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LUCRETIUS ON THE NATURE OF THINGS
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CYRIL BAILEY
FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGE

OXFORD AT THE CLARENDON PRESS

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a It model in existence might indeed be thought that with so fine it is unnecessary and unprofitable to undertake the task again. though not always accurate. good reasons to since justify the attempt. Masson (Lucretius : Epicurean and Poet) has recently written a very suggestive. sketch of Lucretius's relations to his predecessors and to modern scientific ideas. 1 the philofar better sophy of Epicurus and. many dark places in the poem. and phrases and even passages ' of sheer prose give the In cur own country Dr. consequence. J. the fastnesses of life.' &c. Brieger and still more to the is late Professor Giussani. In the first the study of Lucretius has made considerable advances Munro's edition : thanks largely to Dr. Munro. Secondly. the deepset boundary-mark. place.PREFACE No one can set about translating Lucretius into English without finding his head full of the great work of H. he did not always keep it : much light has been thrown on in the more technical parts of the poem he scientific is apt to drop almost into the language of a textbook. as a understood than it was. I think.' alte terminus haerens. It is not only that certain striking phrases ring in one's ears — vitai ' ' claustra. But there are. though Munro set the tone. A 2 . and has most successfully represented the spirit of the poem. A. but one is possessed with a strong feeling that he has finally set the tone or colour which Lucretius in English — must assume. and its general grouping and connexion can be far more clearly grasped.

appended some notes for the gen reader. I r r lii j equable level of style. and Professor H. CI 1910. even in its most scien discussions. H. . Preface muse allowed him I bt reader the idea that Lucretius's While acknowledging then my to Munro for the main spirit of the translation often for words and phrases which seemed to me in< have tried at once to embody the results of recent Lucretian scholarship. own if — have taken what now believe to be the right react and added the warning of a fijj I have note. In the present reprint the translation has been adapl to the second edition of the text in the Bibliothja Oxoniensis (192 1). c. and to preserve a able. which will. 1 92 1. have translated from my is still Bibliotheca Oxoniensis in numerous I places. have since altered my opinD. which are intended either to explain allusion to elucidate what seemed to me difficult or obscje or the best suggestion it passages in the light of the general Epicurean theory I wish to thank the Rector of Lincoln for sevi >r valuable suggestions.1898. 1 March. Turner much help in the elucidation of the astronomical problis raised in Book V. leave the imp sion that the De Rerum Natura. I hope. where I I text published in but in the I fe. I ic poetry.4 a fitful inspiration.

will find their response in generations.INTRODUCTION Of the three great Latin poets Lucretius seems to make the most peculiar appeal to our own age. special temper. — nor is his a common attitude to life. But Lucretius —possibly because from the point of view of universality he stands a little below the other two seems to demand for full appreciation a rather His are not the interests of every man. the a all-embracing mind which could yet finely pessimistic sympathy of focus past and future in the conall sciousness of present crisis. The antagonism of Religion and Science. a strong desire for scientific method and accuracy of observation com- — reality ig awe —deeply i ntellec- religious world and bined with a profound feeling of the beauty of the its works. of a genuine soul and a poet of marvellously wide range. A fierce h atred of_c onventional superstitions and a y earning for tual liberty coupled with a sense of in the presence of nature. — but cannot at all times awaken a vital sympathy* Yet these are antitheses familiar and this is enough an attitude of mind which we are peculiarly to our generation. an unswerving consciousness of natural law and the sequence of cause and effect counter- acted by an equaj jtubbornness in defence of man's mor al freedom these are qualities which may engage attention. the relation of the investigation to the \ . Catullus and Virgil are for all time the passionate love-history . qualified to understand.

The more recent introduction)! . always path and about of worship his bed'. the opposition of Natural LawiK Freewill are themes which seem very near to us. and organized ceremoili and priesthoods. Magistrates and sacrificed at dy the appropriate victims. and we i endeavour to understand Lucretius not rary. remained still untouched the form was empty. the popu:e kept holiday on the festivals. owing to the malevolent interference of di'ie and an abiding fear of death and the punishimt! of a life to come. commercial of community developed int and consolidated when the great we 2 Greek culture anthropomorphized numina into in form.6 love of Introduction Nature. It as a conte]* c but as an Epicurean of as the last century dissolu was eminently a period of disturbance and id. or at the most lingered on here and theiin the old-fashioned piety of a household cult. mostly hostile by instH but capable of pacification by simple gifts and easy % had long ago lost its hold on the lifo! — the city. belief in the ' numina. but little real religis feeling remained. it Republican regime was breaking down. To each generation its problems pr S themselves in their own peculiar manner.k about m's countless little impersonal 'spirits'. Only we must be careful not to interpret the by the present. raised as he primitive agricultural city. he imposing structure of the State-worship. except a vague sense of the insecuiy omens and of life beings. augurs watched m blessed or stayed proceedings. intellectually well as socially and politically. and with system of morals and beliefs iiie lie genuine Roman religion —the on which it rested. priests i gave them temples and statues.

Dei. but morally both systems rested essentially on the conception of the State. : were the idealism of Plato and the intellectualism of Aristotle alien to the plain Roman mind. . 2 De Divinatione. attracting only a few strong intellects like Cicero's. iv. de Civ.Introduction 7 Oriental cults. could discuss 2 the fundamental assumptions of his art and arrive at a very unfavourable conclusion . Philosophy professed to place men above the conflict of religions and to give them what religion did not claim to offer. generation been the practice of the ruling classes. least of all the Reman. by adding an ecstatic and orgiastic form of worship. a guide to It moral conduct. Mucius Scaevola * advoscepticism prevailed. which had introduced the disease. had but heightened these terrors. the Augur. among the populace he was but voicing what had for a Cicero. and even then only to a very eclectic and almost dilettante But the reason is not really far to seek not only study. the acknowledged sceptic. essentially foreign to the sober and straightforward of the temperament Roman. was selected to direct the as Pontifei Maximus. which through excitement and reaction gave an unnatural and intermittent character to religion. Augustine. which had obtained a great influence over the popular mind. brought also the antidote in philosophy. 37. whole system of religious worship But a pure scepticism cannot satisfy any type of mind. Among cated the maintenance of religion as a political asset. seems strange at first sight that the two greatest philosophies of Greece those of Plato and Aristotle — — should have made so little impression on the Roman mind. the educated classes in consequence a profound When Q. Caesar. and Greek culture. on the identification of the good man and the good 1 St.

Reifferscheid. Introduction It was just this conception which with the down. By a comparisonf an entry in Jerome's Fasti 1 and a casual note in Donat Life of Virgil. p. when the place to the monarchy arisen of had ga and that again Macedon. rcliq. In the corresponding pe of the history of Athens. We he was born in 94 ic have a romantic story. Euseb.g a recently discovered Rem Chron. And so now Rome as these two philosopss answered the demand._to.^ ioundec the atomic materialism of Democntus. 2 and an attempt to reconcile their agreement by considerations of probability. Into this atmosphere Lucretius grew up. we arrive at the conclusion that and died in 55. they divided themselves almost unconscioly into the rival camps of the Stoics and Epicureans.jthe more . .. Sueton. must be indivia istic he wanted to know about himself and his con % it : of the Republic was breaking as a single human being.m religion. wrote some poems in his lucid inter and finally committed suicide '. a^pealed. Cicero 'edited' the is again 1 much vexed —and * poem — We are told lit a statement whose mear. made its way\i those more inclined to a matter-of-fact scientific outil in on life. assertion of the divine element in the world mind of man had. that he was poiso d by a love-philtre. L c. 5 5 Jerome. and philosoph was to help the sceptical Roman. and men drifted away f.8 citizen. city-state i fallen into the disruption of the rule of the ' Successc §toi<E two creeds had with the its to supply the need.3 which ' been very variously interpreted. dire It jj religious natur es the doctrine of Epicurus. history Of his persu we are singularly ignorant.

vol. greatness of the revealing alive once to the —these are characteristics which the closer study of the feature almost equally power of language in its strike ' sudden flashes ' 3 one at once. Cic. vol. II. And poem seems marked. with whom he was familiar. c. of A in its labour in the attempt to present a it to others at . Lucretius ii. ii. I-13. But beyond that we must be content to know nothing. Epicurean and Poet. we cannot refuse the testimony of the poem itself to an abnor mal and even mor bid strain in its author's character. and profound and the beauty of nature. 1. to disclose another Whether or no we accept the legend of the love-philtre and the idea of insanity. and it Lucretius's Memmius if suggests that he too was — friendship ' he had wished ' —in the society of or might have been. 8 pp. in a and See Masson. Ep. nor Life indeed could any addition of external details add much to the unmistakable picture of his personality which the keen active mind. his day : the Borgian gives us the names of others.C. Cic. 38 If. prominent philosophers and public men. 8 pp. We are aware that the Lucretii were a family of good with standing in Rome. The fierceness of the unc easing att ack on its the J reli gious point of view^even on : shadow i. eager truth and not shrinking from hard pursuit thought in the attainment of its end. lumina ingenii.Introduction sance his 1 * 9 details Life ' gives us what purport to be for of criticism: 2 we know to both Cicero and his by 54 B. ad Q. and instinct with the feeling for accuracy in expression and the consciousness poetic sensitiveness. Fr. or from intellectual poem itself presents to us. . brother had read the poem and other their certain that communicated each opinions on it.

In the philosophy of Epicurus Lucretiu iad found his own rest. . at ai ift to get rid of the grosser elements of superstition retain a purified belief in the divine control of the h*. ?- perhaps even not quite sane. for he saw in it the cause of the g 4 part of the sorrows and even the crimes of huma iter ife. &c.i o Introduction interpretation of teleological nature 2 . . btle rnal weight of religion eyes to first to raise his meet her . . as did so of his contemporaries. . and it was the purpose of his 1 iv. think of Lucretius as a not quite normal person. It was not sufficient for him to take up. no truce with it. v. . like the Stoics. 823. 1 .' with a strongly-marked temper and a very decidec j£. Lucretius then approached the problems of h I. reconciling the conflicts of religion in a kind of reliocs Religion was his enemy and he could we philosophy. a position of sceptical indiff towards religion. the unr t* virulence of the onslaught on love the almo st bn fe e pessimism wit h which he anticipates the coming ckflK tion of the world 3 such are the signs which lead . Nor could he. The whole ' theological view must be eradicated en life men's minds before they could even begin to live 5 worthy of the gods '. whe tad taught that the power of the gods ove r the wor l«ms nought. Naturally enough then he t to the philosophy of Epicurus battle to fight : : nel he had had the ' ime it was he who. and mind and real spirit traverse tie ' boundless whole ' : 6 he was the god 7 '. dared in when the life of m lay foul and grovelling upon the earth crushed . no.

in most of its aspects it will gradually unfold itself in the De Rerum Natura. are to be explained by the perfectly consistent and relentless application of his fundamental or principles. Still less is of Lucretius mere polemic Epicurus justly represented — against as has sometimes patching together from sources a crude piecemeal view of the world to various been the case — as combat superstition and afford a plausible a moral theory of doubtful moral tendency. which Lucretius has rather assumed than stated.Introduction i r to put that philosophy at the service of his countrymen and so deliver them too from the tyranny of religion. had learnt it. and many of the difficulties which modern critics have found in his detail. but which are of vital importance for the understanding of his poem. seemed trivial or inconsistent obscure to his because they would not take him seriously enough. but it will be well to call attention to certain fundamental points with regard to it. and as such he intended to present it. a consistent whole derived from a single starting-point and following As such Lucretius step by step with logical precision. many of the puerilities at which they have scoffed. we must very It is commonly briefly consider the origin of the system. said that Epicurus adopted the atomic theory of Demo- critus to act as a physical basis for his moral theory that . First. it one point that modern work at Epicureanism tends to is that it was a serious philosophy. is basis If for there reveal. and the comprehension of its essential unity. however. But it would be the greatest mistake to think or his master as the author of a religion. He has critics. and indeed. It will not be possible here to deal in any detail with the Epicurean system.

. and moving and diffe igir in infinite This conclusion with many of the deductions fnii detail and much of Democritus's elaboration of Ei mi: accepted. The philosophers as universe had led up to the hypothesis. that the pi basis of the world was infinite atoms. 1 shape and weight. until Parmenides. tiny. as we shall see. as a matter of fact.).: from his one fundamental he acl Democritus's atomism. because that alone of all tij of the world known to him was consistent wi fundamental principle and yet in his very maintemc of that principle he most conspicuously differed Democritus. but in no mere casual sp He believed pleasure to be the moneti eclecticism. eri. was an immediate ded principle.1 indivisible particles of matter. considerable doubt whether Demtilu inclined to believtta attributed weight to the atoms. or both or neither? Hit in pre-Socratic speculation. first propcicby Leucippus and greatly strengthened and elatltec by Democritus of Abdera (circ 430 B. I because that. — roir The principle concerned the root-problem of : Eta physics how do we get our knowledge ? are we tens our senses or our reason. and combined with it the theory that p^ sir was the highest good. but I am he did. question had been raised at a comparatively early and had forced itself :ag ior> and more into prominence as theories became more and more remote from the every-day consciousness. This is in a very ihec long debate of the pre-Socratic r.C. Ijta to the ultimate constitution ' the end of sense true. 1 of the experiei:o who be There is.1 2 life Introduction was pleasure '. possessing size. .

* v. emp. and in other weight. is 'whole Epicurean philosophy 'sensation ' The keystone of the the simple assertion: ' is true. X . 8 Diogenes Laertius. 50. they are still which is this fundamental principle it : the discussion of either 3 until the fourth Book. On built.' he represents belief. 1 is the senses as saying. and if the senses were untrustworthy. 8. it he does not even approach But on the hand he is always assuming his line of and acting on it. you overthrow us your victory your defeat. in considering the constitution of the world. he : and no scepticis m at the root. Democritus's exact position is very difficult to make out. still more so must reason be ' ' : wretched mind. 564 ff. 469 ff.Introduction C 1 3 the world to be a corporeal plenum. see them to be 4 : there the senses Galen. all know what I feel.' is foundation eviden ce . but regarded it with suspicion for all other qualities: words he held that touch alone among the senses could be trusted. we must reject any hypothesis contradicted by the evidence of sense. &c. but it seems that he accepted the evidence of the senses for the primary properties. Democritus had a step further : reason rested upon 'pushed scepticism 'the senses. are the 1 same size as The we thought it must always be sun and the moon. Diels B.' man Epicurus approached the problem as the plain must have a sure basis for the structure of his system. size. Wherev er the senses I as this gi ve one us we are to accep t their evidence as finally : and certainly true where they do not. for instance. had declared whole' way of the heartedly for reason and identified the ' senses with the ' way of error '. 3 iv. and that are accept as equally probable any explanations Now Lucretius does not start with consistent with it. shape. 1259. yet from us you received your . ultimate for instance. and to understand borne in mind. 125. de med. 2 supreme . x.

a fundamental matter that is unstable. us a ~wbrTH we is matte r then know in motion. 4 : No. 3 2 heavenly bodies. 6 others permit ii lite 7 some pr ose division. But can the existence of matter alone give. 751 6 i.1 4 Introduction give us evidence and not attempt to go The sequence of night and day. some of which to our mind appear trivial we must ' fo J the wal lut these are cases where the senses provide no direct evince. adv. i. s f o: t is v.1 the orbits it. v. ff. m rgely responsible fo r_thg beauty of the whole poem. 631 flo. 7 329 fl. 6 " SextusEmp. Lucr. i. andjhe poetic T ilth Let us pursue this line of thought a little ? furthe Or !Ut what do the senses give us evidence : Of nothin a material world the on e reality. 74 2 » 8 43- 8 746. 655. math. 844. ff. 665. which precludes permanence . eclipses may be explained in ways. for it chges into other things. 8 others one that 1 is perishable.la from common experi ence. . 650 ff. i. it is which prompts him pin iper and again to appeal for support in his theories of ceptible things to the analogy of the perceptible the trust in the senses is the ultimate cause of those my illustrations . * v. his principle : shows us how Epicurus aj ied some schools deny the existence of id. d.|. which t. for our senses tell us of a world of n ter and things cannot move without spa to move in there must then be empty space. 5 in which Lucretius criiiies rival theories of the world. A in what form does this matter exist? The section i the it ? middle of the first Book. >• 213. which makes motion impossible. . and we must therefore accept as equally worthy csa sideration all hypotheses which they do not this principle contiict Above all. 614 i.

planted about here and there in infinite space. 216. obeying the law of their : own nature. lest the supply of matter should 2 :e run short. 847. and ultimately build up the whole universe of worlds. the atoms must be infinite in number. falling down- i wards owing to their weight. in life. capable of throughout the whole realm e : the universe. acting by law and yet without purpose — Nature. however. • i. down to the smallest. can show how every p henomenon is but the result of natural causes. but as a direct deduction from the primary it assertion of the infallibility of sense-perception. at last they by trying first-beginnings of . 184. 4 meeting and clashing. 5 form first into little molecules. and the fear of the punishment of an immortal soul after l death. the 1 ). as an arbitrary it should ' all congregate 3 be infinite in extent. 100S. design did the fall 1 into such dispositions as those. but movements and unions of every kind. and. is but rather supported by the evidence of the senses. The only h theory which ra found not to be contradicted. 4 ii. then into larger masses. r- choice. contained in them. 988. 753. and all things. . lest n . not. t being worked out of in detail For the atomic system. i- And release in this atomic system Epicurus and Lucretius ic find their refutation of the pretensions of religion. an u atomic theory. space must Epicurus has then arrived at the atomism of Democritus. from the two great terrors which beset man's the fear of the arbitrary intervention of the gods mind. >• whereby our world » i. 6 ii. Finally. .t i: at the bottom '.Introduction ncof i 1 y the same nature is as perceptible things. not by ' for selves things place themeach in their order with foreseeing mind . The atoms in the void.

323. 8 and 10 just like the body. at death the soul is dissolved its : of its constituents. i. all and it can have nothing to fear for has freed time to come. 1 ' Is man Be i ' it v. 146 ff. v. but utterly unconcerned with the move- ments of the world or human it is. immortal creatures. As for the soul. de Nat. iii. from the tyranny of the gods and the in the free life. there There is jiqjieed for the aid of the gods. but the highest pleasure of his fear of deat h. . 75. of a body of infinitely subtle formations-dwelling apart in the 'interspaces between the worlds ' 5 3 Jn jre<nons 'where falls not hail or rain or any snow. They 3 are rather a part of nature's creation. 161. by the chance or the force of nature. 838. * u 894.' * Cic. 2 Nature made all the worlds and 'all that of — in them is is '. not even room for their interference. like all affairs. 6 an example and an ideal in their untroubled calm to man. a corporeal aggregate of atoms. 11 Natu re then man alik e and knowledge of nature he will find not only the guarantee of his freedom. 1 1 iii. is ? The exclusion of the gods from the workings of the universe has been accomplished by the establishment of law. iii. Deor. iii. 19. other things. 7 which owes its sensation to the shape and movements union with the body 9 neither can exist without the other. the demonstration of the But man ' free ' natural sequence of cause and effect from the first downthen ward movement newest ' ' of the atoms to the formation of the in thing the remotest world. 8 ii. nor ever wind blows loudly '.1 6 things is Introduction created ' x acting indeed blindly and with a kind of spontaneity which seems occasionally like chance.

But for Epicurus this answer delusion. so that his^s mallest act Jfaai- the inevitable outcome of critus all t hat has pre ceded? Demo: had already been confronted with this problem and had boldly answered it with an absolute determinism man's actions free-will is are a but : no exception to the universal law.15 B . 134. Laert. or can for? man to be an exception be otherwise accounted ' Epicurus's answer. 546. for it is a matter of immediate consciousness assert ' ' : we know ' 2 that from time to time we : we our independence of the great claim of causation ' our freedom and it cannot therefore be denied. second only in importance to the infallibility qf^thg^senses. can do what he will because there of is course ' conscious ' Diog. he thought. may be it is not to be regarded as a weak admission. 261. it cannot be by special exemption granted him. For if man's will is free. and again reached by a strict logical deduction. has alway s been ridiculed. feel Is it ' Yet how is it to be preserved? to the universal law. telling a man what he use. but because of some principle inherent in the very first- beginnings : man of an element swerve then spontaneity in the atoms.jt o direct his own acti ons . ought to do. or is "he too ruled is by this inexo rable destiny. Besides. 2l6ff. It is the which enables the atoms to meet in their downward 1 — — spontaneity not * ii. x. his own fundamental principles had a good feason to fight for free-jwill .the swerve 3 of the atoms.Introduction alone 1 ? 7 exempt from this chain of causation has he the power. a ii. Even the tyranny 1 of religion is better than the tyranny of destiny. unless he is free to do it. would not do and it is his primary interest. thought. whatever of it. man's conduct was no Epicurusjon. but__ rather as a cardinal po int in the system. but.

