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 Researchers

developed digital micro fluidic cooling system to solve the problem caused by non uniform thermal distribution.  Here we use microlitre to nanolitre sized droplets to move independently along the substrate and there by cool the chip.  Here we use liquid metal droplets to create an adaptive thermal interface

 PASSIVE
 It

COOLING

include thermal conduction, natural convection, radiation  Very high performance and low expensive  Eg: Heat pipes and Thermosyphons

 ACTIVE
 It

COOLING

requires external power  It use external components such as forced convection device ,pumped loops and refrigerators  It is of two types  Adaptive and nonadaptive

 Fan

based cooling  Macro fluidic based cooling  MEMS based cooling  Refrigeration based cooling  Micro fluidics based system

 The

first micro fluidic cooling device was the microchanel heat sink  This is based on the principle of Newton's law of cooling dQ/dt=hA (Tb-Tf)

 Micro

fluidic operations can be reduced to a set of basic discrete operations ,allowing a hierarchical cell based design approach.  The absence of permanently etched structures allows a completely reconfigurable system  Given a 2D array of actuating electrodes , the device can manipulate liquid droplets laterally in any arbitrary path with external pumps and valves.

Electro wetting based droplet actuation

 A digital

micro fluidic device achieves droplet motion through the electro wetting effect .  Applying a potential to an underlying electrode controls a droplets ability to wet the surface.  Applying this electric field increases the droplet surface energy and therefore the droplet wets the surface. This result in a decrease in the contact angle ,causing the droplet to spread in to the electrode. Placing a droplet on top of the array of electrode initiates lateral motion.

 Flow

through adaptive cooling , would use aqueous droplets continuously dispensed from an actively cooled reservoir and transported over an ICs surface .  The droplet would transfer, store and carry heat away from the IC substrate back to the cooling reservoir .

 The

device detects a hotspot over a cell ,the electrode in the cell is turned off , causing the droplet to relax and subsequently come into contact with the top plate.  This reduces thermal resistance between the hotspot and the heat sink by several orders of magnitude , and can then pass more efficiently from the hotspot to the heat sink

Temperature drop of a hotspot when a mercury droplet in oil or a water droplet in oil passes over it with and without a via beneath the droplet

Temperature drop for the hot spot versus heat flux density

 Faster

cooling  High efficiency  Cooling rates match with chip thermal profile  Avoid the problem caused by nonuniform thermal profile .  Easy hot spot cooling .  Reconfigurable system

We have demonstrated the feasibility of using the concept of digital micro fluidics for applications in chip cooling . Several challengers remain , however , before adaptive spot cooling is possible in a real system. These include scaling the platform’s physical dimensions to transition from microlitre to nanolitre size droplets, exploring alternative liquids to achieve even higher thermal conductivities, and implementing alternative dielectric materials to insulate the electrodes from the droplet in order to achieve even faster droplet transport speeds.

 Design

and test of computers , IEEE Digital object identifier Published : 2008