AUTEX Research Journal, Vol.

9, No1, March 2009 © AUTEX

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF COTTON/POLYESTER CORE SPUN YARN MADE USING RING AND AIR-JET SYSTEMS
P. Pramanik1, Vilas. M. Patil2
1

Faculty of Textile, S.G.G.S. Institute of Engineering & Technology, Nanded, Maharashtra, India E-mail: ppramanik2003@yahoo.com
2

Faculty of Textile, C.O.E. & T., Akola, Maharashtra, India. E-mail: patil.vilas@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The manufacture of core yarn from polyester-cotton is one of the most important developments in the textile industry. The use of core yarns is mainly aimed at improving the strength, comfort, durability, aesthetics, and other functional properties of the final yarn. This article reports the results of investigation of core spun yarns made from polyester filament as core and cotton as sheath material manufactured using both ring and air-jet spinning systems. Polyester filaments with different proportions were chosen for the core component and cotton was used as the sheath. A total of twelve different core yarns were made on different spinning systems (i.e. six on air-jet and six on ring frame systems) and the yarn properties were compared with those of 100% cotton ringspun yarn. It was observed that core yarns had improved physical properties compared to 100% cotton ringspun yarn in many respects such as yarn strength, elongation, energy to break, and yarn imperfections. Only airjet core yarn showed lower yarn strength than 100% cotton yarn but the same yarn excelled in other properties compared to 100% cotton yarn.

Key words:
Air-jet, cotton, polyester, ring frame, SEM, yarn

1. Introduction
Core yarn structure consists of two components: one forms the central axis or core of the yarn and the other is the covering part, better known as the sheath. Continuous multifilament yarn is generally used as a core while cotton staple fibres are used to cover the filaments. Core spun yarn shows some improved characteristics over 100% cotton yarn or 100% filament yarns. Core spun yarn was preferred to blended staple spun yarn in terms of strength and comfort [1,2]. Phenomenal improvements in durability and aesthetic properties were observed in core spun yarn [3,4] compared to cotton spun yarn. As the cotton was wrapped over polyester filament, improvements were observed in yarn properties like moisture absorption, heat resistance, air permeability, and depth of shade in dyeing [5] compared to synthetic yarns. The tensile strength of yarn was increased by the presence of polyester filament at the core, which was the main load carrier when we compared it with cotton yarn. It was also observed that 100% cotton yarn showed lower strength after application of chemical finishes. Research was therefore planned to develop and produce strong, predominately cotton covered yarn which may be combined with different chemical finishes without any difficulties [6,7] as and Description when required. The research is therefore Tenacity (gpd) devoted to developing a cotton rich, high Elongation (%) strength filament core yarn with sufficient Energy to break cotton on the outer surface [8,9].

2. Material and methods
The raw materials selected for the core are described below. 2.1. Filaments used at the core i) 30 ii) 30 iii)44 iv) 44 v) 70 vi) 70 den./24 den./24 den./36 den./36 den./36 den./36 filaments filaments filaments filaments filaments filaments drawn polyester crimped polyester drawn polyester crimped polyester drawn polyester crimped polyester

The properties of synthetic core polyester yarns are shown in Table 1. 2.2. Cotton fibre covering The cotton fibre used for covering the core synthetic had the following properties: a) 2.5% span length 33.5 mm b) Strength 28 gram/tex c) UR% 48 d) Mic. 4.2
Table 1. The properties of filaments.
30/24D 3.25 21.69 276.70 21.73 44/36D 3.31 22.9 547.10 30.08 70/36D 3.34 33.57 957.00 10.50 30/24CR 44/36CR 70/36CR 3.30 23.50 383.70 22.83 3.32 27.64 550.10 33.05 3.35 34.57 1185.00 12.20

