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TR 27—January

1965

iV^r BUILDINGS

WtTH FALLOUT PROTECTION

-<«ataat

Department of Defense

Office

of

Civil

Defense

m^tjm

yCP^

Ur\3r\

1

•'AN EFFECTIVE CIVIL DEFENSE PROGRAM is an important element of our total defense effort. It aims at the achievement of a nationwide
fallout shelter system."

President of the United States

"Civil Defense

is

posture.

I

believe

an integral and essential part of our overall defense it is clear from my discussions of the Strategic Retaliacivil

tory and Continental Air and Missile Defense Forces that a well planned

and executed nation-wide
shelters could contribute

defense program centered around fallout
dollar for dollar, to the savings of

much more,

lives in the event of a nuclear attack

upon the United States than any

further increases in either of those two programs."

Robert

S.

McNamara,

Secretary of Defense.

I

rolled in special Fallout Shelter Analysis Courses in

ace Prefc
The objective of the National Fallout

preparation for the National Fallout Shelter Survey.

nK^
Shelt*i^'^^(yo?>'-^*'

jjfM^ courses
Fallout

are

still ofl'ered

today, and

more than
of

7,000 architects and engineers have been certified as
Shelter

gram

is

to provide shelter space for evenuA^liW-rcan.

Analysts

by the

Department

Millions of shelter spaces have alread^'^be'en located
in existing

Defense.

buildings,

but

not

enough

to

satisfy

requirements.
sary.

Additional shelter spaces are necesin this report illustrate to help alleviate this

The immediate objective of this professional development program was to survey and locate potential public

The buildings depicted
is

fallout shelter space in existing structures

what

now being accomplished

—a type

of post-design analysis.
vided,
tects

deficit.

Every building is a shelter from weather extremes and from outside distractions. And every building serves a purpose: a home, a school, an industrial
plant

But the program also proand provides today, the orientation that archiand engineers must have if fallout protection is

to be considered at the critical point in the creation of

—the

a building

—the design stage.
the feasibility of designing low-cost

list is

endless.

To demonstrate
.

The new buildings described in this report meet these needs, and one more They have been designed and built to provide protection from radioactive fallout in the event of nuclear attack.

fallout shelter space in

new

buildings and to develop

This additional function has been met in each case without sacrificing the day-to-day usefulness of the building or its esthetic qualities, and with little or
tures

ideas on how this can be done, the Office of Civil Defense sponsored a National School Fallout Shelter Design Competition in 1962 with the cooperation of This was folthe American Institute of Architects.

lowed by a similar competition on the design of fallout shelter space in shopping centers, and by an industrial
shelter design conference at Rice Univei'sity.

no increase in construction costs. Some of the strucdepicted may have been constructed with shelter inherent in the initial design, however, architects

The designs that grew out

of

all

these activities sup-

and engineers with their knowledge of radiation shielding have enhanced the shelter potential by increasing capacity and protection provided.
Special knowledge
of

ported the concept that fallout shelter can be incorporated in new buildings without adversely affecting
the cost, the appeai-ance, or the functional use of the
buildings.

makes

this possible

—knowledge
and

But these were hypothetical designs

the

nature

of

radioactive

fallout

how
it.

—theory.

to design structures to provide shielding against

In this report, Nviv Buildings With Fallout Protection, the

Spreading this knowledge
architects and engineers

to professionally trained
is

theory becomes fact.

a major aspect of the

The
ings,

report contains descriptions, photographs, draw-

nationwide fallout shelter program.

and cost analyses of 34 new structures with
protection

The

first significant

step toward the goal of professkill

built-in fallout

—buildings

designed for

sional

knowledge and
in late 1961

in fallout shelter

design

came

when

architects

and engineers en-

and constructed in widely separated communities throughout the United States.

Mayville. Orlando. Kansas City.. .Y East Central High School. Robinswood. Fla J^6 Goddard Senior High School. Roswell. Dak Miami Coral Park Senior High School. Miami Carol City Senior High School. N. Artesia. Fla N. N. Tulsa. Okla Mo iO ^4. Miami. Okla Mayville High School. Rogers. N. Fla .Y Center Senior High School. Mex North Central School. Mex Park Junior High School. N. West Dunbar Elementary School. Lincoln Elementary School. Long Island. Miami. Cascade Junior High School. Union Park. Tex Junior High School 201. N. Alva. Fla 1^8 50 52 5J^ 56 58 Summary of School Costs .. Miami. and Carver Junior High Schools. Miami. Laredo. Wis ^ 8 12 16 United High School. New York.' Bemus Point.. Wash 20 2Jt 28 32 36 Bemus Point Junior-Senior High School. Fla Glades Junior High School.Y Longview.Schools William Floyd Junior -Senior High School.

Ogden. Calif Administration Wing Maintenance Building... Las Vegas. Livermore. Calif Bohemia Toll SS 90 "Slanting'^ in Design & Construction . Utah Springfield Gas Light Co. Doylestown. Va Central National Insurance Group. 86 . Arlington. Mich Terminal Building. Nev Bucks County Emergency Operating Center. Los Angeles. Mich Fire Station. Nebr Author's Studio and Workshop. Va City National Bank Building. Pa Mount Ogden Terrace Apartments. 69th Precinct Station. Mass New England Telephone & Telegraph Ofiice Building.Y Administration Building. Omaha.. Long Island. Mass Council Service Center. N. N. Va New York. Framingham. Springfield.Other Structures Arlington County Fire Station. McLean.Y . McLean Bible Church. McLean. Pontiac. Detroit.

42 (17.566 Shelter Cost: net area) General Construction: $5. ft.Y. New York. Beattie. members of the School Board and townspeople were familiar with the dangers of radiation and were acutely aware of the lack of shelter facilities within the entire school district.Schools William Floyd Junior-Senior Because of the proximity to the Brookhaven National Laboratory (principal east coast ity) . Brentwood. N. Cost per $20. of School An : $0. located in the basement area. kitchen.000 Grofss a belowground basement which contains the cafeteria. Emphasis on the dual-use aspect of the shelter space within the school facility was instrumental in the approval of the bond referendum by the taxpayers.) : The school has a capacity of 1. N. Project Cost: $3. more than $36.761 persons.03 . Area: 22. N. Gross Shelter. Concrete was added to the floor of the shop and industrial arts protection to wing to provide the overhead the general food and ground storage areas. Swanton. Stevenson. tion of dual-use shelter space within the school In setting Brentwood.719. ft. Equipment (ventilation.614 sq. ft.000 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. Long Island. and Knecht. Long Island. sq. Shelter Analyst: The school is essentially a two-story aboveground structure with Shelter is Ernest M. the architect was able to utilize existing structural components to provide additional shelter spaces. Cnnsulting Engivccr: Seelye. Atomic Energy Commission Testing Facil- High School Location: Shirley. By Area: 183. electrical. Long Island.: sq. Value.Y.082 sq.000 Additional ter 1. general food and building and ground storage areas.Y. 32 Architect: Dobiecki. N. and Colyer. ft.550 and in an emergency can shelThe shelter area has a protection factor of 100.Y. up the school building program the architect discussed incorporaand the School Board was enthusiatic. etc. placing the cafeteria beneath the sloping stepped concrete floor of the auditorium area. Oivner: Union Free School District No. ft.

.

c .

-^i— — i I ^ CAf^fcTE-RlA East Elevation Longitudinal Section South Elevation .William Floyd Junior-Senior High Sdiool limiii!iilBliJlii!JJ!J3IB ! ! 'i _^-Lj.