La Morale d'Epicure. in Epicurus's idea. secondly. their Plcasure__t hen mu st be readjustment and equilibrium. pleasure. a nd it will show itself in the calm that denotes atomic equilibrium. to give us comparable to the evidence of sense-perception in the field of knowledge ? Clearly it has in the immediate perceptions of pleasure and pain we all instinctively seek pleasure his then has answer at once : we all feel them. Epicurus pleasure is the moral good . that pain is dislocation of atomic arrangements and motions. it has sometimes been its represented. but see Guyau. is always essentially a compound of body and soul . has immediate sensation any evidence theory of Epicurus. 70 . 1 The body must have is ff. and avoid pain. pleasure. swerve ' in the sensitive aggregate of the atoms of the mind. but the This point much disputed. of body an d_smil alike. which secures man's freedom of action and makes it possible to urge Lastly then it. explicitly though Lucretius never deals with in the poem — emerges to the surface again and again we must very shortly consider the moral Let us go back once more to the fundamental principle. of importance points in the physical theory are here : firstly.1 8 it is Introduction the ' which preserves in inorganic nature that curious element of spontaneity which we ' 1 swerve '. become conscious call chance. — it on him for a theory of conduct. of action and suffering. that man. It is seen at once that Epicurus's doctrine is no recommendation of mere as vulgar pleasures of sensuality. pp. and it is the fall. : and we cannot attempt to go behind But what does 'pleasure' mean? to what practical it. In the sphere of conduct. conduct will its adoption as the aim of life lead us ? Two sensation tells us so.

ii. the Epicurean ' needs : men Lucretius has given us a pleasing picture of ' ' a full satisfaction of the bodily picnic — lie in friendly groups on the soft grass tall near some stream of water under the branches of a tree and at above all no great cost delightfully refresh their bodies. not of mathematics. Or. elem. 15. not things but of nature : and so the highest pleasure of the mind is — give itself up to its own particular pleasure. 3 or 4 literature. Inst. 29 Quintilian.' 5 is The cannot ideal for the individual then not far to seek. we shall secure its pleasure best by maintaining its health and restricting its desires within the narrowest possible limits. the mind may enjoy the is sense of pleasure. Epicurean pleasure is indeed simple and men are strangely blind that they do not recognize it : 'to think that ye should not see that nature cries aloud for nothing else but that pain may be kept far sundered from the body. Proclus 5 ii. 1095*. 322. for they deal with mere words. Ep. when the weather smiles on them and the 1 season of the year bestrews the green grass with flowers. for in the private life of the individual that has no place.' same. 16 fT. : how are they to be regulated? ii. the pleasures of the soul the principle is the must be relieved of its peculiar pains. beat. the 2 — the acquisition of that knowledge which will incidentally free it from its of acquisition. the fear of the gods and the fear of death and then it First it : And with may study not of rhetoric. But a m As 1" live his life quite alone and he must have relatio his fellows * ff. contr. Plut. 13. Eucl. and Epicurus with 1 above all an individualist. « * 17. and that. pains. withdrawn from care and fear. B 2 .Introduction true pleasure 1 9 is not such as brings attendant pain in the form either of anticipation or reaction : rather.

But beyond that lie will not enter but little concerned with them. public life or attempt to hold office. for friendship based on the common study of philosophy is one of the highest blessings of life : hopes for with Memmius. and for his neighbours.' l The individual retains his own sake respects lie is his freedom by a compact. v. 140. Justice the summing up of the relations describes to us between man and mantis a convention Lucretius when primitive man came to unite how. 1 J 019. for ambition and the cares of rule are among the most ' : disturbing influences far better to which can beset the mind obey in than to long to rule the world with kingly power peace and to sway kingdoms. i. 3 But love such friendship Lucretius the giving up of — oneself to one's affections on another's eschew : philosoph er will of all things Lucretius's denunciations in the fourth Book 4 will It is —the and the complete dependence are unmistakable.2o In traduction ' one would expect. Epicurus treats the virtues witli scant respect : ' other-regarding they are but of secondary importance and necessary only in so far as they secure the individual from interruption in the pursuit of his own pleasure. casual touches in Lucretius.' 2 Even in private life he will it is learn not to tru st t oo much to others. 1058 .er. iv. Friendships he will form. 1 1 ' 29.jnJisolation. pursuing his pleasure^ and disregarding others. These hints may serve to make 1 clear some * of v. not perhaps a very attractive picture of the~philosoph. and is own again a relentexplains it many the ff. in a common life. for his life must be independent. not to hurt or be harmed. but it less deduction from first principles. neighbours began eagerly to form : ' friendship with one another.

3 v. which in its most recent development seems more likely than ever to come back to the notion The of uniform homogeneous 'first-beginnings' : the biologist the hypothesis of the formation of species by evolutionary experiments and the survival of the fittest. 4 But to the general reader what come home most is the spirit of the whole. K. ' ' and all the more noticeable in that the current notions of ' Lucreti us's time looked back to a pri mitive Golden Age : the moral philosopher will discover the foundation both of ' Hedonism and Utilitarianism. v. it is more than all conception application. and the political scientist familiar will recognize the description of the Social will Contract. 837-77. v. physicist will find in him the germs of the modern atomic theory. * 925-1104. 1 And if one is to appreciate this else necessary to have the clear their fearless of the main principles and found * Several interesting and suggestive chapters on this subject will be in Masson's Lucretius : Epicurean and Poet. Clifford and Haeckel : the anthropologist will see a picture of primitive man 3 startlingly like that to which modern investigation has led. the problems with which Lucretius is faced and the general attitude in which he goes to meet them. and really knit together to show how the whole system of sensation. ciple of the certainty 1 by the single prinFor those who like to find in antiquity the anticipation of modern ideas and hypotheses Lucretius is of course instinct with interest. fully. 2 and in the idea of the spontaneous will find notable anticipations of swerve of the atoms a supposition not far remote from the modern speculations of W. .Introduction salient points in the 2 1 Epicurean theory which in Lucretius 's own treatment are is somewhat obscured. 1010.

to point to long tracts of scientific discussion. which is But surely a didactic poem. ii. may be e ii. — might be maintained rather more subtly that there high poetic quality in the very exactness of the expres- sion of the intricate theories a quality and abstruse arguments — the more appreciated. must not be judged piecemeal in this way by isolated phrases or even continuous passages of poetic imagination. 1 to the flashes of genius in the poetic 5 —the painting. and certainly didactic poetry must stand or fall by the answer given in the case of Lucretius. if they are sundered by such as deserts. there fl. to call them : ' arid '.2 or the distant view of the flock Cicero did. De Rerum Natura n. work and giving claim of the 1 1 And this is the supreme portions ff. Fr.22 It is Introduction often asked whether a didactic work can be real poetry. ad Q. ' or those quieter of ' flashes ' ' of flower flame 4 '. a ii. It is not ' difficult to reply ' by pointing. It is easy. Its claim to rank as true poetry will rest rather on the spirit of the whole —the life depth of intention underlying the to the parts. . poem. the more we realize the genius with which almost every word in the poem is chosen to do precisely its own work and no more.' in It is a moment 6 which painting the lap of the earth transform argument with imagination. for not even Hesiod or the Georgics can put forward a higher claim. the shells 4 on the 3 hillside. 35a 493- 31 7 9°°- a '• G »• 375- . more than any other. whether they be the wonderful descriptions. of course. the ice of ' brass. i. or to characterize them ' as ' scanning prose it is just to urge that a few or even many great passages of sustained poetic beauty a cannot in themselves save poem. such as that of the cow who has lost her calf.

23 superficial which judged separately by fall students it is would seem to knit into a beneath the dignity of poetry.Introduction of it. but vivified whole and through all its parts by the fearless desire for truth. the consciousness of a great felt almost purpose. as one . and a deep reverence for nature which has caused this bitter as a personal presence — — opponent of religion to be universally recognized of the most truly religious of the world's poets.

418-82. 146-482. . 581-729. (a) Heraclitus 705-829. (b) Empedocles 830-920. Universal downward motion due 184- "5(d) The swerve of the atoms. The first-bodies are . eternal and 483-634. (a) The incessant movement (b) (c) The velocity of their motion. 635-920. 142-164. The universe . . A. 216-293. to weight. and Introduction: The blessings of philosophy . differences combinations: of (d) Variety species. (b) This variety Atoms of any given form infinite . C. The existence of void. or fundamental matter in the form of particles 146-328. The forms of the atoms and their effects in combination .SHORT ANALYSIS OF THE POEM Book I deals with the ultimate constitution of the universe. (c) Everything these ' two. 921-1117. ' B. 62-332. (c) withir. The motion of the atoms . Introduction Invocation to Venus and appeal to : mius 1—145* . -' of the atoms. The permanence of matter and motion 294-332. 1-61. of the atoms . indivisible particles Book 11 deals with the motion and forms their combination in things. 80-141. (<?) B. . (c) Anaxagoras is infinite . 333~7 2 9(a) The variety of atomic forms and their effects on sensation. 635-704. The existence of 'first-bodies'. D. . Mem- A. or empty space 329-417. (b) else is either property or accident of (a) • . 333~477not infinite . which consists of infinite atoms moving in infinite space. General principles . 478-521. atoms : solid. Refutation of rival theories . 522-580.

B. 217-822. both in sleep and 722-822. 730-990. 1-25. 10-42. Smell 842-64. effect of the fear of punishment after death 1-93. Their existence . Nature and formation of the Soul . Sensation and Thought . . (b) Proofs from disease and its cure 459-547. (a) Sight and phenomena connected with (d) (b) it. . . 417-829. cannot be satisfactorily subdivided. (d) Proofs from absurdity of separate existence of soul 624-829. Rapidity of their motion. The infinite worlds and their formation and destruction 1023. Heat. 991-1022. . Introduction •^^/2l. Refutation of ideological view. . Their relation to one another and to the body .Short C. of the Body . 94-416. 161-257. its nature. (c) Sensation . 615-72. 176-216. l^C. between mind and soul. (d) Summary. 823-1057. Book IV deals mainly with the psychology of sensation and thought. (c) Proofs from connexion of soul and body 548-623. 258-416. Colour. B. 26-216. e. \y C. (a) 1 (b) Their fineness of texture. Taste. 673-721. or (a) Distinction principle. and its fate. ' ' . Existence and nature of the idols . 823-57. 522-614. (c) Swiftness of their formation 143-75. waking life Some functions (a) mental images. Book III deals with the soul. 830-1094. but be classified as follows :) may roughly (a) Proofs from the structure of the soul 425-58.1 174. The folly of the fear of death . 730-841. 865-990. : Praise of Epicurus and . of False inferences of the the senses . Sound. (/) Thought. D. Analysis of the Poem 2f The atoms (a) (b) are without secondary qualities . i. (b) (c) vital 94-160. 217-378. 26-109. Their corporeal nature and composition. 379-521 mind and infallibility (c) (d) (e) Hearing. \^A. Introduction 1 . : Lucretius's Mission . Proofs of the Mortality of the Soul (This section . Smell . and also with certain biological functions. Taste. .

B. lightning and thunderbolts 96-422. (c) Cause of orbits of heavenly bodies .26 (b) (c) Short Jttialysis of the Food. {h) Pestilences. (d) (e) 877-906. 925-1010. attack on the A. 614-49. view a variety of" occurrences. 451-534. &c. (a) Thunder. . moon and stars . . 235-415. 772-924. 751-70. The Magnet . 1 138-1286. 906-1089. 110-234. Praise of Epicurus . 772-1010. Celestial . . (a) Origin of vegetable and animal life (b) Origin of human life and primitive man of E. 705-50. 564-613. C. 1090-1137. D. 509-33. Book VI explains from the atomic point terrestrial curiosities. 858-76. . (a) Earthquakes 535-607. Attack on the passion of Love deals with our world . partly . Argument of the book 55-109 . 650-704. theological Formation (a) (b) of the world . the sea . (e) Cause of eclipses. (d) The Nile. (/) Cause D. 738-847.564-770. Astronomy. (b) Waterspouts (c) Clouds and Rain. 423-50. . Walking the act Sleep and dreams Love. the gods 1-95. Book V the beginnings of life Introduction . 608-3S. astronomy. The beginnings of civilization. The youth of the world . 1037-57. Size of sun. 712-37. . 416-508. 1058-1287. 639-711. 907-1036. and their variations . B. 534-64. Motions of heavenly bodies. and civilization. 535-1137. (/) Curious fountains 848-905. : A. . : Poem of will . . and teleological view. partly meteorological Introduction : phenomena. 509-33. The world had a beginning and is mortal . (e) Pestilential lakes. (b) (c) Constant size of Volcanoes. 1-54. and its formation. (d) Causes of night and day. 1011-1457. of the moon's light . phenomena 96-534. Terrestrial phenomena . C. Praise of Epicurus . (g) . The Plasnte at Athens .

LUCRETIUS ON THE NATURE OF THINGS BOOK Mother . and swim the racing rivers so surely enchained by thy charm each follows thee in hot desire whither thou goest before to lead him on. puts forth . * And since thou alone art pilot to the nature of things. her sweet-scented flowers for thee the levels of ocean and the sky. I long that mv . . I 11 of Aeneas's sons. its For when anger past. and makest them in hot desire to renew the stock of their races. . goddess. Thou. and thine approach. Then the tame beasts grow wild and bound over the fat pastures. who beneath . the eliding stars of heaven V° Invocation . each after his own kind. light. . gods. the sea that carries the ships and the land that bears the crops ' for thanks to thee every tribe of 1 ' fillest with life to Venus. thine aid comes forth into the and nothing without thou shouldest be bright coasts of light. their hearts thrilled with thy might. creative living things upon power of the light of the sun. the quaint artificer. through seas and mountains . . gleams with spreading once the face of the spring day is revealed and the teeming breeze of the west wind is loosed from prison and blows strong. Yea. and comes forth to look coming smile. joy of men and . Venus Introducn : • the life-giver. goddess. thou at thy is conceived. and tearing rivers and the leafy haunts of birds and ver- dant plains thou dost strike fond love into the hearts of all. for thee earth. nor waxes glad nor lovely. thou dost turn to Nature* flight the winds and the clouds of heaven. first the birds in high heaven herald thee.

For thou only canst bless mortal men with quiet peace. goddess. lest. For of the set out to most high law of the heaven and the gods I will tell you. . to true philosophy. . . my friend. //. mind.. as he lies greedy eyes. he leans resting on thy sacred limbs. since 'tis Mavors. great lady. ing his shapely neck upon thee and looking up he feeds with love his while. creases from which nature creates fosters all things. back. and in- and them. . For neither can we to our task with in our country's time of trouble 11 set can Memmius's undistressed. the lord of hosts. 2 +-$8 helper in writing these verses. his breath hangs upon thy lips. conquered by the eternal wound of love and then pillow. which I essay to trace on the nature of things for the son of the Memmii. who guides the wild works of war. grant a lasting loveliness to my Bring it to pass that meantime the wild works of warfare may be lulled to sleep over all seas and lands. bend to embrace him and pour forth sweet petition from thy lips. severed from cares. you should leave aside in disdain my gifts set forth for you with unflagging zeal. and into which nature too : dissolves 1 them lines again at their perishing are lost here. in these in rendering Some which he passed from addressing Venus to Memmius. goddess. gentle peace for the Romans. do thou (Memmius). gazing wistfully towards thee. and . whom thou. l mind Appeal to Memmius. through all his life hast willed to be bright with every grace beyond his fellows.28 Book /. nor amid such doings noble son n fail the fortunes of the state. for the rest. lend empty . a keen . goddess. before they are understood. Do as thou. ears . . There- fore the more. . seeking. and he upon thy lap oft flings himself back. words. and I will reveal the first-beginnings of things.

" and in mind and spirit traversed the boundless whole . Nay. 'twas a When man of Greece n who meet her. ing. but all the more spurred the eager daring of his mind to yearn to be the first to burst through the close-set bolts that the lively force of his upon the doors of nature. and its deepset boundary-stone. has I Herein have one you are starting 1 ^ given birth to deeds sinful and unholy. n For as soon as from her either cheek in equal lengths. fear. and victory raises us to heaven. the host. which upon Religion. dared first to raise his mortal eyes to and first to stand forth to meet her : him neither the stories of the gods nor thunderbolts checked. and setting foot upon the path of sin. Even as at Sacrifice of Aulis n the chosen chieftains of the Danai. And so religion in revenge is cast beneath men's feet and trampled. lest perchance you think that The on the principles of some unholy reasonjPP. lowering upon mortals with dreadful mien. again and again our foe. yea and in what way each thing has its power limited. foully stained with the blood of Iphianassa the altar of the Virgin of the Cross-Roads. our wont to call matter or the creative bodies of things. y8-8g 29 seeds of things. but on the other hand. And so it was mind won its way. since from them things have their being. crushed by the weight of religion. the life of man lay foul to see and grovelling Epicurus and ai the earth. nor the sky with its revengeful roar. showed her face from the realms of heaven.Book I y our account it is 11. whence in victory he brings us tidings what can come to be and what cannot. and he passed on far beyond the fiery walls of the world. religion. the band braided about her virgin locks streamed as soon as she . and to name them the and again to term them the first all first-bodies. the first of all JpMgenia.

a pure victim she might sorrowing beneath a father's slaughtering stroke. i dream may they even now before you. since everlasting is the know not they must fear in death. or goes to see the shades of Orcus and his waste pools. whether it is born or else and again whether finds way it is torn apart by death and perishes with us. will seek to desert from us. sinking it avail shedding tears at on her knees she and her countrythe sight of her. Sg-mj altar's side. 11 that. The nature of the soul. that a happy and hallowed starting might be granted to the fleet. saw her sorrowing stand at the and near him the attendants hiding men terror. //. '. For they of the soul.30 Book sire 7. For seized by altars. no power to withstand. The its fear of You tnre ats yourself { death and cure. and the threats of seers. fell to earth. who first bore down from pleasant Helicon the wreath of deathless leaves. or by the into them at their birth. how many a tunes. and confound Nay indeed. to win bright fame among . prompt. tongue-tied with their knives. Such evil deeds could religion fall. th e sometime vanquished by the fearsome se er's sayings. trembling was she led to the * when the ancient rite of sacrifice was fulfilled. which might avail to overthrow conjure up in fear all your foryour schemes of life. as our gods' will implants own Ennius 11 sang. is And justly so for a fixed limit to their sorrows. then : if men could see that there with some reason the scruples they might have the strength to stand against As it is there is no of religion. punishment what is the nature its means. Nor could first the luckless maid at such a time that she had not she given the name all of father to the king. itself in other breasts. men's hands. might be escorted by the clear cry of the very foully Hymen but in moment of marriage.

whence comes the see by keen and the nature of the we must mind. whereby you may see to the heart of hidden things. be.. . rose to him. the things on high. so that we seem to see and hear hard by us those who have met death. and thence he tells that the form of that there Homer. where neither our souls nor bodies endure. or again when buried in sleep.. for which I hope. : of nature whose first rule shall take its start for us from nothing is . And yet his Ennius sets forth in the discourse of immortal verse is besides a realm of Acheron.. urge me to bear the burden of any toil. ever green and shed salt tears. because of the poverty of our tongue and the newness of the themes : yet your merit and the pleasure of your sweet friendship. and whose bones are held in the embrace of earth.. shafts of day. but as it were images pale in wondrous wise . this darkness of the mind. but by the outer view and the inner law law .. General be scattered not by the rays of the sun and -the gleamine P" 110 ^' 6*The first . and what thing it is that meets us and affrights our minds in waking life. above must be treated in all when many things new words. and began to and in converse to reveal the nature of things. yea and in what measures. This terror then. and lead me on to watch through the calm nights. fresh.. and by what force soul things are governed and also before all else reasoning.Book the tribes I. I may avail to spread before your mind a bright light. in what the courses of sun and all e deali ^ moon come to on earth. Nor does it pass unnoticed of my mind that it is a hard Lucretius' d' 1 " task in Latin verses to set clearly in the light the dark " 11 ?" discoveries of the Greeks. must needs A. 119-130 31 despite this. Therefore we must both way give good account of Problems to . . 11. of Italian peoples. when we are touched with disease. searching by what words.

and the lively earth in safety brings forth the fragile . while the season is at hand. whose working they can by a divine power brings them when we have seen that nothing can be created out of nothing. and fixed seasons of birth. then is disclosed each thing that comes to birth.3 2 that Book Iy //. men might arise from the and from the land the race of scaly creatures. might be born from First all from nothing. why do we see the roses in spring. they all fruits. things require fixed seeds. and all the tribe of wild beasts.t as it is. because in fixed things there dwells a power set apart. have fixed substance. each thing can be created. things cannot be begotten of and the if it vines bursting out when autumn summons them. would haunt tilth and desert. were there not bodies to bring each birth. then more rightly after that shall we discern that for which we search. Therefore. 15-0-179 n made of nothing. Or again. because they behold many things come to pass on earth this. the cause of see. mother? since all things are is fixed seeds. nothing is ever begotten of nothing by Fear forsooth so constrains all mortal men. sea. thing to Why. and birds burst forth from the sky . Proof all : all things For if things came to being things. for this cause that all 2. be not that when. cattle and other herds. and the corn in summer's heat. and in what way come to be without the aid of gods. out of that which has and 'tis in it the substance and first-bodies of each . all. with no fixed law of birth. every kind nought would need a seed. how could things have a fixed unchanging Bu. each thing produced from born and comes forth into the coasts of light. divine will. both whence no means and think that about. trees. the fixed seeds of things have flowed together. Nor would the same fruits stay constant to the all trees but all would change might avail to bear : For I. and in the sky. in their own time.