Initial Modulus (gf/cm)

http://www.autexrj.org/No1-2009/ 0305.pdf

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Count strength product Figure 1. This was because of low binding forces between the fibres due to false twisting. and the complete load was shared by the cotton at the sheath. Figure 2.4.3. After preparation. which was broken very fast. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photographs Cross-sectional views of 2/30 Ne yarns were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and photographs were taken. by about 29-31% when 44 den. The roving was prepared by passing the fibres through the modern blow room. six core yarns were also prepared [12] on a Murata AirJet Spinner MJS802 as shown in Fig. By using the same mixing and the same machine. The yarn irregularity in terms of U% and the imperfections in terms of thick places. the strength was between 25 and 11% lower when we changed the denier from 30 den. Vol. The perimeters of photographs covered by cotton as well as covered by polyester were measured. carding machine. 1. Yarn quality evaluation 2. Preparation of yarn Using a conventional ring spinning process. Using the same core–sheath ratio. In air-jet yarns it was seen that when we increased the denier of drawn yarns from 30 den. The twist multiplier and other spinning process parameters were kept unchanged throughout all the yarn manufacturing processes. Twenty (20) readings per sample were taken to get the average value. 30 den.4. Yarn count and count strength product Yarn count was measured with the help of wrap reel and count strength product by using a good brand of lea strength tester. was used and 31-36% when 70 den.4. Parameters such as drafts and denier of polyester core yarns were varied. 9.1. and neps were evaluated. Results and discussion 3. and therefore the strength was increased compared to the cotton yarn. the core yarn showed between 29 and 14% lower strength than 100% cotton yarn. to 70 den. generally used in the spinning process. 2. 2. (Vijay Laxmi) machine under mill conditions to prepare 2/30sNe yarns . no significant difference was observed. The photographs were evaluated using computer aided software. From the results it was observed that introducing a very minor amount of filament (15%. yarn was used at the core. Thereafter it was seen that a further increase in filaments at the core by about 25-40% caused the CSP values to increase significantly. core yarns were prepared on a ring frame by passing polyester filament yarn through the front roller nip of a ring frame [10.F.O.4. No1. 3.org/No1-2009/ 0305.1. Unevenness and imperfections Measurements of yarn unevenness and imperfections were taken using an Uster-4.5.2. With crimped core filaments. and therefore made the yarn weak. modern combers. Using the same cotton sliver at the back of the main drafting zone and polyester filament passing through the front drafting roller. 2.) at the core reduced the CSP value of the ring yarn by about 15-17% compared to 100% cotton yarn. the maximum load was shared by the straight synthetic filaments which were stronger than the cotton. http://www. 2. and speed frame.autexrj. Core yarn initial modulus and core yarn energy to break The core yarn initial modulus and core yarn energy to break of different core yarns were tested on an Instron machine. If we compare the CSP values of drawn and crimped core yarn. March 2009 © AUTEX 2.pdf 15 . Then percentage perimeters covered by cotton were calculated and compared.4. all single core yarns were doubled on a T. thin places. Breaking strength and extension The breaking strength and extension of the yarn samples were measured on an Instron tensile tester using the standard procedures in accordance with ASTM D 2256.4. This was because of simple elongation of filament yarn at the initial state of loading of the yarn. With the further increase in filament denier at the core and fewer cotton fibres at the sheath. to 70 den.4. It was also observed that the CSP values of air-jet core yarns made from polyester core yarns were all weaker than those of 100% cotton yarn. compared to 100% cotton yarn. 100% cotton yarn was produced for comparative study. draw frame.11] and roving through the drafting zone of the ring frame as shown in Fig. A total of six different types of core yarns were prepared on the ring frame under ideal conditions by varying the core–sheath ratio.3. 2. Core yarn prepared by air-jet spinning. The lea strengths of different core yarns were tested on an electronic lea strength testing machine. Core yarn prepared by ring spinning.AUTEX Research Journal. 2. 30s Ne average count was prepared for this study. 30sNe core yarns were prepared.