420 sq. Okla. a protection factor of 1.798 186. air conditioned The building None — inherent in basic design Shelter areas are located in the ground-floor core (23. Dollmeyer. lobby and locker lounges is five floors high. The windows are positioned in the locker lounges so that students will be able to view the exterior with each change of class and not be distracted while in class. Tulsa. With the knowledge that the client could not afford to invest in the additional cost of Owner: Independent School District No. . ft. CEC.280 sq. windows are located only over the four major entrances. Tulsa County. Architect: William Henry Ryan. Albert C. Schools East Central High School Location: 121st Street. The core unit which contains the classroom areas. The building was designed with curved double exterior walls to develop strength and provide for better climate control and sound control (it is near the Tulsa International Airport) with the walls to be used as mechanical Shelter Analysts: and electrical chase areas. The requirements for the East Central High School were to design a building containing 50 teaching posts capable of rapidly expanding to 90 teaching posts in the future. kitchen. the architect Engineer: Netherton. with the ground and stage equipment) sq. AIA.889 sq. 1. Shelter Cost : and all-electric. Tulsa. ft. Project Cost: $2. level.51 (based on ft. cafeteria.: $13.). Okla. Solnok AIA of all-masonry construction with structural steel frames above ground-floor level and concrete frame on ground floor offices. and Solnok. ft.752. partitions. and four other 21/2-inch-thick is floor slabs. It is virtually windowless. usable area Cost per sq. shelter space. including the kitchen. AIA method of calculation) Shelter Area: 54. Tulsa. ft. Due to the overhead protection provided the ground floor by the 8-inch reinforced concrete floor slab. Okla. made studies of various design schemes with the emphasis on a compact building plan which would result in lower square footage and site usage and incorporate shelter spaces as part of the inherent design.689 sq.) ground-floor physical education wing (13. ) . Okla. East Avenue and 11th Street.400 (AIA method of calculation) sq.. floor partially belowground on a sloping is Gross Area: 203. and the Construction Started: July 1964 second-floor core (17. ft. ft. site.000 available in the ground-floor area. It consists William Henry Ryan.700 (exclusive of kitchen equipment.

756-283 0-65-. .

Ground Floor Plan Main Floor Plan .

Ea^f Central High Sclmnl Second Floor Plan Third Floor Plan .

creating a ceiling equivalent to 12 inches of concrete.000 : gym. a 9-inch concrete slab was tees.000 (mechanical. and are available for use in the shelter facility in an emergency. electrical.686 Cost per sq. etc. 4-inch brick block.800 the architect to do so. Iowa Project Cost: $1. Shelter Cost: There are outside exists at each end of the building at this level going from the corridors to the athletic field. ft. School population is 560 shelter capacity . is 760. Wis. fed from the boiler fuel tank. and 2-inch glazed Shelter Area: 7. Members of the school board felt that it was to the best interests of the students and to the community to provide dual-purpose cost. gymnasium wing. Side walls are 12-inch poured concrete. The State school building code requires an emergency generator to be included as part of the school facility. ft. adjacent to the stairs going from the playing floor level of the Storage areas are developed under the stair areas and are served by wall access panels which these storage areas is Additional Equipment may be opened.000 gallon hot water storage tank are provided for normal school is generator which use. These exits are $14. exits In an emergency. wooden The shelter area is in the physical education and athletic dressing rooms and service facilities.10 ft.2-kw diesel and a 5. $13.13 to close the outside openings as well as to the other areas. of School Area : $0.. Wis. A 16.600 sq.) : General construction $4. Each of filled supplied with sand. ft. Dubuque. to passageways The entrances off the corridors to the dressing rooms.: sq. team room and offices are so arranged as to provide shielding and minimize direct radiation. which are at the lower level of the To obtain this. Mayville High School serves a rural area of considerable size. panels are to be opened and sand bags Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. Watertown. sand bags and shovels. . shelter space within the school at an economical and directed Owner: Mayville Public Schools Architect: Durrant and Bergquist.Schools Mayville High School Location : Mayville.464. poured over 2-inch concrete floor thus This is topped with a 3-inch Gross Area: 111.

Physics Lab. toilets. metal deck on steel beams.Visual Preparation Room. choral room. tile in stairs. Cafeteria and Multi-Purpose 375 students. Insulation. Floor coverings Vinyl asbestos. Chemistry Lab. Dictation Room. exposed block. showers. Room seating Music Department with band room. Clothing Lab and Household Management Room. 9 Seminar or Conference Rooms. Gym and stage Windows —maple. General Science Room. 10 department offices. Kitchen and Storage Rooms. ensemble room.554 seat Auditorium divisible into 1 smaller auditorium of 300 seats and 2 lecture stations of 127 3 station Gymnasium with 3 locker below. Homemaking Department including Foods Lab. Drafting Room and Arts & Crafts Room. showei Roof — — — — kitchen. uniform storage. . plaster in kitchen. spectra-g showers and toilet r General Office and Administration Suite including Staff Lounge and Audio. office and library. Ceilings acoustic tile. built-up roofing and white chips. 6 practice rooms. 9 classrooms 8 expandable by folding partitions into double rooms. floors Chalkboards. ComRoom and Business Machi 3 l Exterior walls Interior walls in —face —concrete — brick. Library and Study Hall with Conference Rooms. Wood and Metal Shop with planning ag shop and clasi 6 Science laboratories including 2 Biology Labs. locker rooms and toilets. Department near Office including Typing Room. —aluminum curtainwall. Structural system fireproofed steel. Equipment Stor- age and Special Project Rooms.

100.686 sq.200 119.400 167.905 Remarks: 1.10 . ft. — 1 and 2- Area 111. Plumbing and Electrical Work Contracts. 935 14. Cubage 1. General Work contract inextensive grading. curbs and gutters.First Floor Plan COST ANALYSIS General Heating & Ventilating Plumbing Electrical $1.547 9.442 Total Construction Contracts Kitchen Laboratory and Arts & Crafts and Homemaking Auditorium Stage Equipment Auditorium Seating Bleachers & Backstops Auditorium Folding Part Total Contract Price 1.385 23.784 1. cludes drives.464 cu. 926 GENERAL Number story — No of stories Combination basement. 45. Heating and Ventilating. 'Cost per square foot *Cost per cubic foot $13.097 599.800 28. Square foot cost and cubic foot cost are calculated only 2. on the total of General.464.720 13. sidewalks and parking areas.618.416 77. ft. u .

Mayville High School .

346 : : Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. Virtually the entire basement area serves as a fallout shelter with a protec- This was obtained by increasing the concrete overhead floor slab to a 14-inch thickness. made for providing desired fallout protec- Owner: United Consolidated Independent School Laredo. of School Area $0.000 sq. increase in cost. etc. Tex. Tex. Total Cost: $704.000. Plans and specifications for the construction of a conventionally designed school had been completed and presented by the architect to the School Board for approval. cost estimates new concept little indicated the desired features could be obtained for WyattC. A member of the Board sugon the gested cost studies be District. Tex. library.35 Shelter Area: 29. administrative and and mechanical rooms are located in the basement. electrical.30 : The high school was opened for use early in 1964.Schools United High School Location: Laredo. Cost per sq. rooms.000 and fallout shelter space) was obtained at a cost which was less than conventional construction of similar structures in that area. Architect: Although this necessitated redesign.000 sq.) $32. vocational training shops. ft. Gross Area : 68. is a basement and ground-floor structure. general toilet. Hedrick & Associates. The auditorium. shower and dressing rooms. student capacity of 540 and a shelter capacity of 2. ft. and general supervisory offices are located on the ground floor. The school has a tion factor of 100. Shelter Cost: ft. The high school offices.: $10. tion. gymnasium. Classscience rooms.520 Additional Equipment (merchanical. cafeteria. .ft. faculty General construction $20. The new design (including air conditioning Houston.

.

.

United High School Below Grade Floor Plan SCALE OHAPMIC SCALE e^ .

145 grade.: $25.500 persons. The shelter features were inherent in the basic building design and.396 sq.Y. of shelter area reinforced concrete slab construction.000 sq. which is above is available on the There are no windows on the second floor and this is available on the first floor ft. New York City Total Cost: $4. and third story floors are of 10-inch and 12-inch basement. New York City .860. None —inherent in basic design School capacity is 1. ft.27 Shelter Area: Approximately 70.Schools Junior High School 201 Mechanical Engineer: Brown & Pomerantz. New York Shelter Analyst: City Bids were opened in April 1964 and construction was The entire basement area (over 49. This structure is a three story reinforced concrete school with a started. Gross Area: 190. shelter capacity exceeds 5. of shelter space enhances the protection afforded. ft. New York City Structural En<iineer: Ames & Selnick. N. therefore were included at no additional cost to the owner. This area can provide fallout shelter for more than 3. Shelter Cost: ft. Approximately 5. ft. Cost per sq. and toilet facilities. The first. kitchen.600.ft.000 sq. Morris Liebeskind.000 sq.000 sq. second. and about 16.812. Location: Manhattan. Owner: New York City Board of Education Architect: Curtis & Davis. is below ground and contains a cafeteria. second floor.