Once more. living things renew its kind so that rather you may think that many bodies are common to many things. comes to But and of this it is well seen that nothing slowly. there 3. as we see letters are to words. or live to overpass many generations of living men. if they could grow periods from nothing. from which each may be produced and brought forth into the gentle breezes of the air. leaping from the earth. of growth.and would be no need for lapse of time for the increase of j^ed things upon the meeting of the seed. we must confess that nothing can be brought to being out of nothing. and is fostered out of its own substance. they grow preserve their kind : so that you can know that each thing grows great. Nay more. inasmuch as it needs a seed for things. For little children would grow suddenly to youths. they d produce men so large that on their feet they might wade ^ \°™ through the waters of ocean or rend asunder mighty mountains with their hands.16 - . from food could the nature of or preserve its life . since indeed there would be no first-beginnings which might be kept apart from creative union at an ill-starred season. that a fixed seed. from which it is ordained what can arise f Therefore. as is pass. xe . since all things as grow natural.Book /. suddenly would they arise at uncertain intervals and in hostile times of year. //. nor again held apart ment . foi and at once trees would come forth. if it be not because fixed substance has been appointed for the begetting of things. why could not nature 5. than that without first-beginnings anything can come to being. Lastly. from 4. inasmuch as we see 646. There is this too. and • without fixed rain-showers in the ' year the earth could nounsnnot put forth its gladdening produce. 179-208 But if 33 things into the coasts of lightli they sprang from nothing.

follows this. all from our eyes. they are blessed with an immortal nature all things . that nature breaks its Then again into own Otherwise I. up each thing nor does she destroy first-bodies. assuredly . But if ploughshare there were none such. them after how is it that its native springs and the rivers from without. Book 7. nature 2. and pass away. Moreover. things are put together of everlasting seeds. furnishing food for their kind?. all its each thing would on a sudden be snatched parts. For there would be no its all things would be destroyed at need of any force. if time utterly destroys whatsoever through age it takes from sight. once . how how is it that Venus brings back the life. of which this sum of things consists and is replenished. But if in all that while. or to make its way inward through the empty suffers voids and break things up. coming from it afar. such as might cause disunion in But as it is. the quaint artificer. because parts and unloose its fastenings. and culture makes the soil more fertile. in the ages that are gone by. until some force has met them to batter things asunder with its blow. nor could the world be re- not the destruction of anything to be seen. we must know that there are in the earth first-beginnings of things. worked by hands yield better produce. you would see all things without call forth to birth toil of ours of their own will come to be far better. 208-237 when and that tilled grounds are better than the untilled.34 6. The second law : nothing resolved into is nothing. its substance. 11 For if anything were jnortal in ought into nothing. race of living things after their kind into the light of or when she has. which we by turning the teeming sods with the and drilling the soil of the earth. and devours all plenished . nurse and increase them. //. does earth. that the sky feeds the stars ? For keep the sea full ? how is infinite time and the days that are gone by must needs have devoured all things that are of mortal body. those things have existed.

. the rains pass away. but all by dissolution pass back into the first-bodies of matter. back to nothing. seeing eternal substance held all that none of these things would be of everlasting body. see glad towns alive with children. ° them together. since I have taught you that things cannot The be created of nought nor likewise when begotten be called 5Xlstence c 2 of . through them a new brood with tottering their legs sports wanton among the soft grass. unless an sam f. through them we . Come now. the cannot then be turned to nought. things endure with body unharmed.Book Iy force 11.ncr *ase °* increase another. the 1< ss ? of mother . and cause would destroy things alike. baby hearts thrilling with the pure milk. since nature renews one thing from out another. our father. unless she be requited by another's death. has cast them headlong into the lap of earth. Lastly. part with part destroy interwoven closely or loosely by its fastenings. the all 37 same 3. every side ring with the young birds' cry through them the cattle wearied with fatness lay their limbs to rest over the glad pastures. nor suffers anything to be begotten. until proved strong enough to overNo single thing then passes there meets them a force come the texture of each. because the fastenings of the firstasunder. means the and the branches grow green upon the trees. our 4. For in ^f\ truth a touch would be cause enough of death. as it is. and their substance is everlasting. and the white milky stream trickles from their swollen udders . whose texture any kind of force would be bound to break But as it is. but the bright crops spring up. and leafy woods on . when the sky. 217-266 And again. elements are variously put together. Not utterly then perish all things that are seen. the trees too grow and are laden with fruit by them next our race and the race of beasts is nourished.

they push things and dash them on with constant assault . . \et me tell bodies. because the first- back to nothing. Wind. and tear and harry them with sudden hurricane . and harries the mountain-tops with blasts that rend the woods : with such fierce whistling the wind rages and ravens with angry roar. First of all the might of the awakened wind lashes the ocean and o'erwhelms vast ships and scatters the clouds. There are therefore. which you must I. and anon scouring the plains with tearing hurricane it strews them with great trees. some strong stream they have swooped towards any side. needs confess yourself are among things and yet cannot be seen. nevertheless by any chance you should begin to distrust supported by other invisible my beginnings of things cannot be descried with the eyes. un- seen bodies of wind. you besides of other bodies. which sweep sea and land. and all rolls 1 and dashes beneath its waves huge rocks and the blasts of wind too like Thus then must needs be borne on and when that bars flood. bounteous rains and hurling together broken branches trees too . the river piles : In such wise. Read ruitque et quidquid.3<* invisible particles is Book lest I. fore again and again there are unseen bodies 1 Whereof wind. swollen by a great rush of water dashing down from the high mountains after from the woods. nor can the strong up against the sudden force of the advancing rain. they stream on and spread havoc in no other way than when the soft nature of water is borne on in a flood o'erflowing in a moment. turbid with much rushes with might and main against the aloud it roaring its spreads ruin. yea. and the clouds of heaven. 11. and whole bridges bear flood. sometimes in eddying whirl they seize them up and bear them away in swiftly swirling hurricane. we may be sure. . 266-2QJ words.

8. Then again we smell the manifold scents of things. nor do 3. the the feet of the multitude . the bent iron ploughshare secretly grows smaller in the fields. we behold warm eyes. if it nothing can touch and be touched. the straining sight of the eye can never behold. must needs consist of bodily nature. the ring on the finger becomes thin beneath by fall of dripping water hollows the stone. again. been seen in what way the moisture of the water has sunk into them. and yet we do not ever descry them coming to the nostrils. //. mighty streams. Once more. by the city-gates the brazen statues reveal that their right hands are wearing thin through the touch of those who greet them ever and again as they pass upon as their way. devoured . grow damp. inasmuch make impact on our senses. and we see the paved stone streets worn away by see. where the waves break. Growth- impelling them to grow in due proportion. by the thin Nor where salt spray. 7. Yet never has it they can be not body. All these things then they are rubbed away : yet what particles leave them at each moment. garmerits hung up upon the shore. Scent. and again spread in the sun they dry. nor can we *j Sound.Heat. whatsee we grow less. which the eyes can in no way Nay more. Therefore the moisture is dispersed into tiny particles. whose body all may see. as the sun's year rolls round again and again. nor is it grasp cold with the ours to descry voices . the envious nature of our sight has shut us out from seeing. 296-326 37 deeds and ways they are found to a. yet all these things heat. as 6. Moisture. and ever time and nature adds little by little to things. For. nor again wherever things grow old through time and decay. The !dence ° ^ wearing.Book inasmuch rival as in their /. Lastly. rocks overhang the sea. nor again in what way it has fled before the heat.

by bodies unseen that nature works her will. and differences along which each see this see of these bodies would not come to pass might pass. many will save 1. and disThere is then a void. w^ j we Qne ^[^g surpass another in weight. nothing. 3. But as it is. stiffening cold through but were there no empty works its way to the bones : spaces. when . And side yet all by the nature of body. therefore. we void. through seas and lands and the high tracts of descry many things by many means moving in diverse ways before our eyes. for that which is the office ° of body. trickles : living thing : trees grow and thrust forth is their fruit in due of all season. by no means cou [.^ things move . Without untouchable impos- void motion is sible. things are not held close pressed on every for there is void in things. however solid things may be thought to t }1 j s y OU can discern that they are of rare viousnessof seeming In rocky caverns the liquid moisture of water through. The Void. For if there were not. and all weeps with copious dripping food spreads itself this way and that into the body of every body. 327-3 $9 'Tis then could you see what they lose at each moment. you by any means.3 8 Book /. //. which. because the food dispersed into every part them from the lowest the branches. but rather could in no way have been born at all. since matter would on every side be in close-packed a. mere space trusting my words. to offend and hinder. 11 this will it To be of profit to you in dealing with you from wandering in doubt and always questioning about the sum of things. would at every moment be present to all things . and empty. less would not so much be robbed and baulked of rest- motion. if there were not heaven. since nothing could give the example of yielding place. have learnt things . could advance. roots through the stems and Noises creep through walls and fly the shut places in the house. Void stillness. Again. accounts for ^ y et f rom Again.

They say that the waters give place to without the scaly creatures as they press forward and open up a liquid path. which comes to be between the bodies. Still. will the scaly creatures ' ' be able to move forward. in it and that it contains far less empty space Therefore.'"§ move to go without an empty space ? again. or we must say that void is mixed with things. much. but on the other hand the heavier thing avows that there is more body within. that it has more void . to which the waters may flow together that even so other things too can as they yield : and move among themselves is and change truth this place. For whither. because the fishes leave places behind. — Herein lest avail to lead that which some vainly imagine n should The you astray from the truth. from which each thing can receive the first start of movement.-° e the office of body to press all things but on the other hand the nature of void downwards. however rapid the rush with which it streams together as its currents hasten round. albeit the whole solid. since 'tis For there is much body in weight in it is natural it should weigh ° ^ j. . when the fishes cannot unless the waters have left go forward? either then we must deny motion to every body. we may be sure. whither room t0 will the waters be able to give place. Lastly. How can s I ask. 2. we may be sure. I am constrained false ° m l°^n T01 * to forestall it. yet seems lighter. remains without weight. . if two broad bodies leap asunder quickly from 11 a meeting. l is all believed on false reasoning.Book /. surely it must needs be that air seizes upon all the void. it tells us. . There void i9 1 1 1 • • a t momen- between bounding bodies. In very i. 3$9~3 8 9 if B9 as in a bale of as no whit bigger ? wool as in lead. that exist which we are seeking with keen reasoning. its size is //. does mingled in things that which we call void. So because it is just as big. yet in one instant the whole empty space cannot be filled : for it must needs be that .

lairs of when once they you on sure to traces of their track. you many an But these : light footprints are enough for a keen mind For as by them dogs rangwild are set will you may detect the rest for yourself. all its parts. he goes astray . however long you hang back with much objection. i8g-^io last all comes. that I fear lest sluggish : my own word to age creep over our limbs and loosen within us the fastenon one ings of life. so for yourself be able in such themes as this to see one thing after another.. ' nature then. one The growth of knowledge. ing over mountains often find by scent the beasts shrouded under leafage. But now. could it. this I can promise you. Memmius. But if by chance any one thinks n that wnen bodies have leapt apart. and then at the Falseideaof t e condensation room is taken up. nor. before that the whole store of proofs single theme be launched all in my verses into The two natures. . to weave again { ' at the your ears. nor can air again concl ense j n suc h a way. discourse.. becomes empty which was not so before. web. on the truth thence. you must needs confess at last that there is . is built of these two things for there are bodies and the .4o it fills Book Iy each place as it 11. I And by telling can heap up proof for my words. I trow. and that is filled which was empty before. Wherefore. . besides . without void draw into itself and gather into . if indeed it could. so surely will my sweet tongue pour forth bounteous draughts from the deep well-springs you out of the treasures of my heart. ' : of itself. for in that which is impossible without void. win your way to all the secret places and draw out But if you are slack or shrink a little from my theme. then this comes to be r r ' of air : because the case that air condenses. instance. void in things. which is the task as it is matter and void.

be naught to which we can make appeal about things hidden. inasmuch as it cannot on any side check anything from wandering through it and passing on its way. Or or again. Properties to be their accidents. is no the list. will do something or it will suffer itself while other things act be such that things may exist and upon it. . in 11. nor could they wander at all hither and thither in any direction . is a in no . it 1. must needs be something however small and light. on in it. and Accident*.Book Iy void. there will feeling be firmly grounded hither and thither. body by a bulk great or maybe and be added to its sum. which we call void. And so besides void left in fall can be the list and bodies no third nature by itself of things. . unless it be void and empty space. For whatever shall exist. if it exists at all. or be grasped by any one through reasoning of the mind. . And to prove aught by the reasoning of the next. m things you which That property . is the empty either void. Body or j? # ac void . them . in truth it will be that which we call it a. while before. 420-4 5 1 41 which they are placed and where they move For that body exists is declared by and unless faith in this the feeling which all share alike at once and prevail. were there not room and empty space. in itself will and if it suffer touch. 1 • • •. For all things that have a name. so as mind. whatsoever exists by itself. But nothing can do or suffer without body. Touch matter intangi- increase the count of if is small. But not to be touched. as it were a third nature in which could be discovered. and this I have above shown to you but a little Besides these there is nothing which you There l ir could say is parted from all body and sundered from void. go nor afford room again. nowhere could bodies be placed. you will find either properties linked to these 1. two or will see . which might either at any time within the purview of our senses. .

when men say that the rape of Tyndarus's > ? argument events. but an thinss a feeling. t[ a separa e mQ ex existence. in which all things are carried on. sts ' And it must be avowed that no man feels time by False itself Then war e ' apart from the motion or quiet rest of things. slavery. Or again. . II. riches. J ' just ° because the past ages have carried off beyond recall those f whom. avow that these things exist in themselves. when the sons of the Greeks issued from its womb. in another even t ^ie re gi° ns °f space. Time is not and other things by whose coming and going the nature of things abides untouched. and are not by themselves like body. nor swelling deep in the Phrygian heart of Alexander have kindled the burning battles of savage war. race3 f men ' ' ' For is firstly. are no more. concord. poverty. if there had been no sub- calied accients or places 2. then present now. 451-480 case can be sundered or separated without the fatal dis- union of the thing. ' n again.42 Book I. in truth. nor can they be spoken of in the same way as the being . stance of things nor place and space. never would the flame of love have been without matter and could not 6 re d by the beauty of Tyndaris. these were the accidents. and further what is going to be here. as is natural. war. touch to all bodies. daughter or « th e are things. moisture to water. beware that they vanquishing of the Trojan tribes in do not perchance con- strain us to who?e acci ents they were. n but from actual thins? comes ° ' what was brought to a close in time past. persons. On the other hand. we might well say that whatsoever has happened But m'av b^ °^ an accident in one case of the countries. these we are used. as is weight to rocks. is not by itself. nor unknown of the Trojans would the timber horse have set Pergama aflame at dead of night. intangibility to the void. to call accidents. have last So that you may see clearly that all events from first to do not exist. heat to fire. Even so liberty. what after.

The things. then too the hardness of gold is relaxed and softened by heat. as do shouts and cries . since sum of things now stands created. wherever body has its station. which we show to be the and their first-beginnings. for they it by their solid body prevail atoms Albeit seems hard to believe that there can be found among things anything of solid body. in which they are carried on. means empty void. there is by no exists alone . But yet because true reasoning and the nature of things constrains us. fierce fire and stones seethe in and leap asunder . Bodies. i i no force can quench in the end. l - of things far differing. iron grows white hot in the flame. it nature Proofs. Moreover. until in a few verses we set forth that there are things which exist seeds of things with solid and everlasting body. when the dewy moisture of water was poured in from above. in part those which are created by the union of pan c es Now the true first-beginnings of things. one and all. . out of which the whole First. So true is it that in things there is seen to be nothing solid. body is not there empty. are solid first-beginnings. give heed. moreover. and the ice of brass yields beneath the flame and melts . but rather so that the accidents of body and place. For the thunderbolt of heaven passes through walled houses. warmth and piercing cold ooze through silver. For wherever space lies which we call the void. since there is void in . by itself and unmixed. Therefore the first bodies are solid and free from void. 4. we have found existing a twofold body and things take place. moreover. Void and in which all must needs be that each mutually exclusive. are in part the first-beginnings of B. the nature of of space. since when we have held cups duly in our hands we have felt both alike.Book Iy 11.80-511 you might justly call 43 them of the void.

from . nor again can they be pierced to the heart and undone. the more is it assailed to the heart to totter. or broken or cleft in twain by cutting.44 2. whereby all things are brought to their end. off such it as can mark void space from what is full. when all else is dissolved. the whole empty void space. matter had not been everlasting. Therefore. Book 7. in Matter then. then. These cannot be broken and is therefore eternal. And the more each thing keeps void within it. since there quite empty. enclose void. Body. nor can what has been begotten be summoned I I have shown. Other- wise all things would ere now have perished. totter nor by any other way can they be assailed and made to all of which I have above shown to you but . to fill all universe would be but the places that they held. is is marked from void turn and turn about. things had wholly passed away to nothing. For it is clear that nothing could be crushed in without void. if there were distin- guishes the full nothing which was empty and void. neither a world utterly full nor yet There are therefore bodies determined. But since have shown above that nothing can be created from nothing. a little while before. can be everNext. exists Body is that which lasting. Now it can be nothing but a union of matter. nor can anything by true reasoning be shown to hide void its body and hold it within. as if if the first by these things and begins bodies are solid and free from void. and all that we see had been born again from nothing. which could keep in the void in things. Moreover. they must be everlasting. ere this all . 4. nor admit moisture nor likewise spreading cold or piercing flame. solid matter must needs stand all round. off we may be sure. //. with solid body. except you grant that what keeps it in is solid. which 3. cannot be broken up when hit by blows from without. the whole would be solid unless on the other hand there were bodies . the void determined. s 1 i—S 44 Body must be solid to things created.

maturity see that anything you put together again. 11. could never be re. ° each nothing could be conceived out of them within a fixed for we time. Therefore the first-beginnings are of solid singleness. nature will lack a first-beginning of There are then bodies that prevail in their all . air. when once void has been mingled in impossible. 544-574 4f back to nothing. yet we can give account of the come to be. it will not be possible to give flints account whence hard and iron can be created . water. though the first-bodies of all Solid matter are quite soft things that solid. Again. disordering and in all newed gone by. things. and by what force each reverse is what ' °' » goes on its way.Book J. of things But on the other hand. the age of ere broken up than Wherefore what the long limitless and will is more easily now. by make soft w &$ 1 means they come to being. If there of things. nor in any other way can they be preserved through the ages from infinite time now gone and renew things. a set limit pa$ all time that is i we been appointed. fires. since put together again. into which at their last day all things can be dissolved. we may be see each thing in the life. ' . and pass on to the full measure of its life . . which they may be able to reach the flower of their 6. by now limit so far brought low by the breaking of ages past. if the first-beginnings were to be soft. the first-beginnings must needs be of immortal body. had broken wou d now dissolving. There is this too that. that there may be matter enough for renewing things. to breaking has. But as it is. sure. for from the first foundation. if nature had ordained 11 no limit to the breaking the bodies of matter would have been 5. earth. age of days. that division.have gone ie P ait* time that remains. and at the same time fixed seasons ordained for all things after their kind.

which are the least things we 1 likewise. too. and what too they cannot. debet item ratione pari minimum esse cacumen . j7 4-6 00 solid singleness. harmony with blows. the first-beginnings of things could any way and changed. manner of its life and movements of the parents. but that all things stand so fast that the diverse birds all in their due order of their kind are sure. too. one analogy of perceptible extremities after another see. limit of been appointed for all things growing and of maintaining ordained what all and inasmuch as it stands ence of *pecies.46 Book Iy 11. they we may be For if body of unchanging i>e substance. in what way each thing has its power limited and deepset boundary-stone. further. since there has after their kind a life. nor could the tribes each after their kind so often recall the nature. there must be a least point) on 1 Two lines are probably lost here. things Moreover. such that themselves must be eternal. have a show that the marks must also. on their body. If there are not things. then. since there are 9. still no limit has been appointed to the breaking it must needs be that all the bodies of atoms. things things survive even now from time everlasting. what might not. vanquished in yea. (on bodies. The Then. things severally can do by the laws of nature. quod iam nobis minimum esse videtur. would it be doubtful what might come to being. can extreme points n . Eternal Once atoms account for the persist- again. nor is anything so changed. by whose more close-packed union all can be riveted and reveal their stalwart strength. the sense of which has been admirably restored by Munro: corporibus. it is not in which is clearly untrue. habits. But since they exist endowed with a frail nature. they cannot yet have been assailed by any danger. of if 7. this that they have been able to abide for time harried through all the ages by countless everlasting 8.

and for thing are e<lua ' There will be no difference however completely the whole sum be infinite. And since true reasoning cries out against and denies that the mind can believe it. those first-beginnings too you must II if needs own are solid and everlasting. The first-beginnings then are of solid singlethey cannot ness . all The the creatress. nor will anything set a limit. yet things that are tiniest will be composed of infinite parts just the same. universe „ \ smallest ence then will there be between the the least of things ? sum of things . you must be vanquished and confess that there are those things which consist of no parts at all and are of the least nature. since it is itself part of another and that the first single part : then other like parts and again others in order in close but a array make up the nature exist of the first body. from them nature. for they are a close dense mass of least parts. if there the tiniest bodies will be composed of infinite parts. for the reason that things which t h. . and since by themselves. 10. never put together out of a union of those parts. nor ever to be removed. And since these exist. n es. but rather prevailing in everlasting singleness . if nature. which our senses can no longer descry point. Unless e keeping safe the seeds of things. had been used to constrain things to be separ ated dissolved into their least parts. exists without parts and is endowed with the least nature.Book J9 11. it must needs be that fast there whence they cannot by any means be they stay torn away. then she could not again could not renew aught of them. Moreover. apart by nor can it so be hereafter. since indeed the half of a half will always the an have a half. 47 that proves the single- that body. . nor was it ever sundered itself atoms. suffers not anything to be torn away. this. we may be sure. be not a least thing. And again. a . What differ' ° ' all . 600-6 $1 .