When we increased the filament percentage at the core. (44 den. When the percentage of filament was increased substantially at the core.AUTEX Research Journal. Elongation percentage of core yarn From the results it was observed that in all the ring core and air-jet core yarns (polyester).) filaments were introduced at the core. Elongation % of core yarn. Single Yarn Strength 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 30/DR 44/DR 70/DR 30/CR 44/CR 70/CR 100% C Poly/RF poly/AJ core yarns or in crimped and drawn yarns. March 2009 © AUTEX CSP 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 30/DR 44/DR 70/DR 30/CR 44/CR 70/CR 100% C Poly/RF poly/AJ Figure 3. both strength and elongation jointly led to higher energy to break. Crimped yarns always showed higher values of energy to break than drawn yarns at higher percentages of filaments at the core: when the percentage of filament at the core was 40%.3. which was nearly 6-8 times more than that for 100% cotton yarn. yarn elongation was increased by 20% to 80% for ring core and air-jet core yarn with drawn and crimped filaments at the core compared to 100% cotton yarn. CSP values of drawn and crimped core yarn. 4. Core yarn energy to break Energy to break of different core yarns was tested on an Instron machine. This was because of the introduction of filaments at the core which was considered to provide high elongation of the yarn compared to 100% cotton fibres.) there was absolutely no gain or loss in strength for both drawn and crimped yarns compared to 100% cotton yarn. the increase in elongation was observed to be about 80–100% for both with drawn and crimped yarns compared to 100% cotton yarn.) then the strength of core yarn was increased for both drawn and crimped yarns by about 43% compared to 100% cotton yarn. the difference was gradually reduced: with 25% filament at the core the strength difference was about 25% and with 40% filament at the core the strength difference was reduced to 7%. whether by crimped or drawn filaments.autexrj. 9. When the percentage of filaments was nearly 40% then the elongation of core yarn was increased for both drawn and crimped yarn to about five times that of 100% cotton yarn. There were no trends observed in the case of air-jet and ring http://www. which was observed to be 107–125% for ring core yarn. When the percentage of filaments at the core was increased by 25%.org/No1-2009/ 0305. From the results shown in Fig. Single yarn strength. It was observed that in the case of 30 den. but when the percentage reached 40% at the core there was a drastic increase in the energy to break observed for the air-jet core yarn. the core yarn energy to break increased by 33% and 15% for ring core and air-jet core yarns respectively. 3. the increase in filament at the core increased the elongation percentage of the core yarns.) there was a drastic increase in the energy to break. When the percentage of filament was 25%. the strength increased in proportion to the increase in denier at the core. Vol. and when the filament percentage was increased by 40% at the core the value was increased by 10–11 times the value for 100% cotton yarn. which is clearly seen from Fig. No1. It was also clear that as the percentage of polyester was increased at the core. When the percentage of filament was 25% (44 den. a lower percentage of filament at the core may not contribute more to the strength of the yarn. Elongation % of core yarn 25 20 15 10 5 0 30/DR 44/DR 70/DR 30/CR 44/CR 70/CR 100% C Poly/RF poly/AJ Figure 5.) filaments were introduced at the core. It was observed that ringcore yarns always showed 15–33% greater single yarn strength than air-jet core yarn.2 Single yarn strength From the results it was observed that when 15% (30 den. air-jet core yarn. When the percentage of filaments was nearly 40% (using 70 den. The properties of filaments which contributed the lion’s share of the tensile properties of core yarn are presented in Table 1. Generally. which was considered a major setback for the introduction of only 15% filament at the core compared to 100% cotton ring-spun yarn. Air-jet core yarn with up to 25% filament at the core did not show any change in energy to break compared to 100% spun cotton yarn.4. 6 it was observed that when the percentage of filaments (polyester) was only 15% at the core no significant differences were observed in energy to break compared to 100% spun cotton yarn. From the results it was also observed that when 15% (30 den. but a greater elongation of the yarn jointly provided energy to break at per with 100% cotton yarn. which may not be considered significant. 3. the strength fell to 50% compared to 100% cotton ring-spun yarn strength. Figure 4.pdf 16 . yarn strength was reduced by about 15 to 17% for ring core yarn in both drawn and crimped yarns compared to 100% cotton yarn strength. 3.