.

First Floor Plan .

[.4^-i.^ Section ^ \f^^.Junior High School JOl r [ |-|---.- ^ Section _ rr- .

ceiling. shelter cost also includes Shdter Area: 18. School capacity is 850 pupils. Beverly A. AIA.000 Shelter General Coiistrvctieni Cost per sq.17 .588 Gross Area: 90. In addition. the main building roof slab.Schools Cascade Junior Hi^h School Locatioti: Longview. Travis & Assoc. Owner: School District 122 A rch itect: McGuire & Muri. The latter two are one-story wood frame construction. is and ad- Mechanical Kniinn rr: DeWitt C. a multi-purpose and music building. Arts and Crafts Shops and Home Economics . Wash. columns.800. Wash. Seattle. Wash.000 for mechanical work. ft.000 Additional Equipment (mechanical. etc. School Area: $0. The perime- Electrical En(iince) Seattle.: $15.423 sq. Schegolkov. Wash. Tacoma. shelter capacity is 1.54 The additional equipment shown under sq. and electrical.rf. second story Cost per sii. $18. The Cascade Junior High School is a campus plan consisting of an above ground tw^o-story reinforced concrete classroom and administration building.000. and a gymnasium building. Classrooms. of footings : was $15. ter walls are 12 inches thick ceiling slab is 8 inches thick rein- Wash.000 for electrical work. including a 50-kw emergency diesel generator.405. : located in a portion of the lower level of the classroom which has a protection factor of more than 100. ft.) General Construction: $15. slab. Seattle.000 Shelter Cost: $10. Structural Ein/iverr and Shelter Analyst: Victor K. ministration building designated as the Metal. shelter. Also included is $5. beams. protected with a 5-inch thick. the portion of the shelter within is Pro i<ct Cost: $1. forced concrete. Woodworking. The Griffin. ft. The cost for providing only the additional reinforced concrete to increase thickness of walls.

.

Floor Plan .

Cascade Junior High Sclwol Section AA Section BB .

AIA $434.460 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. Area : $0. Murphy. No additional air-conditioning and ventilating was required. a concrete roof.425 sq.000 $1. of School ft. The desire to create large expanses of flexible space necessitated a flat. Owner: Board of Public Instruction. Orange County. With a natural core area and Lawrence Project Cost: L. tion in an aboveground single story school.964. Associated Architects: The criteria for efficient compact. Total shelter capacity in the three schools is 2.: $16. Fla. Shelter Analyst: B. Fla. Robinsonswood and Carver Schools have a student capacity of 600 each. the Shelter Analyst advocated going a step further and incorporating fallout shelter space in the three schools. Fla.316. AIA. Junior High Schools Location: Orange County.880 sq..000 450.59. ft. DeLoe. Gross Area: 3 @ 26. Board of Public Instruction to design three identical. AIA.ft. equals 29. air-conditioned schools minimized the amount of exterior wall and the number of exterior openings in these walls. The decision to proceed in this direc- Union Park Robinswood Carver Total tion created no design problem: a relatively small amount of additional concrete in the roof slab with three inches of sand and cement topping plus filling the hollow concrete block with sand gave the required protection factor at a minimum of additional cost. The Union Park. & Carver The architects were commissioned by the Orange County. @ 9. Robert John P. ft. rigid ceiling structure and this requirement influenced the architects to select Lift Slab construc- Lawrence L.275 sq. Anglin.640 sq. was conceived with minimum window openings nomical air-conditioning.000 432. ft. junior high schools to be constructed at separate sites in the county. for The building more eco- Shelter Cost: $46. Cost per sq.60 Shelter Area: 3 Shelter space was provided in all three schools in the core area which was also utilized as active teaching space. Orlando. Anglin. AIA. ft.Schools Union Park. Robinswood. Fla.000 equals 79. .

.

HIGH SCHOOL Classroom in Shelter Area . HIGH SCHOOL Exterior View UNION PARK JR.UNION PARK JR.

HIGH SCHOOL Baffled Entranceivay UNION PARK Corridor —Shelter JR. to HIGH SCHOOL Left . HIGH SCHOOL ARVER JR.ROBIN SWOOD JR.

100 for shelter purposes with a protection factor of 100. As no pumps are involved.Y. of School Area $0. water or sewage facilities an on-the-site sewage disposal plant is provided for normal operation. District. Bemus Point High School Junior-Senior In establishing the programing data.36 Shelter Area: 11. etc. and food preparation requirements.ft. the Board of Education School decided that the design for the pupil capacity of the new Junior-Senior High should incorporate a fallout shelter to accommodate the 1. in the event of nuclear Cost per sq. Jamestown.) : Equipment emergency power for the water well pump as well as for ventilation. the gravity flow will operate the system. Shelter Cost: emergency. project took shape in two basic rectangular forms.Schools This school is presently under construction and occupancy is anticipated in September 1965. the decision cafeteria located in the core of the "quiet" was made to have a wing and have it act as the fallout shelter core in the event of nuclear attack. N.000 sq. Buffalo. The school has a capacity of 1. will operate satisfactorily without electrical power being provided to the chlorination plant.500 (mechanical. 551 As the structure is located in the countryside away from municipal GrofisArea: 116. offset with a connecting one-story lobby. ft. Shelter General Covstniction Cost per sq.000- 80 to 100 staff Location: Chautauqua County.Y. wing thus pro- Shelter Aiiali/sf: Julian Naetzker viding access from toilet and shower facilities to the cafeteria area.ft. A 75-kw generator is incorporated in the design and will provide : General Construction Additional $7. lighting. r: Dr.000 sq.S97. electrical. N. An on-the-site water well system The sewage disposal plant. new building as well member^ who might be in the The as the approximate building at the time of nuclear attack. In working out the Schematic Arcliitect: Julian Naetzker. N.500 $17. Mechanical Engineer: William Standeven.15 : . pipe tunnel connects the cafeteria-activity-core with the team Mo. ities decision to provide fallout shelter facil- Owner: Bemus Point Central School played an important part in the design process. lockers in the basement of the "high sound level" A Structural Eiuii'iK Rolla. Louis Petro.000 and can accommodate 1.Y. ft. The Bemus Point. Project Cof>t:$l. Studies for the structure. is also incorporated in the design.Y.: ^16. N.

.

Owner: Center School District No. Provisions have been in future additions made for expansion of the school building which will also include shelter area.065 Cost per sq.37 sq. Mo. The second building contains an auditorium. Mo. ft. music room. and several miscellaneous classrooms. Architect-Engineer : Marshall and Brown. of the classrooms. in basic design None — inherent Shelter was incorporated as part of the normal design and con- struction of the school and there was no increase in school cost.116 Shelter Cost: students. The shelter can accommodate 685 persons. library. Since $14. gymnasium. Kansas City. Kansas City. are available in the basements of both buildings. 58. ft. .156. Mo. cafeteria.000 Gross Building Area: 150. AIA.Schools Center Senior High School Location: 88th and Holmes Road. Project Cost: $2. the school is located in the midst of the "tornado belt" the shelter areas are also suitable as emergency tornado shelters for the Shelter Area: 11. Fallout shelter areas. ft. and office space. Center Senior High School consists of two structures joined together with covered corridors on either side of an open court.: sq. A four-story building (with one story belowground) contains most Kansas City. with protection factors varying from 40 to 500.

.

"W" i -i iilll t&ii I ". ^m: a.pi Basement Floor Plan . fri ili.

-.A. I E LEL li |^|- 20 first Floor Plan 3 L: .*3r 1 ri"i^ i 1 I L..Center Senior High School ^ -^c ^"4ri r^ .