sum if of fire has as well. 1. would be of if no avail that hot fire should condense or grow rare. Heraclitus's sum composed * alone. who seek after the truth. 1 Read mussant and place semicolon after purum. But because they see many things to thwart them. who . i. created of fire alone and unmixed. far diversity of things 2. enters the fray. For fools laud and love all things more which they can descry hidden beneath twisted sayings.48 Book Iy 11 6$i-6 6 1 are not enlarged by any parts. and weaker than this there But further were they sundered and scattered. and that the whole ° fire fire is is the subof That one element is the primal substance. This too there [ is : demes the g\ e £ void and so vitiates his n things. void unmixed 1 while they fear the heights. weights. For it variety of things. yet rather among the of empty-headed than among the Greeks of weight. Wherefore those who have thought that stance of things. the fires will they were to hold that void is minbe able to condense or be owntheory. C. would be the parts were drawn together. and they set up for true what can tickle the ear with a pretty sound and is tricked out with a smart ring. all things must condense among things lose the true track. movements. the diverse fastenings. is nothing which you can think might come He to pass from such a cause. the parts of fire had the same nature which For fiercer the whole the flame. are seen to fall very far is from true reasoning. It does not account jj For I am t h e y are eager to know how things could be so diverse. . by which all things are carried on. . come from if fires less might the great condensed and rare. they hold their peace and shrink from allowing left rare. blows. 658. of Heraclitus 11 their leader . nor again do they perceive that. have not those powers which must belong to creative matter. meetings. again. False theories. first « doctrine bright fame for his dark sayings. they if void be removed from things.

and when are not made like to fire change their nature. so that you has not parts close-packed. the truth is this . a ^ omic view. and others be added. and shapes make their order changes. which by is is able to send off bodies to our senses and touch 4. I trow. and that there no other real thing in the whole count of things. But. then. whose meetings. and some changed the nature of heat if despite this all retained whatever they might create would be in every way fire. . since there are The true most determined which keep nature safe ever the same. Moreover. straightway this is the death of that which was before.Book /. should give place and pass away. Herac ltus collision our sense of touch. order.Fire ever chance they believe that in some other way fires may be other things quenched in union and alter their substance. in very means . they fires. . //. 661-691 49 and be made one body out of many. But if per- 3. For whenever a thing changes and passes out of its own limits. truth it . and they nor to any other thing either. As it is then. through whose coming and going and shifting order things change their nature and bodies are certain bodies altered. lest left untouched to those you find all things returning utterly to nothing. and the store of things born again and growing strong out of nothing. For it would be no matter that some in order. movefor ments. we may be sure. Indeed something must needs be fires. all heat will perish utterly to nothing. but 546-15 ~ . to say that fire is all things. position. there are certain bodies. . and all things created will come to be out of nothing. are not of you can be sure that these first-bodies of things fire. 1 ii- -i ultimate destruction. they do not spare to do this at any point. brings warmth casts may see that it abroad light and heat. such as could not send out anything from it in hot haste even as fire that .

and that the whole sum may be built of fire. fire. or (c. and those who have set up air as the first-beginning f or t he begetting of things. while with narrow strait a tearing sea sunders with its waves the coasts of Italy's lands from the island-borders. or again all who have thought that moisture fashions things alone by itself. 691-723 fights himself all same Heraclitus does. seems to be raving frenzy. whereby we may mark off things true and false ? Besides. substance of things. this which are no whit less bright to see. with salt many a winding inlet. as this 11. For he believes that the senses can know fire aright. Of them in the forefront comes n Acragas . For on behalf of the senses he against the senses. For to what shall we Why fire ? What can be surer for us than the senses themselves. but not all other things. and here the rumblings of Aetna threaten . alike idle and frenzied. and rain. and those who Empethink that all 000 earth. and undermines those on which that he believes must hang. of four. twofold. linking air to fire or earth to water. whereby he himself has come to know that which he names fire. choose w 1y ] should an y one rather annul all things. can grow up out of four things. than deny that and grant That in its stead that another nature exists? For it (a) seems equal madness to say the one or the other. or that earth creates all and passes into all the natures of things. and wish to fire exists. Wherefore those who have thought that fire is the other elemerits are the primal substance. leave only the nature of heat. wind. Add or(b)acom. And seems to appeal? me 5. splashing green waves. bmation of tQ t h em too tnose wn0 ma ke the first-beginnings of things two. around which flows Empedocles n of the Ionian ocean. him that island bore within the three-cornered coasts of its lands.fo impugns the only Book Iy fire. Here is devastating foam from its Charybdis.seem to have strayed very far away from the truth.

beasts. nay godlike fashion. and is said to deserve in goodly things. seeing. nothing more holy. they set no limit at all to the cutting of bodies. and crops. stock. and once more dash to the sky its flashing flames. and great and heavy away the void 1. but suppose movement. the songs of his godand set forth his glorious so that he seems scarce born of human loved. a rich more marvellous and like heart lift discoveries. they from things. division* that no halting-place is set to their breaking. //. 3. yet it is seen to have held nothing mighty in it more glorious than this man. And that when we see that there is that extreme point in each thing. n Nay. : First because they take great were they. earth. air. and gave answers as from the shrine of their hearts in school : more holy wise and with reasoning far more sure than the Pythian priestess who speaks out from the tripod and laurel of Phoebus. which is seen to be the least to our senses. and strengthened with wealth of men. fire. And though this mighty country seems in many ways marvellous to the tribes of men. and leave things soft and rare. so that you can infer from this that the is cannot see extreme point in things which you the least in them. sunlight.Book to gather once in its 7. though they discovered much in good. 723-75 3 yi more the flames of its wrath. ™p oc S: ^. yet in the first-beginnings of things they came to grief their fall therein. and yet mingle no void in their body. nor again is there any least among things. and beneath him. Then follows this D 2 . up their voice Yet he and those whom I named before. Then because they hold that there is voi J. weaker than Errors of far he by exceeding many degrees. that again might it may belch forth the fires bursting from its throat.

with our thought reversed? For how they are begotten turn by turn. //. or. that in union no one of them pounds. if the onward. Then again. and heat to cleave to moisture. you will see that nothing can be created out of them. is created from existing with its own The flux of the But indeed they trace it back to heaven and heaven's the breezes fires. 753-783 to birth and that. these things are in many ways . call when they meet they apart. and air in the be seen to be mixed together with earth. as when a storm fly if away. either so fly bolts 5. diverse mass each thing will reveal will Indeed in the mingling of this its own nature. no. elements ? can they be called the first-beginnings of things any more than things the first-beginnings of them. hostile. far both this and that are from the truth. and grow strong out of nothing. nor one with lifeless body. and hold that fire first turns itself into . like a tree. things come endowed throughout with a mortal body. the whole sum of things must then return to naught. But first-beginnings ought a secret and unseen begetting of things to bring to bear nature. you 4.J-2 3. what could they create ? changes its nature. that nothing may stand out which might bar and thwart whatever true being. the one to the other will pass therefore another. 7. since they suppose the first-beginnings of things see elements are soft soft. or they will gathers we see the thunderare created and rain and wind asunder. and And how will know by now. from four things and all again things the primal substance of the are dissolved into those things. not a living thing. and the store of things be born again. elements do fire not change in comelse But if perchance you think that the body of and the body of earth and the breezes of the air and the dewy moisture so unite. and change their colour and all their nature one with the other from all time 6. pernicious to one nay poison. all Why not Again. their Book which we /.

be loosened from all its true . straightway this is the death of that which was before. and then earth. Wherefore since the things we have named in a little before pass into a state of interchange. .Book I. are nourished of the sky fosters . few are removed and a few added. make the breezes of the the and that thus But. none could grow. each in their turn. Why not rather suppose that a nature. and their order and sky. cherishes them. and all the life too would all our sinews and bones. For whenever a thing changes and passes out of its own limits. 784-813 5-3 elements of the sky. ou f . which cannot any case be altered. For it must needs be that something abides unchangeable. so that the trees rock ' them with beneath the e . But the first-beginnings ought in no wise to do this. and other things again. ' movement all ' is changed. we should lose our flesh. and grow from the earth up into the breezes f^m'the and unless the season at a propitious time presence of rain. moisture. truth. from earth to the stars of the firmament. first all begotten rain. there are certain bodies that. that thence created earth. the facts show clearly that all things 8. in very trees. crops. and that these things never cease their mutual changes. elements in outpouring of the storm-clouds. lest you find all things returning altogether to naught. they must needs be made of other things. is 11. unless we too were nurtured by dry food and soft moisture. and of rain is things pass back again from "j^T nence.' Yes. For beyond doubt we are nurtured and nourished upon things determined. living creatures. they can too. and bestows and the sun for its part growth. . its heat on them. if endowed with such and when a by chance they have created fire. next air. that all things be not altogether brought to naught. in their path from heaven to earth.' things are changed one into another? you say. then heat.

trees. that fire is made of fires. in meria of things you must know that he thinks that bones are made of very small and tiny bones. for the same build up sky. So great is the power of letters by a mere change But the first-beginnings of things can bring to bear. matter with what others those first-beginnings are bound up. Indeed scattered abroad in my verses you see many letters common to many words. — First —what easy to he calls the homoeo- many and water r. sea. and all he denies imagines in the . and the earth grow together out of little earths. and in what position. on things determined. sun. of order.T4 Book /. nevertheless the thing itself it set forth in words. the same too crops. of water-drops. and yet you must needs grant that verses and words are unlike both in sense and in the ring of their sound. and that gold again can be built up of grains of gold. but only when mingled with different things and moving in different ways. living creatures. and blood is created of drops of blood coming together in union. //. and what movements they mutually give and receive . same way. we may be sure. nor that there is up of bodies. that so diverse things And often it is of great are nourished on diverse food. and flesh of small and tiny pieces of flesh. as the Greeks term it. by which all more means created. 813-84? Yea. Therefore in this . though the poverty of our it is Anaxagoras : country's speech does not suffer us to name own tongue . diverse things may be Anaxaour The homoeomeria of Now let us also search into the homoeomeria of n goras. And the rest he pictures and yet he does not allow the void that there is a limit to the cutting void in things on any side. it is because common in many ways to many many first-beginnings things are mingled among things. rivers. earth.

he does for c h an g e# 1 then it will be that all food. and have in them little bodies of sinews. and smoke and ash. since 'tis food that increases and nourishes the body. //. I call to witness what I have before now proved. and away. pictures his first-beginnings too are first-beginnings. If in logs flame lurks hidden. the earth must be composed of things alien in kind. it 1 Lambinus supplied the sense of et a missing verse esse. will be altogether as mortal as the things when everything alike we see clearly before our eyes vanquished by some violence and passing away. Moreover. I trow. so as to escape death in the very jaws of destruction? fire or moisture or breeze? which of these? blood or bones ? Not one. yes and liquid too.° . you may use the same words again. of bones and sinews and matter and blood mingled together. it must needs rise which be that the logs are composed of things alien in kind. if all bodies that grow from out the earth are in the earth. Moreover. division . he sets imi "J. : nervos alienigenis ex partibus .°. nor does anything rein them back from their which exist \ destruction. nor again grow from nothing. of whom I told above. all the bodies which the earth nourishes. both dry. which suffer none the less. Shift this to another field. up out of the earth.Book 7. parts alien in kind) j 4. you may know that our veins and blood and bones (and sinews are created of or if they say that all foods are of mingled substance. Moreover. For which of them all will hold out beneath strong pressure. must be thought to consist of things alien in kind. 8 4?-8 7 •? 5-5- point and that he seems to me to go astray just as they Add too to this that he did. pass if indeed those 3. his first weak c es are endowed with a nature P^I things themselves. like : 2. But that things cannot fall away into nothing. and bones and indeed veins and portions of gore.

scattered about among in logs. (from things alien in kind. which rise up out Anaxa" Herein there all J left a slight chance of hiding from for himself. quae terris exoriuntur. or one of those things which are nourished in our body. when oug ° crushed by the threatening strength of rock. lastly that ash and smoke should be seen when they were broken But since facts clearly off. k ut that that one thing comes out clear. gore should ooze forth. The ' argu- But often on mighty mountains sa ^' ' it comes to pass. though in hiding. were right then that corn also. In the same way it were fitting that blades of grass too and pools of water should often give out sweet drops with a savour like the richness of the milk of fleecy beasts. the earth. kinds of grasses and corn and leaves should be seen. then they most parts mingled in. and tiny flames in of these hiding. whereof there are in the forefront. and that often when sods of earth are crumbled. should often give out some sign of blood. hiding in tiny form. which rise up out So too the bodies which logs emit. show that none pass. upon is things alien in kind.' forest con- ^ ou J t ^iat t 'ie flagrations. you may be sure that things are not so mingled in other things. aluntur . but that seeds common to many things lie mingled and hidden in things in many things comes to ways. 873-898 of the earth. 11. Two : lines seem to neighbouring tops of tall trees rub be lost here. stationed more ready to view and But this is very far banished from true For it reasoning. of which Munro has supplied the sense es alienigenis. to hold that fion*- S< ust i ce > which Anaxagoras grasps things are ' all things • things are mingled. in all things. and that when we rub it with stone on stone.$6 increases Book I. are x nourished) of the logs. sic itidem quae ligna cmittunt corpora.

receive. and at once has struck into my breast the sweet love of the muses. ways . and listen to to see in mind how dark clearer D. but that you must suppose first-bodies of matter endowed with a nature like the whole. it will come to be that they will be shaken with quivering mirth and laugh aloud. and burn the trees to ashes. I. Nay. and that the same and what movements they mutually give a little changed with one f another can create beams or flames themselves have their letters Even as the words changed. Lucre- are the tiu s . words. Once Reductioad a again. the fires could not have been concealed for any time. they would consume the forests one and all. what I said but a little The true while ago. \ mission. create fires in the forests. never trodden before by the foot of man. fire. whereby now inspired with strong mind I traverse the distant haunts of the Pierides. by this reasoning you see the first-beginclear to nings of things pass away. But if the flame had been hidden away ready-made in the forests. that it is of very great matter often with what others those same first-beginnings are bound up. which when they have flowed together through the rubbing.Book together. learn I Nor do but fail what remains.' and they blaze fire is with And yet you must know that seeds of implanted in their wood. and in p]anat j on# what and position. and wet face and cheeks with salt tears. a great hope has smitten my heart with the sharp spur of fame. Come now. 'Tis my joy to approach those untasted springs and drink my fill. Do you not then see now. 'tis . but there are many heat. if you think that all that you can descry in things but little ' be seen cannot come to being. //. to it. when with sound distinct we signify beams or flames. 899-92$ J7 them not when the strong south winds constrain until at last a flowery flame gathers.

whether there be a certain limit to their full sum or not . since this often seems too bitter to those who have philosophy full not tasted it. but rather by such means may be restored beguiled as far as the and come to health and the multitude . while by such means to keep your mind set upon my you come to see the whole nature of things. //. shrinks back away from I have desired to set forth to you my reasoning in the sweet- tongued song of the muses. so that the unwitting age of children may be drink the lips. carried on. shape and figure. let us unfold. it. For that too is seen to be not without good reason but even as healers. and meanwhile may bitter draught of wormwood. First because I from the a dark teach about great things. and hasten to free the mind close bondage of religion. then because on theme I trace verses so full of light. when they to give loathsome wormwood to children. since I have taught that the fly what The pro era o is its But matter most solid bodies of about for ever unvanquished through the ages.5*8 Book joy to pluck /. bounded in no direction of to have an extreme wou u be bound . universe then t jlen jt and immeasurably deep. touching all with the muses' charm. so now. or room or space. let us see clearly whether it is all altogether bounded or spreads out a. limitless is The is j ts universe The whole wa ^ s f or . and as though to touch it with the pleasant honey of poetry. come now. and likewise the void that we There is no limit to h aV e discovered. in which all things are things. if perchance I might avail verses. 928-959 a glorious coronal my for new flowers and gather my head from spots whence before the muses have never wreathed the forehead of any man. first touch essay the rim all round the cup with the sweet golden moisture of honey. . and though charmed may not be harmed.

/. and throw a flying dart. . and wherever you shall set the what then becomes of the dart. //. Yet both shut off your escape and constrain you to grant that the For whether there universe spreads out free from limit. would you . take your stand matter in which quarter of it you so true is it that. to nur leddarr its furthest coasts. in Space is m e " . the d before our eyes one thing as a wall bound another sea air sens J t between the hills. pyp-p8p 5-9 infinite : Now it is seen that nothing can have an extreme point. As it is. unless there be something beyond to so that there is seen to be a spot further than bound it. have it on whither that that dart. I shall ask It will In this way i will press on. goes it is sped and flies afar. if one were to run on to the end. Moreover. land all bounds the sea. and mountains between no and again is analogy. bounds lands . set and 3. the space in the whole universe were and were created with borders deter- b. it has not an extreme point. or do you think that something can check and bar its way? For one or the other you must needs admit and choose.Book point. on every side. whole boundless just as much . lacks therefore bound and limit. room is for flight ever prolongs the is chance of Lastly. Nor does .. yet the universe in truth there nothing to limit outside. tracts of air. nature of our sense cannot follow it. we must admit that there it is nothing outside the whole sum. he leaves the . hurled with might and main. is something to check it and bring it about that it arrives not whither it whether it fares forward. nor plants itself in the goal." ing point . or not forth from the end. shut in on if all all sides. ment of the r were created finite. which the since no bound. . furthest coasts. it set was sped. suppose now n that all space 2. come to pass that nowhere can seen to a bound be flight. Moreover. whatever place every it man takes up. experi.

movement from stirred and bodies of matter are even up and supplied from beneath out of limitless space. in ceaseless All things all are for ever carried sides. time. //. . If then the sum of matter were bounded.6o otherwise matter Book 7. finita igitur sumrna esset materiai. gliding on through the everlasting tract of time. nor the light of the sun. and all that is void to be bounded by body. a whit less to traverse they travel so far On every side spreads out huge room for things. But no rest. fiow together. as it were. p8p-ioiy would collect at mined. because there is no bottom at all. has been granted to the bodies of the first-beginnings. nor would there be sky at all. since in truth all matter lie idle would less piled together as it is. whither they may. from limit in all directions everywhere. and had been bounded. then the store of matter would have flowed together with solid weight from all sides to the the bottom bottom. since she constrains body to be bounded by void. nor could anything be carried on beneath the canopy of the sky. nature ordains that the sum of things may is infinite not have power to set a limit to itself. otherwise things {But space I have could not last taught above spreads out without limit. and make on their resting-place. by sinking down from limitwe may be sure. free c. or else at least one of the two. Matter : Nay more. infinite so that thus she makes the universe by their interchange.) 1 neither sea nor earth nor the gleaming quarters of heaven nor the race of mortal 1 Munro again has well supplied the sense of two sed si lost lines : spatium supra docui sine fine patere. if the other of them bound it not. The nature of room then and the space of the deep is such that neither could the bright thunderbolts course through it in their career. yet spreads out immeasurable with nature unmixed. nor bring as it about that there remain .

all this they would in no wise do. prethings is created and holds together. unless store of matter might rise up from all limitless space. renews its increase. and keep a part in place. fostered by the sun's heat. make compact what but because many of them design c ^n J e many ways throughout the world are harried movements ° and buffeted by blows from limitless time. brings about that the replenish the greedy sea with the bounteous waters of their streams. so all things must needs be dissolved. not by design did the first-beginnings Our world of things place themselves each in their order with fore. For they can without. 1015-104. nor the hallowed bodies of the gods could exist for the short space of an hour. nor indeed did they movements each should shifting in start. 11. and the earth. and the race of living things flourishes. robbed of food. or rather in truth it could never have grown together and given birth to anything. used to renew their losses in due season.5 61 men. when once its it has been cast into the movements rivers suited to being. and the gliding fires of heaven are alive .Book I. until . served from harm through many it a mighty cycle of years.tormed by seeing mind. turned any way from its due course. whereby our world of And it too. since scattered abroad ave . For driven apart from its unions the store of matter would be carried all dissolved or even through the great void. smite on it once and again. eea t it could not have been brought to meet For in very truth. sent up from her womb. For even out of which they are as the its flesh nature of living things. when once matter has ceased to come for their supply. Nor can blows from without on all sides keep together the whole of each aside in Its preser"" ™ ow ^ •world which has come together in union. loses and pines away. by trying movements and unions of every kind. at last they fall into such dispositions as those.