No1. 44 den. Moreover the chance of filaments coming out at the surface is greater in crimped core yarns than in drawn core yarns. and 44 den.org/No1-2009/ 0305. 3. drawn core yarns and crimped core yarns showed similar types of properties. Core yarn energy to break. but the cover was reasonably good. Total imperfection The total imperfection of different core yarns was tested on a UT4 evenness testing machine. because of resource constraints. March 2009 © AUTEX core yarn energy to break 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 R R R R R R 44 /D 70 /D 44 /C 30 /D 30 /C 70 /C 10 0% c were no significant differences in U% values among the different core spun yarns made on the ring frame. which was not observed in air-jet core yarns. 17 R R R R R R http://www. When the percentage of filaments was increased at the core it was observed that imperfection values were reduced in ring-spun core yarns. But air-jet core yarns showed minimal imperfection values compared to ringspun core yarns. It can be concluded that when finer denier yarn was inserted at the core and represented only a 15–25% proportion. it was well covered by the cotton sheath fibres. 3.5. Because there were more straight fibres at the core of air-jet yarns (70 den.7. yarn had a high modulus. It was also observed that crimped or drawn yarns at the core do not contribute to yarn uniformity.AUTEX Research Journal. Evaluation of percentage coverage of core yarn. the sheath cotton could not give 100% coverage of the core.). In this study.autexrj. 250 200 150 100 50 0 R R R R R R 10 0% C 30 /D 44 /D 30 /C 70 /D 44 /C 70 /C Figure 6. the initial loads were immediately shared by the filaments and therefore the initial moduli of those yarns showed higher values. For example. Total imperfection of different core yarns. there was 98% cover of the filament by the cotton. Core yarn initial modulas. Table 2. The low modulus of yarn like 70 den. the yarn characteristics. only cross-sectional views of crimped core yarns were observed. U% The U% of different core yarns were tested on a UT4 evenness testing machine. Evaluation of percentage coverage of core yarn by scanning electron microscope (SEM) Poly/RF poly/AJ Figure 7. 9. Poly/RF poly/AJ 3. From the results it was observed that there were no clear trends in total imperfection values within the ring frame and air-jet yarns. polyester yarn was also influenced by the low modulus of the final core yarn. The results are shown in Table 2 and the respective photographs are shown in Figs.6. polyester yarns at the core of air-jet and ring core yarns. 3. 10–16.8. and characteristics of the spinning systems. It is clear from Table 6 that air-jet yarns have lower U% values than ring core yarns because they have more parallel fibres at the core than ring core yarns. U% values. From the results it was observed that there It was observed that polyester core filaments were placed exactly at the centre with 30 den. Vol. yarns in ring and air-jet systems. However. U% 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Cross-sectional views of the final double yarns were observed by scanning microscope to estimate the extent of cover of core filament yarns by the sheath cotton fibres. Core yarn initial modulus The initial modulus of different core yarns was tested on an Instron machine.pdf 10 0% C 70 /D 44 /C 70 /C 30 /C 30 /D 44 /D . From the results it was observed that the core yarn initial modulus was mostly influenced by the initial modulus of the filament yarns at the core. It was observed that in the case of 70 den. It was seen that a high initial modulus filament at the core provided a higher initial modulus of the core yarn. Poly/RF poly/AJ Description 30/CR/A 44/CR/A 70/CR/A 30/CR/R 44/CR/R 70/CR/R 100%C Actual cover by cotton 100% 100% 98% 100% 100% 98% 100% Figure 8. Core yarn initial modulas 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 30/DR 44/DR 70/DR 30/CR 44/CR 70/CR 100%C Poly/RF poly/AJ Figure 9. When the core percentage was 40%. which directly shows the higher modulus of the core yarn.