12 Shelter Area: 2. The school cafeteria. serves as the shelter area and proa spacious vides a protection factor exceeding 100. further enhanced the fallout protection offered by the . The roof of the shelter is constructed of 17 inches of reinThe cafeteria and auditorium also provide Oklahoma Davis City. a large kindergarten room.500 sq.565 sq. The lower level. ft. None : of School A rea $0. and the shelter area has a capacity of 256. Oklahoma City. Shelter Cost: is 165. The building includes seven classrooms. Okla. 0}vner: Board of Education. General Construction : $5. Mechanical and Electrical Engineers: & Rountree. Okla.ft.31 . Okla. City. Okla.school. Alva. and music room. ground Structural Engineer: Sullivan Engineering Co. tornado shelter.130 : Additional Equipment Shelter Cost per sq. auditorium. is Because of the natentrance on the fourth Architect: T>ov^ Gumerson. gymnasium. AIA.: $12..Schools Lincoln Elementary School Location: Alva. which houses the combination cafeteria. Okla.it. is built on a sloping site and has two levels. actually belowground on three level Oklahoma City. Cost per sq. AIA. forced concrete. Oklahoma Shelter Anahjst: On site the side of the school which has both stories fully exposed. the was graded to provide a slope away from the building.ft. and janitor's storage.000 Present enrollment in the school Building Area: 16. This Dow Gumerson. Project Cost: $201. office space. ural lay of the land this level sides of the building but has a side. Okla.

.

1. Boys Rest Room Corridor 10. 7. Storage 13. Class Room Room 16. 3. Corridor Girls Rest 8. 11. Gymnasium Cafeteria 2. Toilet 14. Class 15. Storage Kindergarten Floor Plan 18. Room 9. 6. Music Room . Janitor 12. 17. Heater Kitchen Toilet Room 5. Store Room 4.

Lincoln Elementary Schoool

;

Schools

Miami Carol
Location: 3422

City Senior

High School

This school

is

a two-story aboveground structure of reinforced

NW.

187th Street, Dade County, Miami, Fla.

Owner: Board of Public Instruction, Dade County, Fla. Architect: Wahl Snyder and Associates,
Miami, Fla.
Shelter Analyst:
R. L. Duffer Associates

The school is centrally air-conditioned and has shelter space included in the ground floor. This is dualpurpose space which is used normally as a cafeteria and library area. Minimum windows are provided to permit the most ecoconcrete construction.

nomical air-conditioning.

fabricated from hollow concrete block

Project Cost: $1,638,508

Exposed entranceways are screened by means of buffer walls filled with sand. The sand-fill technique was also used in other walls where needed to improve fallout protection.

Gross Area: 136,000
Cost per
sq. ft.:

sq. ft.

$12.05

Portable fans are provided for the shelter space and can be driven
Shelter Area: 21,300 sq Shelter Cost:
.ft.

Emergency power is provided by an engine generator which connects to outlets in the shelter area. A water well has also been provided for emergency use.
either electrically or by hand.
:
:

General Construction $7,900 Additional Equipment (mech., elect, plumbing, etc.)
$19,500
Shelter General Cotistruction Cost per sq.
ft.

of School

Area: $0.06

The school has a capacity of 1,400 students and can accommodate 1,750 persons in the shelter area which has a protection factor of 100. The shelter costs shown include mechanical work, $7,900 plumbing, $2,600; and emergency generator and electrical,
$9,000.

These are

in addition to the shielding costs.

Exterior View

Shelter

Area

in Library

h5

etc.69 ft. Owner: Board of Public Instruction. Fla. T. The building has central air-conditioning and is provided with portable fans for emergency ventilation. Fla.300 sq. of School Area: $0.472.720 sq.07 . Shelter Analyst: ness of the auditorium roof to the occupants. in emergency. General Construction: $6. Miami. The number of to provide economical air-condi- $11. Shelter Area : 14. ft. ft. $11. ft.680 Additional Equipment electrical. Fla. Fla. AIA.882 Cost per sq.200. Shelters are linked to outside air by ducts which terminate in walls of the shelter areas exterior Gross Area: 96.: where fans are to be connected windows was minimized tioning. Dade County. Miami. Shelter capacity is 1.) : ing community as well as by the students and capacity is Student 1. Trip Russell and Associates. Project Cost: $1. The auditorium extends through two floors and the mass thick- Miami. Power. The shelter area is in space used daily as a cafeteria on one side of a corridor and as an auditorium on the other side.132.720 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. Shelter Cost: The (mechanical. shelter space in the school is planned for use of the surroundstaff. was increased to provide protection Architect: James 0.Schools Glades Junior High School Location: This is a two-story structure of reinforced concrete construction having a shelter space with a protection factor of 100 on the first floor.

Exterior View Auditorium in Shelter Area U7 .

In January 1964. all fresh air will be passed Under fallout condi- through high efficiency particis ulate filters..550 gallons per will be provided for air conditioning minute Gross Area: 186. Shelter Analyst Dr. school has a student population of 2.) : The Shelter General Construction Cost per sq.s^. N. $117. Mex. the meals for the city school system are prepared. 1. District auditorium. consumption.000 sq. The below- manual all arts.000-gallon diesel fuel storage tank are inas part of normal school facility.ft. etc.500. this school. .000 Additional Equipment (mechanical.07 capacity 6. A 625-kva diesel engine driven generator and a 20.100 feet of the shelter area allotted to the storage of necessary survival supplies. dining room. N. Approximately 5. of the structure is aboveground and consists of a boy's gymnasium. Marcello Giomi. and automotive shops. Roswell.070 (Building turn key) Two artesian water wells capable of delivering 1. ft. AIA. was awarded for the construction of basement and ground floor.944. tions. windowless Approximately 100. bandroom. is Fallout shelter of School Area .273 sq. Mex.000. ft.273 Shelter Cost: sq. a contract Owner: Board of Education.000 electrical. a girls' gymnasium. Architect: Frank M. Roswell Municipal School No. home economics department.-$0. ft. Mex. and a central kitchen where Roswell. ground portion will be primarily occupied by classrooms and laboratories and will serve a dual purpose in providing fallout shelter space. Standhart. ft. needs and human Local building code required this to be furnished Cost per sq.E. P. N. : General Construction $13. cluded as well as sewage ejection pumps.: Schools Goddard Senior High School Location: Roswell. N. Protection factor exceeds 600. :U0A2 Shelter Area (gross) . Albuquerque."82. air conditioned. Project Co. Mex.$1.

A9 .

275 persons is available. Shelter Analyst: room.500 sq. N. Mex. band and . faculty and administrative rooms.126 sq.147 guage room. toilets. arts and crafts room. ground portion.Schools Park Junior High School Location: Artesia. not included $49. P. Mex. clothing and typing laboratories. kitchen and dining rooms. of Education.100 sq.111.61 : The 34. storage and mechanical equipment rooms and Gross Area : 95. ft. in providing fallout shelter space consists essentially of classrooms. boys and girls locker rooms. ft. Mex. Protection factor exceeds 600.. AIA. ft. Roswell. Marcello Giomi. The structure is comprised of a ground floor level (approximately 61. Albuquerque.000) . In order to satisfy the power requirements for utilization of the school as a fallout shelter. Shelter Area (gross) Shelter Cost: local construction code would normally have required a standby electric generator unit costing on the order of $5. food. light.000 (mechanical. of School Area: $0.10 The school has a student population of 1. a library. N. 16 Architect: Frank M. Standhardt.) The aboveground portion of the school consists of a gymnasium.E. lan- Project Cost: $1. storage rooms. electrical. The independent water supply is is Equipment a requirement for normal facility usage and hence in the shelter cost.000. Shelter space for necessary supplies and occupancy by approximately 2. . air-conditioned. shop. ft. N.) and a basement (approximately 34.) : installed (cost $29.623 square feet Cost per sq. ft. science rooms. a larger diesel engine generator : was also General Construction Additional $10. Artesia Municipal School District No.200 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq.: $11. Oumer: Board This windowless.and sound-conditioned teaching facility was completed in August 1964.000. The belowchoral Dr. and corridors. etc. which also serves a dual purpose boys and girls corridors.