fail. and rest placed upside down upon the earth. and probably something very near the actual words.6 2. we are descrying the stars of night. and the supplied. yea. BOOk ly ll. because they embrace But empty error has commended these false ideas and hold a theory with twisted reasoning. so that they can pass away freed from union. . through water. Therefore. to fools. as it is. like the images of things which we see. stands fast without any blows from outside. could anything at all rest there 1 any more for The next eight lines are omitted or mutilated in the MS3. if indeed there were a centre. because a ji things are p ress n g U p n the centre i (if indeed you can : Its absur- believe that anything can stand all upon itself) and that heavy things which are beneath the earth press upwards. and cannot fall off the earth into the spaces of heaven beneath them any more than our bodies can of their free will fly up into the quarters of heaven : that when they see the sun. Herein shrink sa y . z S*' of matted m anc * again. and that for this cause that the nature of the world centripetal force. it must be that many things even the blows too rise up.." Memmius. eory of is far from believing. what some tnat a jj things p ress towards the centre of a sum. Nor. but once more Munro's restoration must give the sense. since the universe is created infinite. and that top and bottom cannot part asunder in any direction. Yet sometimes they are constrained to rebound and at once afford sum may be Necessity space and time for flight to the first-beginnings of things. and in order that may not there must needs be False t limitless mass of matter on all sides. And in the same way they maintain that living things walk head downwards. 'tis world e . and pass nights equal to our 1 days. and that they share with us turn by turn the seasons of the sky. I04f-1072 others come. For there can be no centre.

the e . corresponding to the the words in brackets would give the general sense. place. marks : mutilation above as suggested eight lines lost here. and that for this cause all the sky around is twinkling with stars. rather 7. as its own nature desires. the moisture of the sea and mighty waters from the mountains. or the thundering quarters of The MS. of flames the walls of the world suddenly fly world would apart. but on the other hand. . dissolved through the great void. There the Without "' must then be an winged way follow 1 infinite store of matter).Book that. but rather hasten to give place. r a way. things seek l e centre - and the flame of the sun is of heaven. 11. because all the heat fleeing fed through the blue tracts from the centre gathers itself together there . matter. nor must aught that is void support anything. their thoughts are not at harmony with themselves. as it were. " 1 lest after nite . press towards the centre. and those things which are. constrained Moreover. unless from the earth little by little each has food (supplied by nature. which we call void. by Munro. It cannot be then that things can be held together in union in such by a yearning for the centre. must through centre or not-centre give place alike to heavy Nor is there anybodies. enclosed in an earthy frame . wherever their motions tend. nor again can the topmost branches grow leafy upon trees. they can lose the force of their weight and stand still in the void . and lest all else them best in like manner. since they do not pretend that all bodies but only those of earth and ' Itsinconsis- tency ' not all or liquid. 107 2-no s 61 reason : for all than be driven away for some far different room and space. they teach that the thin breezes of air and hot fires at the same time are carried away from the centre. to which when bodies have come.

but that you shall see all the utmost truths of nature : so shall tilings kindle a light for others. will blind night snatch . withdraw itself from beneath our and amid sky. led on with little trouble . for one thing after another shall grow clear. Progress in These things you will learn thus. it pass away through the deep void. all the mingled ruin of things on earth and of the whereby the frames of bodies are loosed. and the earth in hot haste feet. For on whatever side you maintain that the bodies fail first.64 the sky fall Book I y //. so that in an instant of time not a wrack be left behind. this side will be the gate of death for things. nor away your path from you. by this path will all the throng of matter cast itself abroad. except emptied space and unseen firstbeginnings. iioy-1107 down from above.

to gaze from the land on another's great lm of struggles . and see them wandering hither and thither. firmly embattled on the heights by the teaching of the wise. at all are needful.15 may be E supplied to banquets at .BOOK Sweet it is. II when on the great sea the winds are buffet. whence you can look down on others. that light 546. yet nature herself feels no loss. going astray the way of life. even such as can take v away Yea. but because it is sweet to perceive from what misfortune you yourself are free. as they seek matching their wits or rival claims of birth. Ah ! miserable minds of men. when you have no part in the is danger. to behold great contests of war in full array over the plains. she may And so we see that for the body's nature enjoy in mind the sense of but for the - few things pain. if there are not golden images of youths about the halls. Sweet is it too. But nothing more gladdening than to dwell in the calm high places. and that. ! in what darkness this little in ! what great dangers ye spend Nature's nee s span of years to think that ye should not see that nature cries aloud for nothing else but that pain may be kept far sundered from the body. though pleasantly enough from time to time they can prepare for us in many ways a lap of luxury. withdrawn from care and pleasure ! fear. grasping fiery torches in their right hands.Introduc' ing the waters. struggling night and day by surpassing effort to rise up to the height of power and gain possession of the in strife world. blind hearts of life. not because it is pleasure or joy that any one heights " should be distressed.

of religion fly in panic from your mind. nor dread the glitter that comes nor the bright sheen of the purple robe. than if you must lie on the poor man's plaid.. all alike when you draw them up equipped with arms. 26. can from gold Philosopoy.j s if the house does not glow with silver or gleam with gold. men lie in friendly groups on the some stream of water under the branches of a tall tree.. ornatasque armis statuas. if you toss on broidered pictures and blushing purple. but pass boldly among kings and lords of the world. this the scruples or that the dread of death leaves your heart empty and But if we see that these thoughts free from care. . strengthened with hosts ' ° 1 in reserve and forces of cavalry. arms nor the weapons of war. and in very truth the fears fear men and the cares that dog them not the clash of Religion *"?. war. et ecum vi.. for all this. . . j life is but a struggle in dark• i 1 For even 1 * as children tremble and fear everything Read with Munro. when you see the army then alarmed by all ing far and wide in busy haste. and the season of the year bestrews the green Nor do fiery fevers more quickly quit grass with flowers. . you doubt that ' above ness ? all all when the wnoie of such power belongs to reason alone. nor and for the hi high birth nor the glories of kingship. we must believe that they avail nothing for the mind as F tl power and e te r rors r> . un ^ ess perchance. above all when the weather smiles on soft grass near them. and at no great cost delightfully refresh their bodies. for the rest.. 11. Read with Munro. And yet. when you see your legions ' over the spaces of the Campus. n and provoking a mimic ing we ^ swarm- l ofRehgion. nor do fretted and gilded ceilings re-echo to the lute.66 nighty Book I!. are of mere mirth and mockery. Wherefore since in our body riches are of no profit. the body.wandereager for the fray.

Some races wax and others and in a short space the tribes of living things are wane. in blinding darkness. so 11 ff-8? 67 in the light we sometimes dread things that are no whit children shudder at in pass. ' . and we perceive all things flow away. Come now. and all you think that the first-beginnings of things can stay Their incessant and by staying still beget new movements in things. of things is ever being replenished. and like runners hand on the torch of life. bless with increase that to which they have come . you stray very far away from true reasoning. Motion ° bodies of matter beget diverse things. ° ° ' ' movement. as it were. and imagine will come to this darkness of This terror then. as age withdraws them from our sight and yet the universe is seen to remain grow growth and decay. the mind. do this. by what force they are constrained to tom j. If still. and break up those that are begotten. inasmuch as all bodies that depart from and anything.Book II. lessen that from which they pass away. but by the outer view and the inner law of nature. changed. that their all own weight the first-beginnings of things move on either by or sometimes by the blow of another . : undiminished. since we see each thing . they grow old and the latter again to and yet they abide not with it. For since its two n it must needs be causes: they wander through the void. I will unfold by what movement the creative A. Thus the sum flourish. in the long lapse of time. less. and mortals live one constrain the former to by give and take. more to be feared than what the dark. For in very truth matter does your not cleave close-packed to itself. must needs be scattered not by the rays of the sun and the gleaming shafts of day. and what velocity : is appointed them for moving the cause of successlve do you remember to give through the mighty void mind to my words.

diverse motion. come to rest. no rest. Of the which wander through the great void. but a little space apart. we may be allowed to the first-bodies moving through the deep void. it comes to that . into as I movements. entangled by their own closelocking shapes. immeasurable towards every quarter everywhere. that space spreads out without bound or limit. is leap back at great space apart. which have been cast back from the unions of things. 8?-n6 when quickly. light of the sun. And since that is certain. And of this truth. whenever from the for you will see many tiny bodies mingle . rays are let in and pour the sun's light through the dark places in houses : and image is ever passing For look closely. And the more you perceive all the bodies of matter tossing about. again movement For atomTin the void . bring it is no lowest point in the whole uninor have the first-bodies any place where they may verse. And all those which are driven together in more close-packed union and leap back ° r r compounds. Many. others too are thrust but movement IS a short n way from the blow.<*8 Book IIy U. since they are most hard with heavy bodies. and nothing bars them from behind. and again. they have met and pass that they leap asunder for indeed solid it is c l asne d together. and it to mind that there has been proved by true reasoning. nor have they anywhere else availed to be taken them and link their it. and recoil afar with great spaces between these supply for us thin air and the bright rest . at once this way and not strange. these make the strong roots of rock and ! the brute bulk of iron and all other things of their kind. a few leap far apart. wander on through the great void. but rather plied with unceasing. since I have shown in many words. am telling a likeness Illustration presently before our eyes. some when they have dashed together sure. moreover.

and by little comes forth to our senses. and are.Velocity from light. First. yet it is not clearly seen by what blows they do in a Next. sunlight. what speed of movement bodies of matter. ' this. as it were. may learn. driven backwards on will see their path. we see that it is plain and evident the place with their clear for all to behold . are smitten and stirred by their unseen blows. the first-beginnings of things move of themselves . nearest to the powers of the first-beginnings. . through the empty space right in the motes in the suu eam and as though in some everlasting strife wage war and partings battle. 11 indication oi the And for this reason it is the more right for you to give heed to these bodies. 116-14. everywhere. which we can descry is in the sun's light it. a little thing can give a picture of great things and afford traces of a concept. now this way. in You may know that this to every direction shifting moveFor ment comes first them all from the first-beginnings.Book in U y 11. then those bodies which are formed of a tiny union. rouse movement little passes up bodies a little upwards from the larger. harried with constant meetings and . Memmius.9 69 * many ways all light of the rays. secret and unseen. so that those bodies move too. So may be. when dawn strews the land with new flitting few words ° * e Comparison . so that you may guess from far as this what it means a picture that the first-beginnings of things are for ever tossing in the great void. because such jostlings hint n that there are movements of matter too beneath them. For you of tne many particles there stirred by unseen blows change their course and turn back. you given to the first. and the diverse birds across the soft air fill through the distant 7 w ! th woods cries. which you see jostling in the sun's movements rays. and they in their turn. nor ever crying a halt. And so the first-beginnings. now that. struggling troop against troop.

and rush far more quickly through many times the distance of space in the same in one spot which they may be sure. we time in which the flashing light of the sun crowds the sky. against all this. and then fulfilled the promise of line 62 to explain how the atoms by their motion created and dissolved things : the next two lines read like a conclusion of such a section. and they themselves. bathing them in his light. Yet a certain sect. therefore they are at once back each by the other. therefore. But another. single wholes with all their parts. 2 A line : the sense is probably lost here. and internal Nor 11 again do the several particles Q £ j^at move on one joined in a D J one ' but entangled one with y ° vibration. unvanquished thTworkT bodies) of matter (fly on of their 2 is made for through the ages. in which Lucretius probably first gave other reasons for the atoms' velocity. towards the first speed of motion. and nothing checks them without. and that calm ' light of his. so that they are constrained to go more slowly. whereas the a mass . when unchecked. as they press on. to by what means each single thing is carried on. the waves of air. ) believe that nature cannot without the 1 A considerable seems to be lost here. and t ^e oms are nrst _b e ginnings. and impeded from withdragged out. must needs.70 how which yet is impeded by external opposition Book /I. of which Hoerschelmann has restored corpora sponte sua volitare invicta per aevum. are borne. 11. 147-168 suddenly the sun is wont at such a time to rise and And yet that clothe all things. ignorant (that the own accord. it is constrained to go more slowly. while it dashes asunder. °_ not passing through empty space . 1 • ••••••** number of lines see False nor to follow up each of the first-beginnings severally. and be carried than the light of the sun. ^ is which the sun sends out. which are of solid singleness. as it were. surpass began to seek. they pass through the empty void. .

Now the place. : so great are the flaws with which clear to it stands And this. little I but it is know what the first-beginnings of things are. Memmius. that the nature of the world is by no means made by divine this I grace for us beset. after. Even leap " j- is . on and entices them by the arts of Venus to renew their races. up to the roofs of houses. the you the lie herein. shot out from our body spirts out leaping on high. are borne downwards. forth . I trow. albeit all things of weight. » . and create the . and to prove from many other things as well. herein to prove this also to Causes of atomic force n be carried motion lest the bodies of flames give its you. men leads to approach. yet ™a dl e s0 would dare to affirm from the very workings of heaven. must we think that they do this of t up their own will. while she herself. I will Now is I will set you herewhat yet remains about the make movements. downupwards too they grow. and scatters gore. shot up without a driving force. 11. 168-198 71 power of the gods. that no bodily thing can of ' o / ' .Book II. Do you not see too with up what force the moisture of water spews up beams and as when blood rafters? down deep For the more we have pushed them straight in the water. and with might and main have . chanee the seasons of the year. and take their increase. ' j o power wins which divine pleasure crops. they are seen in all things to For however fall exceeding far away from true reason. own : upwards or move upwards r. mot on . in ways so nicely tempered to the needs men by " ine of men. and with swift flame lick motion beams and rafters. the leader of life. that the tribe of mankind may not perish. and all else besides. But when they suppose that the gods have appointed all things for the sake of men. as far Nor when fires upwar j as in them lies. For upwards indeed the smiling crops and trees are brought to birth.

. swerve of the atoms. downwards through the nor could collision come to : blow brought to pass for the first-beginnings so nature would never have brought aught to being. the more eagerly does it spew them up and send them back. and sows the fields with his light . yet we do not doubt. lies.. first - bodies straight through the void by their .. And you fires descry. nor a like drops of rain. too. the nightly torches of the sky which fly on high. 198-224 pressed them. that the burst from the clouds and rush together the force of flame 2. at times . therefore. heat on towards the earth then that the sun's heat also tends. w hen . Just so. And albeit their weights are fighting. now from . a little quite undetermined and at undetermined spots they push from their path : n yet only just so much as you could call a change of trend. are borne downwards through things. now from this side. but that all these as far as in them lies.. t h at . flames too must be able when squeezed out to press on upwards through the breezes of as in air.'. the everywhere falls towards the earth. the empty void. as far to drag them downwards. I trow. . own are being carried downwards weight. do you not see that they trail long tracts of flames behind towards whatever side nature has given them to travel? do you them not descry stars and constellations falling to earth its 'tis ? The sun too from the height of heaven scatters every side. so that they rise more than half out of the water and leap up. And again. things would But fall if they were not used to swerve.72 Book IJy 11. all deep void be. striving with pain many together. thunderbolts flying crosswise through the rain . Herein I would fain that you should learn this too.

what i • sense is there phenomena. on the This is not iru m l ie other hand. For all things that fall than lighter. as far as in them lies. 11. by which nature carries things Wherefore. as desires. it continues to give place . the empty void cannot on any side. can . living beings. again and again. r • not you can i • descry. he b wanders far away from true reason. necessary. False J .^ time. lest we seem to be imagining a sideways moveit. just because the body of water and the thin nature of air cannot check each thing equally. . But. and The swerve for old in order determined. which make diverse the on. i But that nothing • at all swerves from contra d:cted b y the straight direction of which can descry I 1 /• .Book IIy But . cannot travel as far as and is sideways. but give place more quickly when overcome by heavier bodies. . free motlon in 1 Read sensus for sese with Bernays. support anything. The heavier will not then ever be able to fall on the lighter from above. since they fall headlong from above. these things must needs quicken their fall in proportion to their weights. Once again. accounts ' the nor by swerving do the first-beginnings make a certain power of start of movement to break through the decrees of fate. if every motion the new always arises from the • is always linked on. ment. nor of themselves bring about the blows. its path. and so bring atoms ' about the blows which can give creative motions. that bodies. it must needs be that a little . 22f-2f4 73 ne0I7 tnat fall if n perchance any one believes that heavier bodies. fall from above on the lighter. but rather. slight is the first-bodies swerve a swerve yet not more than the very least. movements. heavier as ter [ . moving at equal rate with unequal weights. and the truth refute For this we see plain and evident. its own all nature things wherefore must needs be borne on through the calm void. at any . through the water and thin air. because they are carried more quickly straight through o the void.

and comes forth first of all from the will of the mind. Nor is it the same w ^ en we tnove forward impelled by a blow from the motion m Duls!on° " For then strong might and strong constraint of another. albeit a force outside pushes many men and constrains them often to go forward against their will and to be hurried away headlong.74 so that cause Book 11^ may this 11. reined . not follow cause from infinite time whence comes will free will for living things all over I the earth. that then aroused through every limb it may strain and fellow the eager longing of of is you see a start of movement brought to pass from the heart. where pleasure leads and swerve likewise in our motions neither at determined times nor in a determined direction It starts of place. ask. and then afterwards is the mind . yet there is something in our breast. 255-283 . this whereby we move us. which can fight against it and withstand is it f constrained And at its bidding too the store of matter now and then to turn throughout the when pushed forward. each one of forward. until the will has back throughout the limbs. is limbs and members. and. so that n It is very fron as spread through all the body and limbs. but just where our mind has carried us ? For from the will and then passes without doubt . Do you not then now see that. and from the will the motions it is his own will through all p ass flooding through the limbs. Do you not see too how. a start for this which gives to each one movement. whence. yet for an instant of time the eager might of the horses cannot burst out so suddenly as their store mind itself desires ? For the whole matter throughout the whole body must be roused to movement. when the barriers are flung open. is it wrested from fate. ** * s c ^ ear to see t ^iat a ^ t ^le matter °f tne body moves and is reined it hurried on against our will.

since we see that nothing can come to pass from nothing. 283-314 is 7? It is back and comes to rest again. A kind of matter there anything outside. lies away from our senses. except when anything rest. Herein we need not wonder why it is that. 11. Wherefore in the seeds another too ' you must needs allow likewise that there cause of motion besides blows and weights. such things have been wont to come to being will be brought to birth under the same law. For weight prevents all things ^ en e . and hereafter will as u " cnan S e- be borne on for ever in the same way . into which any may escape from the universe. and inasmuch as is of nature. ° coming to pass by blows. they must needs steal away their motions .Book II. matter. ' starts moving with purview its entire body. below unseen motion. J yet the to seems at whole seems to stand wholly at rest. as by some force without. and is not constrained like a conquered thing to bear and suffer. since you cannot reach to look upon them. the power born in us. the 00 . nor whence new forces can arise and burst into the universe and change the whole nature of things and alter its motions. will exist and grow and be strong lusty. is store of matter ever j Nor was the ^ Wherefore the bodies of the first-beginnings in the ages past moved with the same motion as now. this e s :c( due to n l cause or whence comes motion. for neither Nor can any is granted to each by the ordinances force change the sum of things . when all Though a whole bod y the first-beginnings of things are in motion. wherefore. more closely packed The sum of 11 110 nor again set at larger distances apart. But that the very mind feels not some necessity within in doing all things. this is brought about by the tiny swerve of the first-beginnings in no determined direction of place and at no determined time. For neither does !? f anything come to increase it nor pass away from it. far For all the nature atoms ln are of the first-bodies their .

whence The seems to be at rest and to plains. IL 314-34? we can since such things as look upon. that neither have they any limit. Their variety. come. it must needs be. not that but a few are endowed with a like Now form. nor any sum. that they are not all of equal bulk nor possessed of the same shape. like a glim- mering mass upon the B. when lie like a white mass on a green fill the spaces of the plains with their mighty legions a mimic warfare. and is the cause of the them. shapes of the atoms. each is whither cropping the glad pasture on a hill creep on called and tempted by the grass bejewelled with fresh dew. when withdrawn from us on some distant spot. and the cavalry wheel round and suddenly shake the middle of the plains with their forceful onset. and the dumb shoals which swim the seas. yet often hide their motions. awaking to heaven and all the earth around gleams with bronze. the race of men.76 from you too Parallels in . but that Nor which arises they are not all alike the same one with another. herds and wild and the diverse all birds. and how they are made diverse with many kinds of shapes . For often the fleecy flocks experience. and to Moreover. throng the gladdening watering-places around the . we may be sure. next in order learn of what kind are the beginnings of all things and how far differing in form. And all yet there is a certain spot on the high lie hills. and beneath as a noise is they march. and the glad beasts. gambol and butt playafar. fully . as they scour across them. Book above IL all. a sheen rises there chargings. for since there is so great a store of infinite number of the atoms. as I have shown. which same species. and the lambs fed all this full yet seems blurred to us from hill. and the turn back the cries to the roused by the mighty mass of men hills smitten by their shouts stars of the firmament. of scaly creatures distinction of individuals in the Moreover. from the need we wonder .

or the mother her offspring . . But the mother bereft wanders over the green glades and seeks 1 on the ground for the footprints marked by those cloven hoofs. stabbed to the heart with yearning for her lost calf. bring gladness to her mind and turn aside the sudden of care. slaughtered hard by the altars ° cow an d smoking with incense. as their nature needs. yet find that they are different in shape one you will from another. take any kind of grains of is each to corn. do they run back always Lastly. kids Moreover. Nor in any other way could the offspring know its mother. scanning every spot with her eyes. go and take kind. and those which about and people the distant forests any single one you will from among . all corn » each in 1 its several kind. 34f-373 of these its 77 flit riverbanks and springs and pools. gliding level with their banks. but the reading uncertain : possibly quaerit. and stopping fills the leafy grove with her lament again and again she comes back to the stall. : . the tender kids and with their trembling cries know their horned dams lambs and ° their and the butting lambs the flocks of bleating sheep mothers : . if only she might anywhere catch sight of her lost young. yet we see that they can. nor yet can the shapes of other calves among the glad pastures turn her mind to new thoughts pang or ease it of its care : so eagerly does she seek in vain for something she knows as her own. . nor : can the tender willows and the grass refreshed with dew and the loved streams. its own udder of milk. you will not find that every grain like its fellows. and that they are clearly not less known to one another than men. her hot tide of blood. . For often before the sculptured shrines of Illustratlons the gods a calf has fallen. breathing out from its breast the calf. so surely. but that there runs through is This should be the sense.Book IIy 11.

