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Muscles of the Back Anterior Axioappendicular Muscles Pectoralis Major Origin Clavicular head: anterior surface of medial ½ of clavicle

Sternocostal head: anterior surface of sternum, superior 6 costal cartilages, aponeurosis of oblique muscle Insertion Lateral lip of intertubercular groove of humerus Innervation Lateral and medial nerves Action Adducts and medially rotates humerus; Draws scapula anteriorly and inferiorly Acting alone, clavicular head flexes humerus & sternocostal head extends it from the flexed position Pectoralis Minor Origin 3rd -5th ribs near their costal cartilages Subclavius Origin Junction of 1st rib & its costal cartilage Serratus Anterior Origin External surfaces of lateral parts of 1st8th ribs

Insertion Medial border & superior surface of coracoid process of scapula Innervation Medial pectoral nerve Action Stabilizes scapula by drawing it inferiorly & anteriorly against thoracic wall

Insertion Inferior surface of middle 3rd of clavicle Innervation Nerve to subclavius Action Anchors & depresses clavicle

Insertion Anterior surface of medial border of scapula Innervation Long thoracic nerve Action Protracts scapula and hold it against thoracic wall; rotates scapula

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fix scapula to thoracic wall 3| Page . T7-T12 spinous processes Insertion Lateral 3rd of clavicle. spinous process of C7 and T1 Major: spinous processes of T2-T5 Insertion Minor: smooth triangular area at medial end of scapular spine Major: medial border of scapula from level of spine to inferior angle Innervation Dorsal scapular nerve Action Retract scapula & rotate it to depress glenoid cavity. and inferior 3 or 4 ribs Insertion Floor of intertubercular groove of humerus Innervation Thoracodorsal nerve Action Extends. adducts. ↓ & ↑act together to rotate glenoid cavity superiorly Latissimus Dorsi Origin Spinous process of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae Thoracolumbar fascia. middle part (or all parts together) retracts scapula. acromion of spine of scapula Innervation Spinal accessory nerve (CN X1) Action ↓part elevates. iliac crest. & medially rotates humerus Raises body toward arms during climbing Levator Scapulae Origin Posterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1-C4 Insertion Medial border of scapula to root of spine Innervation Dorsal scapular and cervical nerves Action Elevates scapula & tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula Rhomboid major and Minor Origin: Minor: nuchal ligament. ↑ depresses.Posterior Axioappendicular Muscles Trapezius Origin Medial 3rd of superior nuchal line External occipital protuberance Nuchal ligament.

spinal part extends & laterally rotates arm Insertion Superior facet of greater tubercle Innervation Suprascapular nerve Action Initiates & assists deltoid in abduction of arm & acts with rotator cuff muscles Infraspinatus Origin Infraspinous fossa of scapula Insertion Middle facet of greater tubercle Innervation Suprascapular nerve Action Laterally rotate arm. helps hold humeral head in glenoid cavity Teres major Origin Posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula Insertion Medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus Innervation Lower subscapular nerve Action Same as infraspinatus muscle 4| Page .Scapulohumeral (Intrinsic Shoulder) Muscles Deltoid Supraspinatus Origin Origin Lateral 3rd of clavicle. help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula Teres minor Origin Middle part of lateral border of scapula Insertion Inferior face of greater tubercle Innervation Axillary nerve Action Same as infraspinatus muscle Subcapularis Origin Subscapular fossa Insertion Lesser tubercle of humerus Innervation Upper & lower subscapular nerve Action Medially rotates & adducts arm. Supraspinous fossa of acromion of spine of scapula scapula Insertion Deltoid tuberosity of humerus Innervation Axillary Nerve Action Clavicular part flexes & medially rotates arm. acromion part abducts arm.

They all protect the joint and give it stability Muscles of Arm Biceps Brachii Origin Short head: tip of coracoid process of scapula Long head: supraglenoid tubercle of scapula Insertion Tuberosity of radius & fascia of forearm via bicipital aponeurosis Innervation Musculocutaneous nerve Brachialis Origin Distal ½ of anterior surface of humerus Coracobrachialis Origin Tip of coracoid process of scapula Insertion Coronoid process & tuberosity of ulna Innervation Musculotaneous nerve Action Insertion Middle 3rd of medial surface of humerus Innervation Musculocutaneous nerve Action Triceps Brachii Origin Long head: infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Lateral head: posterior surface of humerus. superior to radial groove Medial head: posterior surface of humerus. inferior to radial groove Insertion Proximal end of olecranon of ulna & fascia of forearm Innervation Radial nerve Action Anconeus Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion Lateral surface of olecranon & superior part of posterior surface ulna Innervation Radial Nerve Action 5| Page .Rotator cuff muscles: form a musculotendinous rotator cuff around glenohumeral joint. All except the supraspinatus muscle rotate the humerus.