.

21 school designs concrete and excavation The difference in cost between the two was estimated at $30. In addition. water closets. N. opened in September 1963. i decision to accept the design incorporating 4. the architect : was able to pro- General Constrution $9. ft. 65 Architect: Wells.000 which houses the sq. offices. The School Board's * Costs shown include shelter space obtained with new desi^.800 sq. Currently. Shelter Cost: ft. Denbrook North Central School. boy's and girl's dressing rooms. The shelter area has additional dual use features such as kitchen with well stocked pantry. Shelter Analyst: Stanley S.000. ft. and lavatories which are utilized in the physical education program. there are six bus routes taking students to and from the school. the lower level which would not have otherwise been included of School Area: $0. Dak. Johnson. Grand Forks. showers.000* Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. A shelter area having a capacity of 615 persons was incorporated into the lower level of the school Gross Area: 43. in the original design. of additional school shelter thus provided a larger dual purpose school facility they ordinarily would not have had.ft. Dak. Oivner: North Central School District No. ft.88 Shelter Area: 6. This cost included the work to provide the fallout protection ft. a decision was made to design the school with a basement facility. storage and mechanical equipment rooms level.800 sq. slab-on-fill structure with a kitchen facility and limited lunch- room area above grade. N. N. as well as the additional 4.: $10. consolidated several rural area schools into a single structure. Dak. cafeteria. showers.000 In order to provide fallout shelter space serving a dual purpose. The 340 students presently enrolled are taught by 16 teachers.800 sq. are also located on the lower area. ft. Total Cost: $468. Cost per sq. mately 42 percent of the people residing in the school . & Associates.000* vide a larger cafeteria area (4. of usable cafeteria space.Schools North Central School Location: Rogers. which They have provided a community service by making shelter space available for approxidistrict.500 sq. The school would normally have been designed as a one-story Grand Forks. Overhead protection is pro- vided by a 10-inch reinforced concrete slab overlying the shelter In designing the two-story school. of additional space) in Additional Cost: $21.

^ n n JPreporotion .— I \ Office I I Girl's Dressing R Shower Showerl ^^oJ I |j Room Up/ fti!!llfi& Follout Shelter Loicer Level Plan a Lunch Room t fe H Kitchen Lujr .

and dining. Fla.85 sq. administrative offices. Project Cost: $1.25 The school has an enrollment of 1. Korach and Associates. Fla. Of particular interest is the combined use of the brick wall at the south entrance as an architectural feature and to pro: General Construction Additional $8. ft. To provide the and second fallout protection. A field house located at the north Equipment side of the building limits the width of area that would be ex- posed to fallout and provides additional shielding.100 located in the core area of the first floor consists of the library. electrical. Shelter Area: 19.850 persons in an emergency. etc. ft.517 The school is centrally air conditioned and has a minimum which number of exterior windows. 1. $12. is a two-story reinforced concrete structure is all above- Dade County.: sq.414 Cost per sq.400 Shelter Cost: The central core is protected on all sides by corridors and class- rooms.705 students and can shelter . Shelter with a protection factor exceeding.701.Schools Miami Coral Park Senior High School Location: Miami. .000 (mechanical.) : vide radiation protection. Architect-Engineer : Smith. Miami. Shelter General Construction Cost /wr ft. Owner: Board of Public Instruction. Fla. This school grade.area. of School A mi : $0.000 $33. the slab thickness of the roof floor were increased an additional 2 inches above Gross Area: 132.s(/. that normally required. ft.

.

205 primary shelter area serves as an auditorium and cafeteria for the school. Fla. ft. core. Tony Sherman & Miami. Project Co. Kitchen. reinforced concrete aboveground structure -with the shelter area in a first-floor core area.-49. Emergency ventilation fans are available Cost per S/ie/^e.729 sq.ft.000 (mechanical. Area . Fla. An emergency Well has also been provided. . $10. etc. Shelter Cost: Additional Equipment General Construction $15.000 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. The entrances on the north and south ends of the baffled to school have been of School Area $0.' and can be connected into the ducts. Building walls are of block construction with sand The school has a student population of 800 and can accommodate up to 1. The Owner: Board of Public Instruction. : The building electrical.-10. ft. built into the walls. Classrooms are located on either side of the Associates. The building is a two-story.000 shelter occupants at protection factors varying from 40 to 90. and administrative office adjoin the cafeteria area and also serve as shelter area although at a lo-wer protection factor. Architect-E)if/i)H('r:M. sq. Fla.000 sq.ss shelter area is provided with emergency air supply ducts Area . The Gro.ft. filled cores.Schools West Locatioji: Dunbar Elementary School Miami.) : is air-conditioned and the number of windows in the exterior classrooms has been minimized for economical operation.30 : improve the shielding. Dade County.$542.s^.90. library.: $10.

Exterior View Cafeteria .Shelter Area .

Ii^*t .

William Floyd Junior-Senior High School.Union Park. Park Junior High School. Fla. Mayville High School. Rohinswood and Carver Junior High School. \'orth Central School. Miami. Goddard Senior High School. . Glades Junwr High School. West Dunbar Elementary School.

4 This structure was designed as a four-story. mechanical equipment and telephone vaults. reinforced concrete Location: 10th and North Hudson Streets. fire company storage room. Gross Area: 24. ft.M Office Other Structures Arlington County Fire Division Building & Fire Station No. D.000 & Associates. also serves as a fallout shelter area. Shelter Cost: None —inherent in basic design Protection Factor: In excess of 100 . containing a photolab. Arlington. ft. combination office building and fire station. Virginia Architect-Engineer: H. Nottingham Arlington. The belowgrade basement. inherent in the basic design of the building. Va. Total Cost: $460. The Shelter Area: 1. The structure contains mechanical shelter area is ventilation equipment.744 sq. Owner: County of Arlington. Va.100 sq.

.

Y. ft. N. in the Owner: Police Department. radio equipment.500 sq. New York. New York.Y. Commissioner.000 Gross Area: 27. Shelter Analyst: Nathaniel Firestone. * basement area. $32. N. Included in the basement are a records room. reinforced concrete building with a basement. City of New York. ft. adjacent to the shelter emergency water supply. The new 69th Precinct Station House is a two-story. N. New York. N.: sq. Brooklyn. N. City of New York and housekeeping supply rooms Architect : Knappe and Johnson. Clark. locker room. Shelter Cost: Unknown * Designed and constructed under the supervision of the Department of Public Works. Protection Factor: 100 . Scarsdale. Provisions have been made for the incorporation of an emergency generator to operate the ventilation system in an emergency.Y. Shelter for 150 persons is located in the lecture. general storage.60 ft. Bradford N. lecture room. will provide an Herman Scherr.Y. Structural Engineers: Fromme & Vosganian.Other Structures 69th Precinct Station House Location : Rockaway and Foster Avenues. area.Y. pistol range. and storage areas.000 Cost per sq. Mechanical Engineer: Three 500-gallon water storage tanks. Total Cost: $882. Shelter Area: 1.

.

Mich. None — inherent in basic design Protection Factor: 40 . and takes advantage of the site conditions to provide additional protection. Mich.Other Structures Administration Building for School District of the City of Pontiac The adminstration building was completed at grade level on the east. ft. Cost per sq. Architect: Topography of the site dictated a two-story plan with entry to the upper floor Eberle M. Smith Associates. Location: Pontiac. six-sided structure with reinforced concrete exterior walls and roof. Detroit. The shelter area is located in the center (workshop and storage area) of the lower-level floor.200 sq.564 sq. and entry to the lower floor on grade level on the south and west. Project Cost: $540. Shelter Cost: ft.ft.02 Shelter Area: 1.: $22.994 Gross Ai-ea: 24. The building is a compact. The design illustrates the use of core shelter. in 1964.

.

Entry Elevation Elevation .

