the metro cable and the Parque Biblioteca España mark Source: www.

Medellin Case as a “Best Practice” .

. Their actions need to be a collective effort throughout the territory in a concise time frame such as three to five years.governmental. • Legitimization of the community which removes the illegal conditions of the environment in which the inhabitants lived and also removes the repercussions of how this illegal status modifies the way community members are perceived by the broad community (City and Nation) as illegal and thereby criminals. • Institutional and Project Coordination between the different organizations that operate in the territory.Concluding lessons • Participation of the community in the process of transformation of their environment and as a way to create sustainable partnerships and participative planning. These organizations should be a combination governmental and non.

Presence of the State uses the new projects to introduce a permanent presence of the non-oppressive branches of the state. • • . This is an attempt to close the gap between the state and the community that leave spaces for armed actors to challenge state authority in the territory.Concluding lessons • Security Strategy involves negotiations with all actors who are harmful to the community security to create momentum for the possibility of the introduction of a different kind of security force through the use of new physical infrastructures. Design as an Agent of Social Change is a tool that makes all interventions visible and effective. It is the motor that changes the perceptions of the larger community about the inhabitants of the marginalized communities where the projects are placed and it is the tool that guarantees community improvement through providing of a higher quality environment. This is a passive strategy because of its focus on negotiation and invitation from the community to obtain higher levels of security not just provided outside the community from the state. but with state police sources within the community itself.

Jota Samper .

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