Book II. Why? unless it be that those bodies of light are smaller than those of which the quickening liquid of water is made. on the other hand. each single one from the rest. . it is composed of particles more hooked and entangled one with the it comes about that the first-beginnings cannot so quickly be drawn apart. since the first-beginnings of things are made by nature and not fashioned by hand to the fixed form of one pattern. give a pleasant sensation of the tongue. you might say that the heavenly fire of lightning is made more subtle and of smaller shapes. difference 11. and so passes through holes which our fire rising from logs and born of the pinetorch cannot pass. when rolled in the mouth . Again light passes through hornlanterns.78 some shells. its gentle waves the sea beats on the thirsty sand of the winding shore. And we see wine flow through the strainer as swiftly as you will but. and so sure. mouth easily awry by noisome taste so that you may know that those things which can touch the senses bodies. because. and so ooze through the single holes of each thing. Wherefore again and again in with the same way it must needs be. we may be either larger or other. the loathsome nature of wormwood and their biting centaury set the . manner where we see the race of shells painting the lap of earth. but on the other hand. 373-404 And in like between their forms. the sluggish olive-oil hangs back. For through. It is them fly owing to this variety that some things pass It is very easy by reasoning of the mind for us to read the riddle why the fire of lightning is far more piercing than is our fire rising from pine-torches on earth. where others are checked. To due it are There is this too that the liquids of honey and milk differences of taste. but pleasantly are made of smooth and round . but the rain is spewed back. that some of about with shapes unlike one another.

but rather with a little. proved . or look dreadful those which prick the pupil and constrain us to tears. some roughness of substance. smell.Book II. these are held bound together with particles more hooked. is breathing the scent of Arabian nor must you suppose that the pleasant colours and of things. Or is again. and when the and the incense stage is freshly sprinkled with Cilician saffron. . which ever charms the senses. Lastly. you think that first-beginnings of like shape pierce into men's nostrils. shaping the notes as their nor again. when noisome carcasses are roasting. which cannot rightly be thought to be smooth nor altogether hooked with bent points. For every shape. fingers music which players awake. which is harsh and offensive has not been formed without the shapes of the particles . and of this kind is lees of fires wine and the taste of endive. that hot different and cold frost have particles fanged in ways to prick the senses of the body. must move nimbly over the strings . all 11. Other particles there are. all things good or bad to the senses in their and d ' all touch fight thus with one another. every shape mined by but. first-beginnings . lest by chance you n may think that the harsh shuddering sound of the squeaking saw is made of particles as smooth as are the melodies of ffereiic « ot sensation in hearing. insomuch that they tiny angles standing out can tickle the senses rather than hurt them . and for this cause are wont to tear a way into our senses. . has not Pleasure and P am been brought to being without some smoothness in the are deteron the other hand. 404-433 79 that on the other hand things which seem to be bitter and harsh. because they are ' built up of bodies of different shape . which can feed our eyes. moreover. and at their entering in to break through the body. sight. are made of seeds like altar hard by . and loathly in their hideous aspect.

yea touch. roused one by another. and yet not cling one to another : so that you can easily learn that. which body : are liquid with a fluid poppy-seed moves easily draught of water . well used to despise . it Or. and pass into rocks. yet they are not hampered by particles closely linked. things which seem to us hard and compact. . any part of your own body Therefore the first-beginnings must needs have forms far different. and are held together closeit were by branching particles. all things which you perceive flying asunder. diamond stones stand in the all them hard : forefront of the fight. and the strength of hard iron. blows. disturb our sense with your hand strike : by chance you should and so make trial. and when struck. again. Further differences and the atomic shapes these. for indeed a handful of just as a pungent and evanescent things . for the several round particles are not checked one by the other. and which scream aloud as they struggle against flints liquid the bolts. must needs be. Those things indeed must be made of particles things more round and smooth. the holy powers of the gods. whatever we see (borne asunder by the . when a thing which is born in the body hurts us. clouds and flames. by to us by the touch of each. 433-4<5l touch the all ultimate cause of sensation. is the sense of the body. either or or when something from without finds its way in. it must needs be that even if they are not made entirely of smooth and round particles. or else when the seeds body as if itself after collision jostle within the and. gives pleasure as it passes out. Lastly. so that they can prick the body. as First of all in this class hooked one to another. things and stubborn brass sockets.So for is BOOk lly 11. For touch. it will roll downhill just like water. like smoke. which can produce such diverse feelings. are made of particles more which cause fastened at their roots.

it is of are fluid. * It is likely that a paragraph is here lost in : which Lucretius showed 479. and yet it must needs be that they are not hooked and held together spherical. you must know that they are nevertheless though rugged. so that they can roll on together : and hurt the from which is senses. of its sickly saltness. the shapes of the body cannot be very diverse. I will hasten and wins belief from to Differences it. And that you may the more think that rough are mingled with smooth first-beginnings. there them and seeing how. a way the rest. tearing winds 11 462-486 1 81 and) meeting our senses (as poison). are also bitter. fluid. flows into a trench and loses its harshness for it leaves behind up above the first-beginnings . apart from the fresh water. For suppose the first-bodies n to be of three 1 The text is corrupt and a line : is probably lost : the translation follows Brieger's restoration ventis differri rapidis. since the rough particles can more 2 readily stick in the earth. Otherwise once again certain seeds must needs be of unbounded 1. made the bitter body of the sea-god. nostrisque veneno sensibus esse datum. when it trickles many a time is of sundering through the earth. And link since I have taught this a truth on which holds to this much. ' then " umber . of sha P es ot atoms limited in that the first-beginnings of things are limited in the tale of their varying shapes. one single seed. But because see that you as some things which sea.Book II. some bulk of body. If it were not to be so. and many rugged bodies mingled in it give birth to pain . b ' r . For because smooth and round particles. atoms was limited he probably otherwise some would be To this refers in lines 546.16 „ . For. it liquid but er /" is the brine of the it is count no wonder. within the same tiny frame of any atoms ' ' ' would be of vast size . that the size of the perceptible. 481 and 499. are of elements not closely linked but pointed.

beyond that. 486-512 larger you will. if by chance you wish to make the shapes different. on the other hand. make them all by a few more . all extremes in our experience would be far surpassed : he then proceeds to illustration. shifting top with left. and the And since these things are not so.82 least parts. For. steeped in smiling neglected and surpassed by the new colours and the smell of myrrh and the taste of honey would be despised. in things tribes of peacocks. Wherefore it is there are seeds lest 3. : things would sink back on the worse side. to nostrils and ears and eyes. to see what outline and bottom. changing right of form in that whole body each arrangement gives. all not possible that you can believe that with unbounded difference of forms. and the swan's song and the many-toned melodies on Phoebus's strings would in like excellent than all else all for something more manner be smothered and mute would ever be arising. which I have taught above cannot be approved. extremes in our experience would be surpassed. Likewise. just as we have told that they would rise towards the better. 1 At once you would see barbaric robes and gleaming Meliboean purple. and the golden beauty. something would be more loathly too than As it is. in truth when you have tried those parts of one body in every way. 11. lie . you constrain certain of them to be of huge vastness. the arrangement will ask for other parts. you must needs add other parts thence it will follow that in like manner . if by chance you still wish to make the shapes different : and so greater bulk in the body follows on newness of forms. all else taste of the mouth. . some lines are lost in 1 Again it is likely that which Lucretius stated the general argument that if variety of shapes in the atoms were infinite. or Book if II. dyed with the colour of Thessalian shells.

has a you must needs confess that the first-matter too limited difference in shapes.Book II. if you its will. anot er# elephants with their snaky hands come first of all. 11. showing 2 my verses that the tiny bodies of matter from everlasting always keep up the sum of things. shape are that the first-beginnings of things. And since I have taught this ' . For since the difference of forms is limited. Again from fire right icy frost of winter is x is ed limits - on to the like but a limited way. ml t ^ sum of matter is created limited. whereof we see but a very few samples. For all heat and cold and tepid warmths in the middle lie between manner the the two. so that no way can be found into its inner parts : so great is the multitude of those beasts. place are yet in another quarter and spot. in some distant lands. Reading oslendem. let there be. perceive that nature is less fruitful in them. since they are marked off at either end by the twin points. For in that you see n that certain animals are more Animals r re in one and r rare. some one thing unique. And so they filling up the sum in due order. and so the tale even the race of four-footed beasts made up we see that is . and in way measured back again. much. though the text uncertain. with a shape like to one another. a this too. alone in the 1 " body is of birth. are in number infinite. as the team of blows is harnessed on unbroken on every side. it must needs be that those which are the alike are unlimited. 512-54$ 83 there are but a fixed limit to things marks the extreme on either side. But still. which are formed infinite in beset on this side by flames. F 2 . let me grant Even ". to which there is not is niq " e would This the sense. common in ' ' ^" there may be many in as in that kind. are on that by stiffening frosts. or else that num er* Otherwise. which I have proved would be in not to be. with Munro. brought to being differing with limited degrees. I will hasten to The atoms ° any one link on a truth which holds to it and wins belief from it. by whose many thousands India is embattled with a bulwark of ivory.

once suppose that the first-beginnings of a certain kind are limited. nor take increase . by which all things are supplied. if I were to suppose this too. Nay. if you . yet that each of these things openly comes to pass. then scattered through all time they must needs be tossed hither and thither by the tides of matter. in any kind of things you will. of the windless nor trust it at any time.8 imply infinite 4 Book Jlj 11. nor. the bodies creative of one single thing were limited as they might be tossed they tossed about the universe. If limited an unlimited stock of matter. It is manifest then that there are. so that along all the coasts of the lands floating stern-pieces are seen. so that never can they be driven together and come together in union. in that vast ocean. to grow on and be nourished. by what about the force. Creation tion And so. from which it might be conceived and brought to birth. I many wont to cast hither and thither benches. in very truth. T43-T73 . giving warning to mortals. nor yet can the motions of creation and increase for ever bring things and bury to birth and preserve them. in what manner will they meet and come together universe and never meet. nor stay fixed in union. a plan for union. the great sea is have not. after that. prow. neither can the motions of destruction prevail and destruo for ever. but as. when a great shipwreck has come to pass. masts and swimming oars. to resolve to shun the snares of the sea and its might and guile. that in number. whence. a fellow in the whole wide world yet unless there is atoms of the required kind. wage equal warfare. when the wiles waves smile treacherous even so. So war waged from time . it will not be able to be created. ribs. that things can be brought to birth and being and grow born can grow. that alien turmoil of matter? Thev trow. fact proves for all to see. setting towards every side. where. infinite first-beginnings. yards. life in an eternal tomb.

and whatever it possesses within it more it and powers. nor anything which is not created of well- mingled seed forces . which ranges the mountains. or dawn on night. streams. all the earth holds within it the first-bodies. Now now there. and the parent of our body. whence too it can furnish to the tribe of wild beasts. by which the springs welling out coldness ever and anon renew the measureless sea. is For in many places the surface of the earth kindled and blazes. Mother. the lament that escorts death and the black funeral. leaves and glad pastures. Wherefore earth alone has and is th been called the Great Mother of the gods. 11. is and to keep stored in your remembering mind. the vital forces of things funeral mingles the wailing conquer and are conquered alike. but that has heard mingled with the baby's sickly wailings. Herein it is it right to have this truth also surely sealed Nothing e* e . that ^ s there is not one of all the things. but the outburst of Aetna rages with fire from its lowest depths. Then further. With the which babies raise as they come to look upon the coasts of light .Book everlasting is II." and the mother f refore called of the wild beasts. it holds those whence it can raise for the races of men the smiling crops and glad trees. nor has night it ever followed on day. 573-601 strife of 8f the carried on by the balanced here. which is built of one kind of first- le beginnings. of which this must have been the general sense. . whose nature is seen kind of a oms* before our face. thus shows that there are in most kinds of first-beginnings and diverse shapes. it holds those whence fires are born. of First Earth has every kind. first-beginnings. Of her in days of old the learned poets of the Greeks sang The that (borne 1 on from her sacred) x shrine in her car she 5 ° v^.Vj A line is lost.

And so as soon as she rides on through great cities. and snow rose-blossoms over her. however wild the brood. and have been found ungrateful to their parents. whom the Greeks call by name the Curetes of Phrygia. Book II. and because now and again . even the image of the divine mother awesome state through lands far and wide. the lions care of parents. 601-630 on earth. Taut music timbrels thunder in their hands. and they give her Phrygian bands to bear her company. because from those lands first they say corn began to be produced throughout the whole world. and silently blesses mortals with unspoken salutation. over- shadowing the Mother and the troops of her 11 escort. and horns menace with harsh-sounding bray. The top of her head they wreathed battlemented crown. and the hollow pipe goads their minds in the Phrygian mode. the mural crown . that they may be able to fill with fear of the goddess's power the thankless minds and unhallowed hearts of the multitude. the Curetes. a 11. now is carried in On her the diverse nations in the ancient rite of worship call as the the Phrygian escort . enriching her with bounteous alms. it ought to be conquered and softened by the loving . with bronze and silver they strew all the path of her journey. because they wish to show forth that those who have offended the godhead of the Mother. . the symbols of their dangerous frenzy. because. and hollow cymbals all around. drove yoke of lions. Then comes an armed band. and weapons . the Galli The mutilated priests they assign to her.85 Earth as Cybele. and they carry weapons before them. must be thought to be unworthy to bring offspring alive into the coasts of light. because embattled on glorious and dowered with this emblem heights she sustains towns with a . Mother of Ida. teaching thereby that the great earth The meaning of her attributes : hangs in the space of air nor can earth rest To the car they yoked wild beasts.

that it brings forth many in many ways into the light Herein. gladdened at the sight of blood and shaking as recall to they nod the awesome crests upon their heads. they the Curetes of Dicte. albeit well Yet 1S all this and nobly set forth and told. never lacking aught of us. free from danger. band of boys around the baby boy. who are said once in Crete have drowned the wailing of the infant Jove. is nevertheless far removed from true reasoning. ve '. in hurrying dance all armed. and it has possession of the first-beginnings of many things. while. because they show forth that the goddess valour preaches that they should resolve with arms and to defend their native land and prepare to be a guard Mother. y - ]i( sundered and separated far away from our world. 6$0-662 arms and leap in 87 rhythmic they join in mock conflict of movement. or else and ornament to their parents. let us grant that is he may proclaim that the world the Mother of the gods. they beat in measured rhythm brass upon brass. all Verily. For free from all grief. and plant an everlasting wound deep in the Mother's For this cause in arms they escort the Great heart. it is apart from e wor ' not won by because virtuous service nor touched is by wrath.Book II> 11. a that Saturn might not seize and commit him to his jaws. And so often fleecy flocks and the warrior brood of . if any one is resolved to call the sea and corn Ceres. and likes rather to misuse the Neptune title of Bacchus than to utter the true name of the vineof the sun. mighty in its own resources. if only in very truth he forbear to stain his own mind with shameful religious awe. Yet all this. For it must needs be that all the The nature of the gods enjoys life gods everlasting in perfect peace. the earth 'tis without feeling throughout time. juice.

with different aspect. moisture. store in their body. and slaking from one stream of water. Moreover. even so the hue in one way. So great is Their flesh. fly. bones. most different of the offerings (burnt on the senses. and words are formed of different letters. yet live their life their thirst animals. The same thing Again. 66l-6()l horses field and horned herds. if veins. from which be able to toss fire abroad and shoot out light. everywhere in these mine you see many letters common to and yet you must needs grant that verses many words. so that you may know that then contain atoms they differ in the shapes of their first-bodies. Different bodies contain the seeds of fire. finds its All things way into our senses . may yet at least those particles. Then once again. of which this was the probable sense. and make sparks Traversing all and scatter cinders far and wide. ferent. blood. any one &c. you see many things to which both colour and can stir taste are given together with smell. one from 1 A line is lost here. for the burn- ing smell pierces. and keep the nature of their parents and imitate their ways each after his own kind. So different forms come together into one mass and things are made of various shapes. so the difference of matter in any kind of grass great in every stream. you will.88 The same food may nourish different BoOk lly 11. other things with the like reasoning of your mind. the taste in another. very verses of Nay. are dif- living creature of them all is made : of bones. cropping the grass from one beneath the same canopy of heaven. all things that are set ablaze and burnt up by fire. altars of First of all. you will find then that they hide in their body the seeds of many things and contain diverse shapes. heat. with mingled seeds. flesh and sinews nothing they else. formed as they are with first-beginnings of unlike shape. . where the hue passes not into the limbs. more. and they as well are far different. then must needs be made the gods) : 1 these of diverse shapes .

preserve their kind. be sure that that must needs come to pass as ii feel a p!. So in other things likewise since There _ . common to many things. and are there linked on and bring about the suitable movements. £"*£. and nature too throughout the lands. two of made of letters the same. on the other hand. see nature cast But. since ate we see that all things are parent. food. created everywhere. 11. and sometimes tall branches growing out from a living body. You may they grow. which could not be linked to any part nor within the lively motions in harmony with the is body and imitate them. born of fixed seeds and +\. But it S clear to see that none of these things comes to be.°™s possible. 691-720 them are 89 them not that but a few letters run through or that no common. that are the parents of all things. forms coming to being half man. for you would see monsters n ™~ £. For its own proper particles separate from every kind of food and pass within into the limbs of everything. a fixed seeds. •_ u. and many limbs of land-beasts linked with beasts of the sea. driven by blows. But lest by chance you should This think that living things alone are the same condition sets a limit to bound by all these laws.r pr . and can. and many things with bodies unseen flee from the body.Book II.j and movements> by a fixed law. are there are first-beginnings common 1 • .ate things. but that they are not all alike the same one with another. And yet we must not think that all particles can be But not l all linked together in all ways. feeding Chimaeras is Each thing breathing flame from their noisome mouths. we out alien matter on to the ground. yet eIementS) : so that the another but the they can exist with sums different from one human race and corn and glad trees are differentt rightly said to be created of different particles. For even as well as . half beast. another in all .

meetings. yet know bodies by touch. C. but part earth and the whole sea. which not only sunder living things. never linked life. you wander far astray. And since I convince you that this may be. whatever 1 be. we ourselves feel that whatever we touch in blind darkness is not dyed with any colour. since the are a like endowed with seeds are different. Colour are (deprived of all 1 colour). 720—7 yo begotten are in their whole nature unlike one to the other. there must needs be a difference in their spaces. form. blows. l es t b our) which are black are born of black seeds . bodies painted with no tint may become a clear concept. The atoms have ia listen to discourse gathered by my joyful by chance you should think that these white things. Again. or that things Come now. of which this must have been the sense. passages. movements. . For the bodies of matter have no neither like things nor again unlike them. changes into any other . it And if by chance itself seems to you that the mind cannot project ceive them. which you perceive shining bright before your eyes are made of white first-beginnings. A line is lost. but that they are not all alike the same one with another. weights. so it must needs be that each is made of first-beginnings of a different shape not that but a few as all things . and hold all the sky away from the earth. I will now teach you that (the first-beginnings) 11 1. bear this colour because the bodies of matter are dyed with a colour colour at though the well con all. light of the sun. or should believe that things which are steeped in any other colour you will.90 living Book IIy 11. it For any colour. For since those born blind. with colour for them from the outset of their you may know that for our mind too. like it. who have never descried the n into these bodies. fastenings. Moreover.

out of which they beget and vary colours of every kind. compose. no For in whatever way you were to seeds which are sky-blue. are able of a sudden to become of marble whiteness . turned into white waves of shining marble. r ' _ made up as in the the separate co rs would be seen.'? impossible. you those things which were a little while before of black colour. forms and diverse shapes some square thing is with a sinele shape. to naught. when mighty winds have stirred its level waters. straightway this is the death of that which was Therefore take care not to dye with colour the before. 750-781 91 but the t° mus! £ e ^_ but the first-beginnings ought in no wise to do this. r wise grow white. For must needs be that something abides unchangeable. whenever thing changes and passes out of its own limits. and the order of its first-beginnings changed and certain things added we seen shining and white. never can they jostle together But if the seeds which make pass into a marble colour. square we perceive that there are unlike forms. ' - they are of the colour . " } e . Moreover... they could in ut ^ . a seeds cf things. why receive. if the nature of colour has not been granted If and yet they are endowed with diverse forms. forasmuch as it is of great matter with to the first-beginnings. then it were natural that. and taken away. For that all things be not utterly brought to naught. c ange . and what movements they mutually give can most easily at once give account. m changeable. up the with single this unmixed brightness of the sea are dyed colour and that. °r r e colours of thin S s « as the is sea. so we . all ? colours. even as often out of different and (6) if ey re ° . For you might say that when the substance of that which often see black has been mingled up.Book IJ y it 11. °l\ . and in what and position. a °™ 5 j ar * their rietl ^ will ^° account t what others all the seeds are bound up. lest you see all things altogether pass away 2. straightway it comes to pass that it is But if the level waters of the ocean were made of sky-blue seeds.