Administration Building For Schoo l District of the City of Pontiac Lower Level Floor Plan .

much ment. California J. All of the usual quarters commonly associated with and required for fire department operations have been included in the basement area of the fire station.Other Structures Fire Station Location: Pine Street and Rincon Avenue. elected to incor- Owner: City of Livermore. $19. This serves as the floor for the engines and also provides of the overhead protection to the shelter area in the base- A protection factor of 1. and civil defense operations. Jose.000 is provided. PF . Calif. AlA. fire. In designs of this type the use of a reinforced concrete floor (7 inches or to the *Cost for providing only the additional shielding for fallout protection 000 was $6. Shelter Area: 3.93 ft.: sq.523 Cost per sq.043 sq. Shelter Cost: $85. Structural Engineer: Earl E.000 The building slab. Livermore. While the structure depicted serves as an emergency operating center. of gross area. Calif. the City Council of Livermore. Calif. Livermore. installed with a 70-foot department needs. ft.92 per sq. Project Cost: $130. ft. Mason and San Associates. the structure will house four engine A complete radio-communication base network is antenna tower for police. In 1963.000 or $0. is of concrete block construction with the stairs portion covered downby a two-foot thick reinforced concrete Gross Area: 6. ft.000* (For Emergency Operating Center) For fire companies. its new Architect: Frederick Schlaepfer. porate an emergency operating center in the design of fire station. the design is such that it provides inherrent fallout protection to the basement area. Mason. Calif. more thick to support fire fighting equipment) will usually always provide suitable shelter basement area below at no increase in construction cost.

.

re &boi( .ion 1 M ? f r — Plan r Site k'lucoKi ave- .Xi |£ks«\/e<i ^ jj: a^ea I Hose lAfcietotng) :0: Ground Floor Plan P.

Fire & Rescue. Conference {Em. Law Enf.R. Supply Director & Asst. Conserv.. Director of Staff 2/2 Emergency Welfare & Medical 312 Emergency Communications & Warning 3/3 Isolation & Resources 313 Weapons Effect (C.) 2/2 10 11 Decontamination Dressing Room Second Shift 16 /2U Operations. & Transp.C. City Gov't. & Manpower..B. Util. .) 8/. Functions 1 2 3 U 5 6 7 8 9 Mechanical & Emergency Power Eng.Basement Plan E.O.

Shelter Analysts: Joseph & Joseph Architects-Engineers. Las Vegas. Associate Architect: Jose Y.000 (including outside utilities) basement and by making the stairway concrete instead of steel. Project Cost: $470. Structural Engineer: Calif. Nev. An outside entrance to building the basement area on the north side of the Los Angeles. Costper sq. ft. Almanza. The structure has two stories abovegrade and one floor belowgrade which were designed and constructed for the primary use of the building.Other Structures Administration Wing Maintenance Control Building Location: Nellis Air Force Base. brick exterior walls in many Concrete sun protection "eyebrows" have been provided above both the front Owner: U. The mass thickness of the wall around the mechanical equipment room was increased and an emergency supply storage area under a stairway at the south end was provided.210 sq. Calif. Gulp. Gross Area: 22.ft. Air Force Mechanical-Electrical Engineer: and back rows of strip windows. d'Autremont-Helms and Assoc. The basement area provides shelter protection as an added feature. Los Angeles. Calif. The building basically is a reinforced concrete structure with places abovegrade. Shelter Cost : none .: $21. Shelter Area: 6. was provided by using a stairway and an areaway.S.29 ft. Los Angeles. Practically the entire basement area can be used for shelter with some areas having a protection factor exceeding 200.080 sq. first Protection was enhanced by reversing the stairway from the floor to the Robert L.

TTTT M M uuuuuuuuuu uuuuuuuu unzr Z^ Sectk Elevation Floor Plan .

electrical. of shelter space. ft. in the hallway will bunks stored in the locker rooms.Other Structures Bucks County Emergency Operating Center Location The administration building of is the Bucks County Court House a seven-story. anical. Total Cost: $71. the jury room will be rearranged and ing Center the space will serve to house local government operation with its attendent auxilliary disaster functions. Habitability for emergency center staflf has been improved by Drinking water and equipment cooling rquirements are supplied by a deep well. up to make domitories and the kitchen facility now used by the maintenance personnel will become a food preparation center.832. plus radio teletype. Pa. Spiegel.000 sq. and other building functions going on as EOC) * ft. Pa. The emergency communication center will contain remote controlled radios: police. fire. in Emergency Operat- In event of an emergency. Engineer: Walter F.800 or $1.974. One may see a jury usual. : As one walks into the Court House. ground floor of the Court House. steel frame. Doylestown. generators are also included. panel confined in the jury room. Costs for incorporating the mech- and water supply systems amounted . Additional wall mass thickness was added to the walls surrounding the EOC. brick-sheathed structure w^hich re- quired only minor structural modifications to provide a shielded emergency operating center on the ground floor with a protection factor of 500. the normal milling of people in the hallway.60 (for providing as an emergency operating center during a disaster period. and RACES. If a protection factor of only 100 had been provided shielding cost would have been reduced to approximately $3. Two 50-kw emergency to $54.000.97 per sq. it is difficult to visualize that a major portion of the space will serve Owner: Bucks County. Pa. in the storage cribs will be set The storage spaces become the message nerve center of the county. Shelter Area: Approximately 6. forced air ventilation. *Cost for providing the additional shielding only was approximately $11. Jenkintown.

-ir-^ ^is*fe: .

.

0.„.Jlros\ <:<""f .r^li^ £fu.^ to mo to r^0Mmittor.a.^.^y«^/-/W«l^//-«/'»^ M. -I I 'mifory Mtifs Dormilorjf . ak nWT" \ iJmi».r eoom J. T " I I ''-•SL 5«/-«Jj^« 5/^ //- \ 11 F/oor P?a?i ..J^. I I Stor^g.. Co-tor I \ I O^. 6lJg tU/is Dormitory EOC y/fc*»jt SUff I Lock. lffl//*.Bucks Counttj Emergency Operating Center Loci or eoom Soil T»*t I I /tear Womons Oormifor. ^^__y25 f^m \ C O.

provided additional protection Area $0.250.104.: by means of a 12-inch overhead concrete slab with an earth cover for landscaping. Shelter Cost: $3. Ogden Terrace Corp. Ogden. or by two outsLde curved ramps. P. Shelter Area: 16. Location: 29th and Buchanan Avenue. Total Cost: $1.Other Structures Ml Ogden Terrace Apartments The Mt.912 sq. Utah Owner: Mt. ft.E. Ogden Terrace Cooperative Apartments are located in an eight-story aboveground structure with an adjoining underground parking garage.421 sq.ft. Cost per $11. A total of 50 apartments are included in the structure. ft. sq. Reeve. Utah Engineer: John 0. AlA. Cost for providing mass shielding only to obtain a protection factor of A lower protection factor (PF 350) could have been provided at no increase in cost. Utah Architect: Arthur Mueller. . how- by increasing the garage overhead slab an additional four inches and by incorporating a baffled entranceway. Ogden. Shelter is inherent in this type of design.000* Shelter Cost per sq. of Gross ever.97 ft. The designer.03* : 1750. The garage may be entered from within the apartment building. This protection is provided Area .000 G?-oss An exceptionally high degree of fallout pro- tection is located in the garage area. Ogden..

.

E =tJ I \ .

Mt. Of/den Terrace Apartments .

The architects persuaded the owners of the advisability and practicality of incorporating a full basement which would be usable as a shelter area as well as for the additional storage space. Inc. to give greater protection to the record storage vault than to directly contribute to the fallout normal 4 inches. Company The Springfield Gas Light Company initiated construction on some new plant facilities w^hich were to be completed during the summer of 1964. The company had used all of its available record storage space and was renting space in other facilities.. The building. ft. will increase the fallout protection in the shelter area. . Springfield. Mass. and An elevator machinery area. was possible to incorporate shelter space without any appreciable added cost in the overall construction. Klotsas. shelter construction. Owner: Springfield Gas Light Company Architect-EDgineer: Munson Springfield. George Mallis & George T. The new plant was to provide for the present and future storage requirements.06 Shelter Area: 30. incinerator area. telephone and electrical rooms.: $11.000 struction.Other Structures New Plant Facilities Springfield Gas Light Location: Roosevelt Avenue. when completed.700 sq. for the addition of a future third floor which. calls Cost per sq. Shelter Aval >/sf: In this A. & Mallis. Skelter Cost: ft.700. Mass. None — inherent in basic design The record storage area is laid out so that the files are along the Protection Factor: 170 The mass weight of the records would then also contribute to the protection. storage vaults. however. The only was to use 7 inch reinforced concrete instead of the change made from what would have been so-called normal conProject Cofit: $1. was not considered in the protection factor calculations. as presently designed.ft. A partial basement v/ould have been necessary for such items as record storage. facility it Springfield. Mass.000 sq. this exterior wall with the center left open. but this was done Gross Area: 153.