superior ½ of anterior border Insertion Shafts of middle phalanges of medial 4 fingers Innervation Median nerve 6| Page .Action Supinates forearm &. flexes forearm. resists dislocation of shoulder (stabilizes glenohumeral joint) Chief extensor of forearm. when it is supine. short head resists shoulder dislocation Flexes forearm in all positions (during slow and quick movement: greatest force) Helps flex & adduct arm. esp important during abduction Assists triceps in extending forearm. long head resists dislocation of humerus. stabilizes elbow joint. hook of hamate. may abduct ulna during protonation Muscles of Anterior Compartment of The Forearm Superficial (first) layer and Intermediate (2ND) layer Pronator Teres (PT) Flexor carpi radialis Origin (FCR) Ulnar head: coronoid Origin process Medial epicondyle of Humeral head: Medial humerus (common flexor epicondyle of humerus origin) Insertion Middle convexity of lateral surface of radius Innervation Median nerve Insertion Base of 2nd metacarpal Innervation Palmaris longus Origin Same as FCR Insertion Distal ½ of flexor retinaculum & apex of palmar aponeurosis Innervation Median nerve Flexor Carpi Ulnaris (FCU) Origin Humeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus Ulnar head: olecranon & posterior border (via aponeurosis) Insertion Pisiform. 5th metacarpal Innervation Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) Origin Humeroulnar head and radial head: medial epicondyle(common flexor origin & coronoid process).

deep fibers bind radius & ulna together Muscles of Posterior Compartment of Forearm Superficial Layer Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi radialis Origin Longus Proximal 2/3 of Origin supraepicondylar ridge Lateral supraepicondylar ridge of humerus Insertion Lateral surface of distal Insertion end of radius proximal to Dorsal aspect of base of styloid process 2nd metacarpal Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Insertion Dorsal aspect of base of Extensor Digitorum Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Insertion Extensor expansions of medial 4 digits Extensor Digiti Minimi Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus (common extensor origin) Insertion Extensor expansion of 5th digit Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus.Action Pronates & flexes forearm (at elbow) Median nerve Action Flexes & abducts hand (at wrist) Action Flexes hand (at wrist) & tenses palmar aponeurosis Ulnar nerve Action Same as palmar longus Action Flexes middle phalanges at proximal interphalangeal joints of middle 4 fingers Deep (3rd) Layer Flexor digitorum profundus Origin Proximal ¾ of medial & anterior surfaces of ulna & interosseous membrane Insertion Medial part: bases of distal phalanges of 4th & 5th fingers Lateral part: bases of distal phalanges of 2nd & 3rd fingers Innervation Ulnar nerve Action Flexes distal phalanges 4 & 5 Flexor pollicis longus (FPL) Origin Anterior surface of radius & adjacent interosseous membrane Insertion Base of distal phalanx of thumb Innervation Anterior interosseous nerve. from median nerve Action Flexes distal phalanges of thumb Pronator Quadratus Origin Distal ¼ of anterior surface of ulna Insertion Distal ¼ of anterior surface of radius Innervation Same as FPL Action Pronates forearm. posterior border of ulna via shared aponeurosis Insertion Dorsal aspect of base of 5th metacarpal 7| Page .

continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Action Extends medial 4 fingers primarily at metacarpophalangeal joint Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve. continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Action Extends 5th finger primarily at metacarpophalangeal joint Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve. rotates radius to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly (if elbow flexed) O utcropping m uscles of deep laye r Abductor pollicis Extensor pollicis longus longus Origin Origin Posterior surface of Posterior surface of proximal ½ of ulna. interosseous interosseous membrane membrane Insertion Base of 1st metacarpal Insertion Dorsal aspect of base of distal phalanx of thumb Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve Action Extends distal phalanx of thumb at interphalangeal joint Extensor pollicis brevis Origin Posterior surface of distal 3rd of radius & interosseous membrane Insertion Dorsal aspect of base of proximal phalanx of thumb Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve Action Extends proximal phalanx of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint Extensor indicis Origin Posterior surface of distal 3rd of ulna & interosseous membrane Insertion Extensor expansion of 2nd finger Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve Action Abducts thumb & extends it at carpometacarpal joint Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve Action Extends 2nd finger (enabling independent extension. & anterior surfaces of proximal 3rd of radius Innervation Deep branch of radial nerve Action Supinates forearm. posterior. supinator fossa. continuation of deep branch of radial nerve Action Extends and adducts hand at wrist joint (also active during fist clenching…lights out again!) Deep Layer Supinator Origin Lateral epicondyle of humerus’ radial collateral & anular ligaments. maximal when forearm is in midpronated position 3rd metacarpal Innervation Radial nerve Action Extend & abduct hand at wrist joint Innervation Deep branch of radial nerve Action Active during fist clenching (punch your lights out  ) Innervation Posterior interosseous nerve. crest of ulna Insertion Lateral.Innervation Radial nerve Action Weak flexion of forearm. middle 3rd of ulna and radius. helps extend hand at wrist Muscles of thoracic wall 8| Page .

Serratus posterior superior Origin Nuchal ligament.11th intercostal nerves Action Depress ribs 9| Page . spinous processes of C7-T3 Insertion Superior borders of ribs 2-4 Innervation 2nd-5th intercostal nerves Action Elevate ribs Serratus posterior inferior Origin Spinous processes of T11-L2 Insertion Inferior borders of 8th-12th ribs near their angles Innervation 9th.

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