The air-jet yarns were observed to have about 30% to 11% lower CSP values than 100% cotton ring spun yarn. CSP values for air-jet core yarns were less than for 100% ring-spun cotton yarn. Figure 15. Vol. 44 D polyester air-jet. the strength was 18 http://www. and 70 den. Figure 13. Figure 11. polyester core yarns. cores. 70 D polyester air-jet core yarn. 44 D polyester crimped ring frame. 4. the CSP values increased by about 31% and 36% respectively.autexrj. 9. Conclusion It was concluded that when using filament yarn at the core. filament at the core. With 44 den.AUTEX Research Journal. the CSP value fell by about 15% in 30 den. March 2009 © AUTEX Figure 10. Figure 14. and 70 den.org/No1-2009/ 0305. 70 D polyester ring frame. 30 D polyester air-jet core yarn.pdf . 30 D polyester ring frame core yarn. No1. Similar results were observed in respect of single yarn strength: when introducing 30 den. Figure 12. filament at the core the fall in strength was 15 % to 17% and when introducing 44 den.

Text. With 30 den. Hinganghat Mill. Text. Text. 3. A.S. Res. J. and Ruppenicker. core compared to 100% cottonring spun yarn. 2001. With 44 den. the energy required was 600% to 800% higher.K. G. Res. 53. Sept. Sawhney. 2001. G.. Res. Harper.P. Res. air-jet spun yarn is superior to ring-spun yarn. J. improved by about 43%. Figure 16. Text. Robert. 74 (9). 9..J. 1986. Text. core it was about 98% in both air-jet and ring-spun core yarns..K. Institute of Engineering & Technology who gave much encouragement for this project. 10.O. 99–103. 1964. 36. Res. 60. it can be concluded that ring-spun and air-jet spun yarns show better performance in all respects compare to 100% cotton ring-spun yarn. J. March 2009 © AUTEX 4. 185–189. ∇Δ Acknowledgements The authors are extremely thankful to AICTE New Delhi for providing funds to conduct this research. 5. core the energy to break was not significantly different than that for 100% cotton ring-spun yarn. 1999. 1983. CIRCOT Mumbai and Mr A. We are also thankful to Dr.G. Nishimura. filament at the core. 69 (2). and Ruppenicker. Air-jet core yarns had low U% and lower imperfections compared to both ring-spun core yarns and ring-spun cotton yarns.autexrj.S.. Text. R. Nagpur.. A. cores did not require any significant difference in energy to break compared to 100% cotton ring-spun yarn. 56. Barik and G. J. Res. We are also indebted to the Director of S. P. http://www. 12. 1996. P. J.M. who helped a lot with conducting this experiment. and 44 den.. Res.Q.. 11. No1. 819–826. G.. 2 Feb. Behara. C. G. J. 8.. the trend was from 50% lower strength with 30 den.. 2004. 42.D.R. Grosberg..S.120– 125. The elongation at break was observed to increase by 20% to 500% with the increase in the filament percentage at the core from 15 to 40%. Scientist. Swatney. Ring-spun core yarn is superior to air-jet in tensile properties whereas in terms of U% and imperfection. but with a 70 den. 13. and Donaldson. Vol.. A. and Ruppenicker. Text. the sheath cover was 100%. Ahung Kyaw Soe et. 1987.. A. and Matsuo.. T.J.. J. B. R.F. Nachne. Harper. core.pdf 19 . J. 1974. 367–371. 280–286.K. Res.. the values were 25% and 1100% higher respectively. J. 147–154. Res.AUTEX Research Journal.S. T516.org/No1-2009/ 0305. In the case of air-jet spun core yarns.G.. Res. J. 1989. J. 57. Sept.. P. Grosberg.G. 30 den.. J. IIT New Delhi IJFTR 26. In the case of air-jet spun core yarns.P. and Sardana. References: 1. 2. M.P.. and Ruppenicker. K. Text. Inst.. Text. and 44 den. K. Therefore. whereas with 70 den. Apr. 1966.. core to 7% lower strength with 70 den. Woven Textile Res. 44. and Sawhney.. 7. Bhortakke. R. Robert. and 70 den.Text. D. R. Inst. 6.F.F. 506–512.P. Ruppenicker.F. 55. Livsey. 80–86. With 30 den. 100% cotton ring frame yarn Radhakrishnian. 71 (4). 519–524. Osman Babaarslan. 1989. T.. 84-89.G. Jr. Graham. Jr. al. Apr. and Owen. 9. Text. Sr.

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