.

etc. Mass. an areaway maze plenum chamber located under the rear entrance Plenum and areaway are separated by a throw-away bank. air enters the building through to a concrete $23. Protection factor is greater $22. mass equal than 100. Stiixctural concrete window is walls are utilized above the first floor. Mass. ft.: sq. Gross Area: 141. : ventilation.000 sq.Other Structures England Telephone Office & Telegraph Building steel building houses the New EngTelegraph Company State Area Headquarters. Precast Boston. Lexington. Additional Equipment type of filter Air fans are connected to emergency diesel is generator. electrical. Doran.-inch on fireproofed structural steel frame. mechanical equipment and storage room. concrete fill The second floor is cellular and fill.150.16 Mechanical ventilation and emergency generators and storage tanks were included by the architect as part of the normal function of the structure and were not directly attributed to the shelter cost.) : platform. is 18-inch concrete. Owner: New England Telephone & Telegraph Company Architect: Hoyle.000 frame for the room. . ft. library and stock rooms.000 (mechanical. Shelter Area: 15. and Berry.26 ft. of Gross out- Area: $0. Over- and Shelter Analysis: head protection structural steel steel obtained by using a 4-inch slab on fireproofed Nisso T. Total Cost: $3.522 Cost per sq. 23/i.000 Shelter General Construction Cost per sq. abovegrade adjacent to the shelter area. Aladjem. The three-story concrete and land Telephone & Most of the groundfloor (which Location: Framingham. The exposed wall between the flrst and ground floors. ft.000 gallon tank belowgrade. crete The first floor utilizes concrete joists and a 2%-inch conThe area directly over the shelter has a total floor to 12 inches of concrete. The fallout shelter area is located in the ground floor. Shelter Cost: For General Construction $2. Mass. is virtually windowless) is belowgrade. The rest of the wall below the first floor is only 12 inches of concrete. This floor contains conference rooms and instructor's room. Diesel oil storage side the building in a 1. capable of delivering 30-kw.

.

: sq. The Council serve as the nerve Owner: Boy Scouts Architect-E nrjineer : America Eberle M. Protection Factor: . and the leadership to promote the scouting program in this area. primarily contains ship service. The second floor restricted insignia. office space : executive. ft. the Detroit. Housed on the first floor will be conference rooms and in general. From it will emanate the policies. areas which are to be readily available to the public. Major entry to the building will be through a two-story reception area. for completion in 1965. the technical publications $22. Project Cost: $410.095 Gross Area: 18. field service.481 Cost per sq. relation- Service facilities for the most part are located in Shelter Area: 2.10 sq. Mich. the planning. ft. the records. Mich. ft.Other Structures Council Service Center Detroit Area Council of New Headquarters for the Detroit Area Council of the Boy Scouts of America will be provided for in a contemporary two-story is concrete structure with basement.400 Shelter Cost: The shelter area is also located in the basement None — inherent in basic design 135 and is inherent in the basic design. the basement. Smith Associates center for the activities of this vast volunteer organization. The building office will scheduled Location: Detroit.

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New York. land. Barbanel.813 Shelter Area: Shelter Cost: sq. Emergency Unknown power.. Protection Factor: 100 . Project Cost: About $425. To cope with the heat release. N.Y. Structural: Lambert & Dell'Abate. The building is to be almost completely occupied much 11. of which has a high operating heat release. is available to operate the equipment if normal power source fails. N. N. in the form of two 225-kw diesel engine alternators. the architects were directed by the owners to provide fallout protection. N. Brooklyn.ft. Long Island. movements along the eastern seaboard and commercial air-toground communications service for the major airlines.Y.691 sq. is with equipment.Y. Location: 610 Johnson Avenue. Shelter Avah/st: Ralph Dell'Abate. New Mpchamcal: Sidney VV.000 exclusive of professional fees. Wood & Associates. providing a wall mass equivalent to 200 psf and a roof mass of 150 psf Gross Area: 12.Y. Other Structures Bohemia Toll Terminal Building Islip. The building houses radio relay and other special equipment which is related to the Federal Aviation Agency's control of aircraft Paul L. N. Because the facilities in the building must continue to be available immediately following a nuclear attack. Oirner: New York Telephone Company. the building fully air conditioned.Y. Long Island Area Architect: part of the building was completed and occupied in June 1962. ft. York. Bohemia A Long Island. or landscaping In 1964 an addition was added and the original building was encased with brick and concrete.

.

if the project cost exceeded the budget (Low bid) Gross Area: 14. ft.344 items in the specifications allocation.000 sq. (2) in- creasing concrete block size from 8 inches to 12 inches on exterior walls. AIA.: $15. the double T-beam from 2 inches to 6 inches in thickness . proving that cases integrated shelter need not be expensive when in- cluded early in the planning stages as a design consideration. ft. The shelter area is located in the corridor and Sunday School class- rooms of the first floor (3.) . all hollow block walls around the Shelter Cost: $900 (see text) Shelter Cost per sq.ft.000 sq. W. Project Cost: $217.. and (3) filling cores of shelter area with sand. The three elements which fallout protection constituted items required solely for were : (1) increasing first floor slab topping on Costper sq. the option of eliminating some of these features by deductive bid McLean.260 sq. Other Structures McLean Bible Church The architect of this project was requested to investigate the feasibility of including fallout protection for not less than 300 persons in the Location: McLean.06 The contractor submitting the lowest bid would allow only $900 decrease in his total bid price for these shelter features. Va. It first was determined that increment of a phased church construction it would be most economical to include the protection features in the original design reserving Jr. of Gross Area: $0. The obvious advantage of this method of providing shelter in the original basic design less is that the shelter cost to the client is even in many than an alternate set of construction drawings.. Oivner: McLean Bible Church Architect: Russell project.24 Shelter Area: 3. ft. ft. Va. Jenkins.

.

Floor Plan .

McLean Bible Church Section .

M

Other Structures

Central National Insurance Group — Garage
Location: 700 South 72d Street,

Omaha, Nebr. Owner: Central National Insurance Group Architect-Engineer: Leo A. Daly Company, Omaha, Nebr.
Shelter Analyst:

building which

The structure was built as part was incorporated

of an addition to the executive
in a

complex constructed for the

Central National Insurance Group.

William Alsmeyer,

Omaha, Nebr.
Project Cost: $120,000

The structure
per story
is

is

a one-story building with a basement.

used as a garage and storage area.

The upThe basement is

used as a meeting room and also provides the shelter space.
18-inch concrete slab serves as the

An

room

of the shelter

and as the

Building Area: 6,200
Shelter Area: 2,100
Shelter Cost:

sq. ft.

floor of the

garage and storage area.

sq. ft.

Unknown

Protection Factor: 1,000

M

Other Structures

Author's Studio and Workshop
Location: 1611 Turkey

Run Road,

This structure serves as a combination author's studio, guest

McLean, Va. Oivner: Dr. Arthur and Evelyn Metzger Architect: William C. Suite and John F. Dirks, Jr.
Washington, D.C.

house and workshop.

The structure was

built in 1963.

Shelter

is

located on the ground floor with protection provided by a 12-inch

reinforced concrete ceiling slab and walls of 12-inch and 16-inch
solid concrete block.

Upper Level

Lower Level

.