p or w hat colour can there be in blind darkness? _ _ Nay ' even in the light it changes according as it shines brightly. further. ave no relation. or any other colour you and thwarts it. manner changes its moves round and since these colours are begotten by a certain stroke of light.°.92 single Book II. you may know how they are not clothed with any colour. since colours cannot be without light nor do the first-beginnings of things come out into the light. but of diverse colours. colours far different and from another. which fights with it black. And in very truth much more oi readily will white things be born and rise up out no colour than out of will 3. the atoms Moreover. our reason for think- on anc^ ent i ces us sometimes to first-beginnings of things. you may know 4. red with bright garnet. in like . is seen in the sunshine . when it is said to perceive r _ white colour. which is set about their throats and crowns their necks. but the diverse colours in things do check and prevent the whole thing being of a single Then. even the plumage of doves. or in any other and the whole could not diverse one and unmixed brightness. for anon as it comes to pass that it it is in a certain view comes to pass that coral. since white things are of white. struck with a straight or slanting beam of light . sometimes it seems to mingle green emeralds among And the tail of the peacock. is assign colours to the m ££. and another again. when it is bathed in bounteous colours as it light. might have colour. that we must not The without « it. Colour ne ^ 3 ] s ' . this d° not a w hit thwart and hinder the whole from being square in its outline . nor those which are seen black of ' black. the reason which leads us brightness. Moreover. not made gone. 11 781-812 should perceive in the water of the ocean. when it perceives black . the unlike shapes be uniform ' further. percep ion of colour is due to a n j tse j£ a cer t And am kind think that they could come to be since the pupil of the eye receives f blow.

simple or m colours in the same species. that you do 7. this so that you can know from dissipate all is utterly destroyed . Even so. Moreover. fixed shapes. the tiny parts. and all conformations of first-beginnings may and shape hue exist in will. since no fixed nature of colour belongs to "^q"^. and the rest. you may know that some things are made and bereft of colour. the dark purple or the scarlet. s Just as e ^™ not or ' not assign sound and smell to them. . as comes to pass when fading away and being quenched when it has into small pieces is plucked apart : less lt colour as# by far the brightest of colours.. you may know that the but by their first-beginnings have no need of colours. you do not allow that all bodies send out it comes to pass. but rather with j^' it touch * it is no Q *^ which diverse forms produce diverse kinds of touch. matter with what colour things blow on choose to be endowed. yet that the keen mind can come to know them no less than are without any smell it the atoms tr 0Ut ^^ ' ' r can mark those devoid of other things. since sound or smell. and that black swans should be made of black seeds or of . since we have * me cannot with the eyes descry all things. Lastly. 11 812-841 93 nor does you touch may what sort of shape they are fitted. Nay again. that the tiny shreds their colour before they are sundered into the seeds of things. therefore. diverse.Book II. more each thing is pulled asunder into 6.. why on like grounds are not ™ you those things which are made out of them steeped with were natural every kind of colour in every kind? For it any that often flying crows too should throw off if nn *™£ atoms u d C ° ° Ur ' J^'h white colour have indivi- from white wings. The ™ er a the more can you perceive colour little by little b d t e : purple been unravelled thread by thread. just as far some parted from sound. ^ * ° e t any other colour you will.

ending up with the cetera of line 859. fi rs t-beginnings of things are bound not to bring to the begetting of things their own scent or sound. sound. or scent first which breathes nectar to the nostrils. the hollow of rare. s . to see. . they must needs all be kept apart from the first-beginnings. nce t h ev cannot gi ve anything off from themselves. for in its a j} thing from t eir o y. so that may as little as possible taint and ruin with they cannot ^ its own strong smell the scents it. and probably right in supposing several verses lost. you may and can find it. in so far as of right to scentless oil. the brittle of crumbling body. if we wish to place immortal foundations beneath things. w -< bereft th t they are also sundered cold.' ° smell. which are known for it. . Even as when you any scent of their own from their set about to make the delicious of nard. lest Neither live atoms sense It you see all things pass away utterly into nothing. taste or altogether from are carr eci a l j _ warmth and off and fiery heat. nor once more warm and fiery heat and the rest 1 . : yet since they are such as to be created mortal. h ave sense are yet made of insensible The clear facts. the pliant of soft body. all it is liquid of marjoram or myrrh. lest 11. 8 42-8 6 g first-bodies But a bide by chance you think that the only of colour. . ^ body and boiled along with mingled Therefore after nor in the same way acquire any taste at all. and ng barren of sound and devoid of taste. neither refute this nor fight against It is but impossible to is Giussani sense of the passage as it stands. and then gave a list of examples. seek. on which the sum of life may rest .94 The atoms Book II. nor do they give body. must needs be n that you should admit that all things ^j^ all 1 we see first-beginnings. in which make the poet said that only such things could give anything off as contained void. the nature of which may send off no breath of perfume it to the nostrils. heat. nor cold.

Book

II,

11.

869-897

9J
us

rather themselves lead us

by the hand and constrain

to believe that, as I say, living things are begotten of we may see worms come forth insensible things.

Why

1.

We

see

alive from noisome dung, when the soaked earth has moreover, gotten muddiness from immeasurable rains
;

creat g d

elsewhere
sense
ess-

we may
,

see all things in like
.
.

manner change themselves.
.

i

Streams, leaves, and glad pastures change themselves into 2. Inani.. j mate food cattle, cattle change their nature into our bodies, and ma ij es
, , ,

from our bodies the strength of wild beasts often gains And increase, and the bodies of birds strong of wing. so nature changes all foods into living bodies, and out
of food brings to birth
in
all

animate

no

far different
all

way than

the senses of living things, she unfolds dry logs into
fires.

flames and turns
see

things into

now

that

it is

of great matter in

Do you not then what order all the
and with what
The

first-beginnings

of

things

are

placed,

others mingled they give and receive motions ? Next then, what is it, that strikes on the very mind, which stirs it and constrains to utter diverse thoughts,

3-

sens ;bie

that you

may

not believe that the sensible

is

begotten
x

things do

of the insensible?

We may

be sure

it

is

that stones

ma u y
.

ar se
";

and wood and earth mixed together yet cannot give out vital sense. Herein it will be right to remember
this, that I do not say that sensations are begotten at once from all and every of the things which give birth

from the

no

objection.

to sensible things, but that
of

it

is

what

size are these bodies,

which create the

of great matter, first All depends on S1Z€| sensible,
.
.

position,

and with what form they are endowed, then what they are in their motions, arrangements and i And positions.
1

arrange-

ments an ° motions or
'

the atoms.
Giussani

may

be right in thinking that
it

we

should read la! ices

(water) instead of lapides (stones), as

suits better

with what follows.

$6
and

Book I!,
yet,

11.

897-922
in logs

none of these things can we perceive

and sods

;

when they

are, as it were,

made muddy through

the rains, they give birth to little worms, because the bodies of matter stirred by the newcomer from their
old arrangements are brought into union in the
4. Sensible

way

in

living things are bound to be begotten. Next, seeds would thoS£ who ^^j. n t jlat sens ^i e CQU create J out be sort and of sensible bodies which in turn were used to owe their therefore

which

^

y^
For

mortal.

sense to ot h ers? (these

make the

seeds of their
soft.
all

own sense
sensation
see are
still
still

mortal),
is

1

when they make them

linked to flesh, sinews and veins, which

we

5.

If ever-

they must
either (a)

always soft in nature built up of mortal body. But let us £ rant now that t ^xese can abide for ever
:

doubtless they must either have n the sense proper to P art or be bought to be of a sense like to that of of the part whole living things. But it must needs be that the whole, or
a
>

P arts cannot indepen" dent whole, in the limbs
a part does

^n^
itself.

have sense by themselves for all sensation on us, nor severed from us can the depends
;

not

feel

nor an ^ P art °* X ^ e b°dy at a ^ keep sensation by It remains that they are made like whole

living

by

itself;

t ]1 i ngs>

Thus

it

must needs be that they
that they

feel likewise

what we
(b)

feel, so

may be

able to share with

(i)they us in every place in the vital sensations.

How

then

will

bTetemal

the ^ be able to be called the first-beginnings of things and to shun the paths of death, since they are living things, and living things are one and the same with

(2) they

would onlv '

make

a

mortal things? Yet grant that they can, still by their .,, , meetin g and union, they will make nothing besides

i

1

,

.

,

cenfused

a

crowd and mob of
1

living things, even as, as

you may

lost, which might have been of the form hi prcprii sensus mortalia semina reddunt.

A

line

is

Book 11,

II.

p22-p?2

$7
mass of
« entlen t

know, men, herds of cattle and wild beasts could not beget anything by coming together with one another.
if by chance they lose their own sense, when inside body, and receive another, what good was it that that should be assigned to them which is taken away? Then,

But

(3)
tb e
-

if

in

a

body

moreover, '

lt them ? the eggs of birds turn into living chickens, and worms But our swarm out when mud has seized on the earth owing to P revious

as

we saw

before,

....

inasmuch

as

we

perceive

their sense, v ive
.

8

immoderate

rains,

we may know

that sensations can be

examples are enough.

begotten out of that which is not sensation. But if by chance any one shall say n that sensation can

6. Sensatlon cannot
arise

m any case arise from not-sensation by change of substance o
/ /

from

or, as it were,

by

a

out into being, °'
a

it

kind of birth, by which it is thrust will be enough to make clear and °
_

the
inseiisate

prove to him that birth cannot come to be, unless when union has been formed before, nor is anything changed
First of
all,

by change
r r

birth

;

both

except after union.

no body at
sure,
its

all

can have
is

union.
( J ) A b ° dy cannot have

sensation before the nature of the living thing

itself
.

begotten,

because,

we may be
is

substance

is sensation

scattered abroad and

kept in the

air,

in streams, in b e[ore the union .
it

earth and things sprung from earth, nor has

come

f

j ts

together in appropriate way and combined with one another the vital motions, whereby the all-seeing senses
are kindled

substance.

and

see to the safety of each living thing.

Moreover, a heavier blow than its nature can endure, of a sudden fells any living creature, and hastens to stun all the sensations of its body and mind. For the
positions of the first-beginnings are broken
vital

^ a blow
P utsan
sen sation,

up and the

because
dissolves
[

it

motions are checked deep within, until the substance, un ons a nd st0 P s the after the shock throughout all the limbs, loosens the
vital

vital clusters of

and drives
546-15

it

the soul from the body, scatters it abroad mot out through every pore. For what else c

i

ns.

98
are
Recovery means reunion and motion
restarted.

Book
we

II,

11.

p?2-p8i
it

to think that a
it

blow can do when
it

meets each
It

thing, but shake
to pass too, that

to pieces and break
a

up ?

comes

when

blow meets us with

less force,

the vital motions that remain are often
yea, to

wont

to win,

allay the vast disturbances of the blow and summon each part back again into its proper path, and to shake to pieces the movement of death that now, as it were, holds sway in the body, and to kindle

win and to

the sensations almost

lost.

For by what other means

could living things gather their wits and turn back to life even from the very threshold of death rather than pass on,

whither their race
7. Pleasure and

is

Moreover, since there

already almost run, and pass away? is pain when the bodies of

pain are caused by
the internal

matter, disturbed by some force throughout the living flesh and limbs, tremble each in their abode within, and

movements
of atoms
:

when they

settle

back

into

their

place,

comforting

atoms cannot then
themselves
experience

pass, you may know that the firstbeginnings cannot be assailed by any pain, and can find inasmuch as they are not no pleasure in themselves

pleasure comes to

:

made

them.

of any bodies of first-beginnings, through

whose

newness of movement they

enjoyment of
Re-

life-giving

may be in pain or find any delight. They are bound then

8.

not to be endowed with any sensation. Again, if, in order that all living things
feel,

may be

able to

ductio ad

we must

absurdum.
Sensible

after all assign sensation to their first-

beginnings,

what

of those whereof the race of

men

has

its

atoms must
themselves

laugh and cry and think and
dispute.

n You must think that they are peculiar increment ? shaken with quivering mirth and laugh aloud and sprinkle

face

and cheeks with the dew of

their tears.

And

they

have the wit to say

much about

the mingling of things,
;

and they go on to ask what are their first-beginnings inasmuch as, being made like to whole mortal men, they

Book II,

11.

981-1010

99

too must needs be built of other particles in their turn, and those again of others, so that you may never dare to

make

a stop

:

nay, I will press hard on you, so that,

whatsoever you say speaks and laughs and thinks, shall be composed of other particles which do these same
if we perceive this to be but raving madness, can laugh, though he has not the increment of laughing atoms, and can think and give reasons with learned lore, though he be not made of seeds thoughtful and eloquent, why should those things, which, as we see,

things.

But

and

a

man

have feeling, any the

less

be able to

exist,

mingled of seea3

which

lack sense in every
so,

way?
;
.

there is Summary sprung from heavenly seed 1S the one father of us all, from whom when live-giving °
are
all

And

we

universal

,

earth, the mother, has taken within her the watery drops mother, of moisture, teeming she brings forth the goodly crops and the glad trees and the race of men she brings forth
;

too

all

the tribes of the wild beasts,
all

when

she furnishes

the food, on which
life

feed their bodies and pass a pleasant
;

and propagate

their offspring

she

won

the

name

of mother.

Even

wherefore rightly has so, what once sprung

from

earth, sinks back into the earth,

and what was sent

the coasts of the sky, returns again, and the Nor does death so destroy Death of heaven receive it. regions not things as to put an end to the bodies of matter, but only '/
.

down from

.

.

scatters

their

union.
it

others,

and brings

she joins anew one with but reformatlon to pass that all things thus alter their
1
.

Then
1

.

.

destruction

»

.

.

ant' corn-

forms, and change their colours, and receive sensations,

bination

an instant of time yield them up again, so that r you may know that it matters with what others the first-

and

in

-ii

P roJ uces
qualities

an d
sensation,

beginnings of things are bound up and in what position

and what motions they mutually give and

receive,

and

G 2

ioo

Book If,

11.

1010-1044

we see floating on the surface may of things n or at times coming to birth, and on a sudden passing away, can abide in the possession of eternal firstnot think that what
bodies. Nay, indeed, even in my verses it is of moment with what others and in what order each letter is placed.

For the same

letters signify sky, sea, earth, rivers, sun, the
trees, living creatures
;

same too crops,

if

far the greater part, are alike,

but

it is

yet by by position that
all,

not

things sound different.

So

in things themselves likewise

when
D. Other
worlds
in space.

meetings,

motions,

order,

position,

shapes

are

changed, things too are bound to be changed. Now turn your mind, I pray, to a true
a truth
ears,
is

reasoning.

For

Introduction.

wondrously new is struggling to fall upon your and a new face of things to reveal itself. Yet neither
first it is

Put aside the alarm
of novelty,

anything so easy, but that at

more

difficult to

believe,

and

likewise nothing

is

so great or so marvellous

but that

little

by

little all

decrease their

wonder
and

at

it.

First of all the bright clear colour of the sky,

all it

holds within

it,

the
light

moon and
;

the stars that wander here and there, and the sheen of the sun with its brilliant
if

to being for unforeseen they were in a moment placed before their eyes, what story could be told more marvellous than these things, or what that the
these,

all

now they had come
if all

the

first

time for mortals,

Nothing, worthy of wonder would this sight have been. Yet think how no one now, wearied with satiety of seeing,
I

nations

would
so

less

dare to believe beforehand?

trow

:

deigns to gaze up at the shining quarters of the sky Wherefore cease to spew out reason from your mind,
!

struck with terror at

mere newness, but rather with eager

judgement weigh things, and, if you see them true, lift your hands and yield, or, if it is false, gird yourself to
battle.

For our mind now seeb to reason, since the sum

BOOk of space is Ily 11. there is side. Matter. as the seeds t\of since P roduce them. again and again. this world was so made by nature. each into their place in like manner as they are thrown together here. through all the unino limit.*. and the race of great things. 2. if there is so great a store of seeds as the whole life there. towards every side infinite empty space. it must needs be that you confess . idly. jostling from time to time. above and below. and seeds in m ' et in S fly unnumbered numbers in the deep universe • about in space. F* . Now and the nature of the deep shines * in no way must we think it likely. driven on in everlasting motion.^ always to look forward. that this from time 1 i_ j one world and sky was brought to birth. which. needs confess that there are here and there other gatherholds in ings of matter. " truth cries out for clear. and indeed the itself _ oth worlds than ours. and in vain. Wherefore. There are _ and on either verse. 1044-1074 I OI what there boundless out beyond the walls of this world.our world. things themselves of their own accord. since is infinite atoms in . we may be sure. jection of our mind First of all. and inquire w 6 is far out there. we find that in every direction everywhere. things must. no cause delays. and at last those united. a j' g when and no thing. Moreover. whither the spirit desires j. such as is this. rashly. as I have shown. As it is. be carried on and completed. suddenly cast of together. and if the same force must UCe and nature abides which could throw together the seeds [j[° m of things. n flies on unchecked. you must living things. which the ether its greedy grip. n ^U remaining ' necess . and whither the unfettered pro. might become ever and anon the beginnings of earth and sea and sky. were driven together in many ways. tv of living things could not number. when there space is is much matter ready to hand. but that beyond t0 time many wavs J ' chance will 1 it all those bodies of matter do naught 1 : above j all.

sea. and a life of calm. which often passes by the guilty and does to thunderbolts. abounding in things after Nature to is its kind. For by the holy hearts of the gods. men and 11. nature is at once. herds of scaly fishes. free of the control of the gods. plying the bolt. but it is always of some tribe. 107 5— 1104 and diverse that there are other worlds in other regions. as every race which is here on earth. who to hold in guiding hand the mighty reins of the deep.1 02 Book JJ. doing all of herself. which in their tranquil peace pass placid years. and they are just as much of a body that has birth. free you learn this surely. Nothing nature unique. who can avail to rule the whole his sum of the boundless. who to turn round all firmaments at once. to living creatures . in this wise the stock of men. and shake the calm tracts of heaven with thunder. and all the bodies of flying Wherefore you must confess in the same way that sky and earth and sun. and there are many First of all turn your mind things in the same race. but rather of number numberless . you will find that in this wise is begotten the race of wild beasts that haunts the mountains. or moving away into deserts rage furiously there. things of her own accord alone. And if thus seen work seen. are not unique. fires. without control of gods. in- asmuch as the deep-fixed boundary-stone of life awaits these as surely. and warm all fruitful lands with heavenly all places. and quit of her proud rulers. moon. and then shoot make havoc of his own temples. This there n single. and all else that exists. in is tribes of wild beasts. is too that in the universe there is nothing nothing born unique and growing unique and alone. or to be at all times present in so as to make darkness with clouds. and cling to it. and often death the innocent and undeserving? . races of 3. in this wise again the dumb fowls.

. parent of all.Book II. food is passed easily into and so long as the things are not so widely that they throw off much. many bodies have been added from without. its bulk begins '° se m ore . new room and air lift its high vault far away So all up. Then little by little age Then comes breaks their powers and their full-grown strength. a thin? is . needs be added to them. with earthy substance earth grows. moisture goes long as from the lands. which the great universe in its tossing has ° ° ' _ "s by constant additions brought together . and the wider . and seeds added growth was lncreased all around. Here the growth of all things stop. and the might rise to moisture. and lll e P enod °' decay. e fires forge m^ - and sky sky. And II. The world '" birthday of sea and earth. take more into themselves than they send as out from their body.than ve hand has brought all things on to the last end of ^ ing growing as it comes to pass. with perfect. the more bodies now does it scatter abroad and than they can tak* ia. that from them sea and lands might be able to increase. -i r> wastes away on the downhill path. . fires. so long their veins. when there is now no whit . and they pass on to their own tribes . For whatsoever things you see waxing large with joyful increase. and from them too the mansion of the sky might gain m without. For verily the huger when they 1 . and little by little climbing the steps to full- must grown all years. when once . and cause waste greater spread than that on which their growth feeds. here nature by her powers curbs increase. until they have reached the topmost point of increase. than what and passes away. until nature. lioy-iij? and the 103 first since the time of the world's birth. they more which flows out is sent within the veins of life. it is. For of a surety you must throw up your hands and grant that many bodies flow away and pass from things but more must . and the rising of the sun. to go. For from all places all bodies are separated by blows each to its own w so kind.

inasmuch as at last food fails the aged life. create them. which now i i i scarce wax great. blows from without. of wild beasts. and brought to birth all bodies I trow. Yea.104 throw all its Book II. and to overcome it with hostile walls of the wide world all the world. i • .. our oxen and the strength of our husbandmen so : we wear out we exhaust fields the iron ploughshare. nor does nature furnish that is needful. though once it created all the tribes. though aided by our . And now the aged ploughman shaking his head and again that the toil of his sighs ever hands has perished . food must support them. herself and glad pastures . since neither the veins can bear to receive what is enough. which let huge was no golden rope. and yield before the gives out. Thus then even the wil1 away. nor there store enough. which now nourishes them of her substance. ii3f-n6? food easily dispersed into whence matter from itself. even now its life is broken. that lash the rocks. at first by herself of her own accord she created for mortals the smiling crops now shows signs of which even brought forth sweet fruits and glad vine-plants. yet all is vain. n down the races of living things from For it heaven above on to the fields. nor do bodies from without cease to thump upon So it it. when all things have been made rare by the ebb. Moreover. toil : decay. but the same earth conceived them. and the worn-out earth scarce creates tiny animals. fall into decay and crumbling food which must needs repair all things and renew them. For sustain all things . is nor is its veins. may arise and be supplied to equal the vast ebb which it With reason then they perish. off 11. though scarce supplied by the much do they grudge their produce and increase our toil. and wear it will blows. and food round be stormed and it is ruin. nor did the sea or the waves.