00 ft. Buckeye Construction Company. rected the research and planning to incorporate the shelter at the beginning of the project design phase. This provides protection for the buildings' Beverly Hills. water from a natural spring in the basement. and di- Location Los Angeles.770 sq.000* Due to the inherent shielding of the belowground portion of the building no additional structural costs were incurred in construct- ing the shelter areas. N. Survival supplies that were purchased by the building owners are stored in spaces that were specifically designed for this purpose. Wolper Productions Architect :Y\ctQr Gruen Associates. These supplies include multi-purpose food. Owners: Buckeye Realty and Management Corporation. The cost of mechanical and electrical support systems such as a 40-kw emergency generator to provide emergency power for amounted to $20. shelter in the City National Bank Building was the first of several incorporated into the Buckeye organization office build- The owners initiated the program on their own.777 persons from the surrounding residential neighborhood. over $19. sanitary supplies. daytime population of 1.000. Calif.000 Cost per sq. ft.777 persons in the lower levels of the parking garage. medical supplies. There was no cost for pro- viding structural shielding.Other Structures City National : Bank Building The ings. ventilation and water pumps The cost shown includes equipment only. * lighting. Project Cost: In excess of $4 million Gross Area: 210. The shelter can accommodate 4. Shelter Cost: $20. ft. Calif. . Shelter Area: 47. : sq. cots and blankets. radio receivers and radiation instruments. fuel for emergency generators. New York.000 in addition to 3.Y.

"0 P f n n n -fcr=fc: K >J .

PF 100. the architectmany ways in which the building can contribute to tage taken of mutual shielding from adjacent structures? Has consideration been given to use of retaining walls. solid walls been used advantageously? filled Have hollow (See fig. —Have these been located to maximize the protection by baffles or do they permit direct entry of the ground radiation? Can stairwells be positioned so that they provide addi- tional shielding at the ends of corridors and hallways? (See figs.) Examples of items a. & — Cost Reduction Techniques depress the ground floor partially or Basement. during the initial design phase of the project. Some e. but certainly will provide 00 . "no-cost" design changes coijld have been incorporated to maximize the protection without exceeding budget limitations. 1 and 2. slanting adds the protective function to the other elements normally considered in the design of structures. but they had weak points which nullified otherwise good protection. such as concrete slabs on precast T-beams or bar joists. Is it possible to tion in efficiency of certain architectural and engineering features completely belowgrade to reduce the effect of radiation from fallout new structures. Thus. to protect personnel from fallout radiation in event of an emergency.: ^^ Slanting into all is "Slanting'' in Design & Construction Creation of Fallout Shelter Through Slanting defined as the incorporation. Many other buildings would have provided reasonably adequate protection. planters. 4 and 5. Partitions. overhangs or the safety of personnel and material without an increase in cost and without sacrificing esthetics and efficiency. 3. however. In the Fallout Shelter radiation? /. over 77 million shelter spaces were found with PF 100 or more and an additional 44 million spaces with PF 40-99. or two-way slab Cost differentials may be design versus pan-joist construction? negligible but one system (See figs. is — Has maximum advantage been taken Architectural Arrangement. — Is the structure located so the maximum advan- engineer will find requirements are clearly understood. to be considered in slanting are h. arrangement of the building elements to provide a protected core area which could be used for shelter? in If the protective — '). Survey. vide immediate improvement or be of such nature as to facilitate later conversion of the structure for protective purposes. —Have interior partitions been placed to block buildings. Could window areas be reduced or could sills be raised to reduce exposure to radiation? Site conditions. If these weak points could have been detected by someone knowledgeable in radiation shielding analysis Have dense. without extra cost or reducc.) walls been g. This procedure might not grading of slopes away from the structure radiation from fallout on the ground? to minimize the effect of always provide shelter spaces with some protection at no cost. with low cost materials where feasible? Floors and Roofs. are better than others.) Every building is a natural shield against fallout radiation. Location and quantity of windoiv areas. The slanting features gamma may pro- on the ground? d. —Has a comparison been made of various systems may provide significant additional shielding. composite floor systems such as tile or terrazzo on concrete. may Entrances and Exits.

mass for shielding purposes? (See fig. Architects and engineers Office of Civil sional development courses at schools the Office of Civil Defense in lieu of increasing the capacity of the interested in participating in these courses. 20310 permanent ventilation system. it is and Earthwork. wells. A a. The requirements for a supply of potable water necessary for survival constitutes one of the — for further details. By judicious site work and location of earth possible to improve the shelter provided in a structure. Where the water supply is furnished by means other than the OCD water storage container.) utilizing rein- forced concrete or concrete block construction in lieu of lightweight aggregate block or other lightweight wall construction? Have low cost opportunities been exploited such as use of hollow tile or concrete block with sand or gravel fill drums with plastic liners as furnished by OCD. — c. State. The disposal of human waste in the shelter may be accomplished by a variety of methods including use of the existing sewerage systems.C. or a combination of any of these sources.) Floor and Roof Construction. 6. the sanitation requirement may be met by furnishing a smaller number of drums than would be normally provided for water storage. Federal Government provides austere emergency rations and supplies to those spaces designated as public fallout shelters. a determination will be made as to the most effective and desirable means of assuring the availability of the required water while minimizing cost and storage requirements. A minimum The of 31/2 gallons should be available for each shelter space stocked.: : Enhancing Shelter Characteristics at Minimum Cost fundamental problems in achieving shelter habitability. (See fig. there are other low cost techniques in handling shielding and geometry factors which would enhance inherent shelter characteristics to meet OCD standards and criteria. Esthetics. or planter boxes for esthetic value as well as increasing the c. . consideration should be given to the use of packaged ventilation kits now being developed by Defense sponsors a number of tuition free profesand universities throughout the country to acquaint architects and engineers with the techniques for the design and evaluation of fallout shelter. d. b. In stocking public fallout shelters. In addition to these supplies. tanks. — Site berms.. Wall Construction. —Has consideration been given to providing masonry screen walls. steel These include entrapped water Examples of some of these low-cost techniques are a. OCD. Washington. or Regional Civil Defense Office or write to the Architectural and Engineering Services Division. diversion of systems containing nonpotable water for flushing purposes and the use of the OCD furnished drums as chemical toilets. D. potable water may be furnished to the shelter from a in building systems. —Public is fallout shelters qualifying under the Federal Pro- gram are provisioned with OCD packaged food supplies. —The requirements of ventilation of buildings incorfacility. Food. Trapped Water and Sanitary Facilities. should contact their local. number of techniques have been devised cost of obtaining shelter spaces. is porating shelter should be based on normal usage of the Where increased ventilation necessitated to utilize the full capacity it of the shelter area and make habitable. —Has consideration been given to to provide additional 3. The amount if of the standard ration to be placed in the shelter may be reduced the equivalent food available and certain other requirements pertaining Cost Reduction Techniques to perishability and availability are met. The addition of a few inches of concrete topping to a precast concrete tee roof or floor slab system will do much to enhance the protection afforded occupants. manholes providing access to sanitary or storm sewers. In addition to using the slanting procedure noted above. which should reduce the They are as follows OCD The Professional Development Program Ventilation. variety of sources. mass in interior and exterior walls? h.

^CLO r^"! CORR r I STOR I TEACH I CONI 'Vl]^ vTpdtW:^ Figure 1 Figure 3 .i::r3 IRR I STO I TEACH I CONI M ^ txtxr I Unbaffled Entrance CLASS ROOM CLASS ROOM Baffled Entrance Unbaffled Entrance Figure 2 Baffled Entrance EXAM^.

T-BEAMS- i^?'*.F.F. .vzz2 CLASS R\ ROOF MASS=I50*/S.F Figure 5 JlXiXl] MUTUAL SHIELDING ROOF MASS = 50*/S. FILL CONC.F.POURED GYPSUM ON GYPSUM BOARD - ROOF MASS-40«/S. ^-r:^ S\l/\/U d tm^ CANTILEVER'' . SCREEN WALL Figure k t: SHIELDING TECHNIQUES Figure 6 ."'^ v^ All ! ^" STRUCT.J- 5 1/2' r CONC. I- OPEN WEB STEEL I ROOF MASS = 100 <VS. SLAB I ^Vy sjy PRECAST CONC.

Shelter Techniques s c H .

ffice of Civil Defense Technical Report 27 January 1965 MEW iiAVm P.UiiJC UBRARY .