Book IIj all 11. and for naught. and grumbles to think how the genera- tions of old. 1 1 foredone by age and the lapse of Read capulum with Vossius. . since man. easily supported life on a narrow aforetime the limit of land was far less to each plot. he often praises the fortunes against So too gloomily the planter of the wornof his father. rich in piety. Nor does he grasp that all things waste away little by little and pass to the grave life. wearies heaven. wrinkled vine rails at the trend of the times. 1165-1174 1 oy and when he matches the present days the days of the past. out.

bright star of the Greek race. who has revealed the universe to thee I shedding light upon the true joys follow. nor does the snow congealed with biting frost besmirch them with its white fall. I see things The majesty of moving on through all the gods is revealed. springing from thy godlike soul. the walls of the world part asunder. as soon thy philosophy. who out of life. plies all of mind Moreover. thou dost vouchsafe to us a thy pages. but an ever cloudless sky vaults them over. of gold. the quarters at any time. the void. compare with the stout strength of thou discoverer of truth. nature supnor does anything gnaw at their peace they need. or what might kids with trembling limbs accomplish in a race to a horse ? Thou art our father. and their n nor peaceful abodes. and always most worthy of evermore. which neither the winds shake clouds soak with showers. But on the other hand. and from as bees in flowery glades sip all we For in like manner browse on as thy sayings life for of gold. I man. yea. for how could a swallow rival swans. but rather because for love long to copy thee . and smiles with light bounteously spread abroad. begins to proclaim aloud the nature of things.BOOK Introduction : III first Thou. even every plant. and in thy deepset prints firmly now I plant my foot- steps. the terrors of the mind fly away. 'tis of deep darkness didst avail to praise of raise a torch so clear. not in eager emulation. Epicurus. father's precepts. . our hero.

2?-rr is J °7 Acheron are nowhere to be seen. of 11. so clear to think that thus by thy power nature sight made and manifest. laid bare to on every side. clouding all things with the blackness of death. which utterly confounds the life of men from the very root. and in what manner each . you may be sure by this that all is idly vaunted to win False pros ph[Jo SO p h y n blood. spite of all. For. and. it. praise. some godlike pleasure and awe is a thrill of seizes on me. and that they know that the soul's nature is of if by chance their whim so wills and that so they have no need at all of our philosophy. beset with every kind of care. Wherefore it is more fitting to watch a man in doubt and . which are carried At these things. be created out of them nature of the in next after this soul seems that the mind and the and the old my verses. to whatever place they come in their misery. and fly ^"^ own accord they on. it were. And how since I have of all things. live on all the same. impelled by everlastseveral thing can it ing motion.Book III. they make sacrifice to the dead. exiled from their country and banished far from the sight of men. and in their bitter plight far more keenly turn their hearts to religion. with of their shown of what kind are the beginnings The what diverse shapes they differ. fear of must now be displayed Acheron driven headlong away. and slaughter black cattle and despatch offerings to the gods of the dead. and suffering no pleasure to be pure and unalloyed. as on underneath through the void below our feet. although men often declare that disease and a life of disgrace are more to be feared than the lower realm of death. nor yet earth a barrier to prevent all things being descried. or else of wind. tlie <^ea!s of death. These A r crisis same men. and not because the truth is itself accepted. stained with some foul crime.

11 rr-86 danger. for then at last a real cry is wrung from the bottom of his heart which of is : the mask is torn off. which bursts the bonds of friendship. . their heaping slaughter on slaughter. which constrain wretched men to overleap the boundaries of right. and hate and In like manner. 1 For often ere parents. desire to flee far from them. sede. and to drive them far away. a present dallying before the gates of death . that with sorrowing heart they statues and a name . Hardening heart they revel in a brother's bitter death. he is regarded.ic8 Book III. and overturns affection from its lofty throne. spurred by a false fear. it and while men. they waste with envy that he is powerful. but The reading is may have been t summa . For most often scorned disgrace and biting poverty are seen to be far removed from pleasant settled life. and sometimes as comrades or accomplices in crime to struggle night and day with surpassing toil to these sores in life are rise up to the height of power — fostered in no small degree by the fear of death. and to learn of what manner he is in adversity . avarice and the blind craving for honours. the cause many and Moreover. . it is this fear compass their own death. win and often through fear of death so deeply does the hatred of life and the sight of the light possess men. forgetting that which is the source of their woes. . while they complain that they themselves are wrapped in Some of them come to ruin to darkness and the mire. often through fear their kinsmen's board. vices crimes. now men have 1 betrayed country and beloved uncertain. which assails their honour. | the same fear. and the truth remains behind. as were. who walks clothed with bright renown. and are. they amass substance by civil bloodshed and greedily multiply their riches.

Nature of . First I say that the mind. . This terror scattered.Book Illy II. this darkness of the mind. In this tion. placed the reasoning and guid- 00 less call the A. and the heavy body lies slack LnseleK. . 86-11$ 109 For even as and must seeking to shun the realms of Acheron. then. mind in any 1. of which this must have been the general sense. which is clear to and in this Mind • when. is a which we often understanding. all . but by the outer view and the inner law of nature. when the limbs 2> " to soft sleep. are created parts of the r whole that living being.. Moreover. man no whit the than The mind hand and foot and eyes ' . narmon )' • wise they do not set the sensation of the part determined . . see. must needs be not by the rays of the sun and the gleaming shafts of day. although in no part does an understanding exist as when often good health is said to belong to the body. In when one wretched . . which the Greeks call a harmony. a part oi '? the body. yet there is something else in us. is a part of a . dls P ellecl children tremble and fear everything in blinding darkby science. which . in . f ana pain. all the while. and yet it is not itself any part of a healthy man. his head ' at that very time * is stirred in many ways. so we sometimes dread in the light things that are no whit more to be feared than what children shudder at ^ in the dark. very far astray. and admits " j C t ve A line is lost. easure mind if. the same we feel pleasure in r it some an ° y are in- and contrariwise happens that the in dependent in reverse often comes to be in turn. 11 in that it makes us live with sensathe sensation of the not ' a. ing power . Other hidden part sick.( a ) the mind. but is a certain vital habit of the body. and imagine will come to pass. are given In sIee P is in no pain. 7 ness. is they seem to me to wander Thus often the body. feels pleasure in all his body is no other wise than when up a sick man's foot painful. and senseless. (Yet many wise men have thought) 1 mind is not placed in any part determined. which but tne may be. of life.

the loss 01 particles driven out through the mouth. that same life of a sudden abandons the veins and leaves the bones . w hen comes to pass that removed yet often the body but is lost. a. when a few when much bodies of heat are scattered abroad and some air has been a life lingers . since the nature of mind and soul has been o the vita ' a har- revea i e d as a part of man. is supreme. first of all it survives.no within (b) Book III. and lord in the whole body the reason. Wherefore. ° J it is n ! . itself all 11. The rest of the soul. Now * that you li the motions of joy and baseless cares of may be able to learn that the soul 7" bT to ° *s n t * ie is m bs. but mind. but that rather those. nor do existence. it is For breast. obeys and moved at the will and inclina- . here that fear and terror throb. spread is abroad through- out the body. .. as it were. There is then heat and a life-giving wind in The notion the very body. are the cau:. and that it is not by a harmony that not a the body wont to feel. so that ' you of heat and air may be able to know from _ this that not all kinds of bodies \ causes have an equal part to play. give up the name of harmony.. is but that the head.e that life lingers in the limbs. and firmly seated in the middle region of the breast. Mind and one nature Now I w ^^ t ie ^ say that mind and soul are held in union one ot h er > and form of themselves a single nature. all equally support of which are the seeds wind and burning heat. of the g reat p art f t he body is on in our limbs and then again. which was handed down to musicians from high Helicon : or e j se t j1 ey themselves have dragged it mony ' must be abandoned. are soothing joys here then is the understanding and the mind. which abandons our dying frame. around these parts . armony. my some let them keep it : do you listen to the rest of dis- course. forth from and brought it over to this thing. Whatever it is. ii ?— 144 The heart. which then was without a name of its own. other source. which we call mind or understanding.

the limbs give way b beneath us. „_ body. . the terror in their mind . 144.-17$ III itself tion of the understanding. If the and shuddering shock of a weapon. all our body . driven within and laying bare bones and sinews.! The mind alone by understanding for itself and rejoices for itself. so the mind sometimes feels pain by itself or waxes strong with joy. to change the countenance. yet faintness follows.' and a turmoil of and a pleasant swooning to the ground. has It has pain » single thing stirs either soul or head or eye hurts within us at not tortured at the same time in when no. And just as. and the tongue is crippled and the voice is choked. mind and soul are formed of bodily nature? Moreover. touch. we see that the whole soul feels with it throughout the limbs. the ears ring. ' shared by . we are . body from sleep. and to guide and turn the whole man none of which things we see can come to pass without to pluck the — For mind act s °" . Nevertheless. corporeal. limbs. is a " ected b / wounds.BOOk Illy 11. straightstrikes the body and pushes it on. and indeed we often see men fall down through . municated the eyes grow misty. mind which comes to pass on the ground. so that any one may easily learn from for this that it is the soul is linked in union with the mind . . For when it is seen to push on the r ' . and then sweat and pallor break out over r all the and socom„„. when the attack of pain. you see that our mind suffers along with the body. nor touch in allow that its turn without body — must we not touch. and shares its feelings together in the body. This same reasoning shows that the nature of mind Mind and sc are and soul is bodilv. does not reach the life. when it way smitten by the force of the mind. but feelin(r is when the understanding is stirred by some stronger fear. when all the rest of the soul through the limbs and frame is not roused by any fresh feeling. . J ^ b y Itself body.

112 Therefore BOOk Illy 11. on the other hand. since the nature mind has been found nimble beyond the rest. in and smoother. Now. a pile of stones : or corn-ears it can by no means separate. be formed of exceeding round and exceedit is bound to move ing tiny seeds. it must needs be that the nature of the mind is bodily. Therefore. as it we^re. quick to roll. seeing it is formed But. But. more sluggish. is the nature of honey more stable. so that its particles may be able to manifest for all when smitten by and oscillates at a little impulse. it . itself more quickly than any of the things whose nature sw jf tiy as w hat is to sec But because it is so very nimble. we may be sure. so they are proportion with nimbleness. all things gifted that are found to be of greater weight or more spiky. since it is distressed of Mind and^ soul are Now my of what kind parts it is formed. this is so. nor so fine and round. For a light trembling breath can constrain a its high heap of poppy-seed to scatter from top to bottom before your eyes but. because. you may be able to seen to because ^ learn from this. That 1. I will r formed of . body this mind is. on the other hand. First of all I say that it discourse. the as bodies are tinier of the more firm set they are. if you give attention. particles. and of what go on to give account to ' you in . 174-204 and from time to time. a hesitating will to rise. For so water moves of little the slightest impulse.. come to pass so they are the mind pictures to itself coming to Therefore the mind bestirs pass and starts to do itself. and of its movement more hesitating for the whole mass matter clings more together. therefore. is very fine in particles: texture5 an <} is made and formed Nothing is of very tiny particles. it is not formed of bodies so smooth. very minute by the blow of bodily weapons. its fluid . on the other hand.

And many things. prove useful. when it flees away it carries with it no Nevertheless simple. declares the nature thin a texture it is because how it formed. and the nature of mind appearance . will be 2. inasmuch when the sweet breath of a perfume is scattered to the some body still the air. linked on throughout veins. . many tiny seeds go to and scent in the whole body of things. friend. nor is Even so it is. and some warm is And so must needs be that the whole soul and is made flesh. nor indeed is there any heat. nor does anything seem withdrawn from weight. because. is preserved unbroken. thing itself seems not a whit smaller to the eyes on that its account. you could discern nothing there. could be death and soul has passed away. of very tiny seeds. of the This fact.BOOk lily must needs be formed smooth and round. of bodies exceeding smali this truth. » For because M its nature is rare. 204-23 f when known and 113 and to you. since jot of weight. it . chan?e in of death has laid hold on a man. stolen from the entire body . 1 small a place might be contained. as.15 it. we may be sure. and in it departl)re at how . will in 11. Wherefore once and again you may know that the nature of the understanding and the soul is formed of exceeding make flavours tiny seeds. gathered in a mass mikes no ra 3 that as soon as the unruffled peace . too. yet a jot of weight wanting. mingled with heat. and heat a » with it . of . good mind. dying. or when its savour is gone from . death preserves heat. when the flavour of wine has passed away or and sinews . all it ° save the feeling of life. that sight or weight can test. moreover draws air wind. we must not think that this nature is Compo" For it is a certain thin breath that deserts the ^g°s ' °j. reckoned of service. when it is all already gone the outer contour of the limbs from the whole body. that has not air too mixed with 546.

ii4 about in it. For the first-beginnings course to and fro among themselves with the motions of first-beginnings. Book IIIy many II. nor made of smaller or smoother particles. It first sends abroad the motions that bring sensation among the limbs first stirred. set to these motions. be it pleasure heat of opposite kind. but this must have been the sense. since the mind does not admit that any of these can create the motions that bring sensation (or the thoughts of the the fourth nature. as best I can in brief. m I will touch the theme. and in what manner bound mingled long to give account in elements the soul. then heat receives the motions and the hidden power of wind. despite that. in together so that they can act. then all things are set moving. on the surface of the body The combination of the : and by as I this means we avail to Now. nothing more fine. nothing more nimble. are corrupt. 11 so that no single one can be put apart. But for the through all most part a limit is keep our life. But it is altogether without name . : for it is being made up of small shapes . and the parts of the soul scatter abroad the pores of the body. as it were. last of all or the passes to the bones and marrow. against my will the poverty £ y coun try's tongue holds me back . are what way these parts one with another. . nor any biting ill pass through. 235-264 move roust needs be that first-beginnings of air Already then we have found the nature of the soul to be triple . 1 It must needs there exists be then that some fourth nature n too be added to these. nor can its powers be set in play divided 1 The MSS. Yet not for naught can pain pierce thus far within. and yet all these things are not enough to create sensation. yet. and the flesh feels then air . but that all things are so disordered that there is no more place for life. than it The course of sensation. mind). the blood reall ceives the shock it and the thrill .

nor is there anything ° ' it is tourt nature. and moreover the very soul of the whole soul. 264-29$ are. and on£ is more above or below the rest. you see. lest heat and wind apart. as it as in \\J were. but they many forces of a single body. the from others by empty space. it it separation break up. Moreover the it mind possesses that heat. because it is formed of small and rare bodies. Even is. the flesh of any living creature anywhere there smell and a certain heat and savour. and more- were. made it of tiny bodies. Thus-heat and air and the hidden power of wind mingled create one najrure together with that nimble force. and apart from them the power and by their of air. But those creatures have more whose fiery heart and passionate mind easily boils up in H 2 . starts a shuddering in And it has too that condition of pass which goes along with fear. and yet of all these is made up the bulk of a single body. lies concealed. further beneath than this in our bodies. and the fire flashes it more keenly from the eyes. yet so that one single thing is seen to be composed of all . Even as in our limbs and our whole body the force of the mind and the power of the soul is secretly immingled. should put an end to sensation. In like manner it must needs The other elements be that wind and air and heat act mingled together over. cold breath too has.BOOk lUy U. wind the limbs and stirs the whole air lulled to air which comes to when the breast is calm and the of heat. a So. which dons when boils Heat causes an 8 er » with rage. the very soul of the whole soul and holds sway in the whole body. calmness - face unruffled. this force without is name. rest. as - throughout the limbs. fear . Much and frame. which sends among them from itself the beginning of motion. within this nature lies hid far below. whence the motion that brings For right deep The hidden sensation first arises throughout the flesh.

and the cause for the two cling together by common roots.Illustrations anger. which makes nor ever it a But the nature air. drenching it with the shadow of murky mist. One could not dispel for us. Nor must we think that such maladies can be plucked out by the roots. midway between the two. Foremost X animal* who often as ^ of in this class is the fierce force of lions. the deer So is and the raging it with the race of men. and of its life it is . and the habits that follow thereon. However much culture. nor discover names for first atoms. whence arises this variety thing herein I see that I can affirm. but that one man will more swiftly fall into bitter anger. that nothing hinders us from living a life worthy of the gods. And in many other things lt must needs be that the diverse natures of men differ. oxen draws its life rather from calm rouse is the smoking torch of anger set to it to overmuch. Even as it is not easy to tear out the scent . which reason all the shapes of the in things. that so small are the traces of these natures left. another be a little The philosophy to overcome habits sooner assailed by fear. shuddering motion start in the limbs. Union of body is This nature then of the soul n body. but I cannot now set f° rt h the secret causes of these. yet it training gives some of them an equal leaves those first traces of the nature of the mind of each. itself and seen that they cannot be torn asunder without destruction. and more quickly it rouses the chilly breath in its flesh. their breast the billows of their and cannot contain in wrath. But the cold heart of deer is more full of wind. while a third will take some things more gently than is right. is the cause is protected by the whole the guardian of the body. g roan break their hearts with roaring. nor is it pierced and frozen by the chill shafts of : fear and from it has its place lions.

but that all alike is dis- solved. is sensation kindled and fanned Moreover. Yes. either for itself without the force of the other. but remains unharmed. he is fighting even against plain and true owing to its com- ^j"^'^. as the moisture of water often after death. the body is never be. but that its nature too passes nature of mind away. With first-beginnings so closely interlaced from Each is their very birth are they begotten. never.BOOk illy U. which has 'been lent to it. since the cause of their life is linked together. nor. S27-S 58 117 from lumps of frankincense.and cannot S last on itself.' which was not its own in life. throughout our ' gives off the heat. but it utterly perishes So from the beginning of existence body mutual union. in this way can the abandoned frame bear the torn asunder separation of the soul. and is not for that reason torn asunder itself. that and rots away. learn the motions that give life. mother's limbs and womb. I say. so yea. as is clear to see. if any one is for proving that the it is body The body feel. sensation. For the does not rest. and soul. which we call facts. So it is not easy to draw out the and soul from the whole body. ' and believes that the soul mingled with ltselt feels the whole body that takes up this motion. when it is driven out of . nor grows alone. but by the common motions of the two on this side "^"^ to and on that flesh. in separation so that you can see. endowed with a life shared in common. For who if it will ever tell us what the feeling of the be not what the clear fact itself body is. can the power of body or mind feel apart. even when hidden in the cannot come to pass without hurt and ruin . that their natures too must be linked in one. for loses that and many other things life. nor is seen to gotten by wi t hout it> For never. has shown and taught away the body it is us? 'But when the soul has passed utterly deprived of sensation. besides it loses.

light. it is clear. or the feathers of birds or the flying plants. and weave the web of our limbs. nor do feel a when they touch the we mist at night. n then for the doors. door-posts through any pain when they are our eyes are as doors. meshes fallen as when we are caught in its we move. but that the mind looks out them as when doors are To through and are not doors to '. do not suffer opened. before us. set each next each. is hard. forces us to conclude that it is they which see. Moreover. and Soul and all. can first start the motions of For sometimes we do not feel which we do not feel has been shaken the clinging of dust on the body. because our sight thwarted by the . n sets judgement do not alternate. nor know that his twisted web has down from 1 i. things that the first-beginnings of soul distances apart as great as are the smallest bodies preserve this : when cast upon us. Democritus. For. as the particles of soul are far smaller than those of are composed. if the mind. .118 Example : Book III. 379-387 the eyes themselves see ' say. nor know that chalk on us and settled on our limbs. so that you may warrant which. spider that strike against us. But that does not happen with doors which we see. Soul atoms are set at intervals. seeing that the feeling in the eyes leads us the other way . that the eyes can see nothing. Herein you could by no means accept the teaching. nor the slender threads of the body. for that feeling drags us on and forces us to the very pupils 1 . so too they are less in number. body atoms which the of the holy man. the soul yea. so first one and then the other. 11. that the first-beginnings of soul and body alternate. moreover. Proof from sensation in the body. ought to discern things better if the eyes were taken out and removed. opened. c. here and there are scattered through our frame which our body and flesh and only . on our head. which from its exceeding lightness. for often is we cannot see bright things.

soul can hold out in the frame for a. Now life. For without the mind and understanding no part of the f more the monarch of life than the more essential for life . Yet mind and understanding have abode firm. Illustration rorn . when the eye is mangled clings to life. that you Come now. soul and mind ever bound together. pupil ot living power of sight stands firm. abides in life. around. for 11. whose if not of on and all yet of a great part of his soul. Robbed. before the seeds of soul mingled with our bodies throughout our frame feel that the first-beginnings have been shaken. the mind is more the keeper of the fastnesses of The mind 1S power of the soul. unite and leap back in turn. may be able to learn that the . if only you do not the destroy the whole ball of the eye. soul « but follows in air. and cut all round the for that pupil. . : eye.Book III. still he lingers Even as. 119 we feel the most part falls not lightly nor do the each single passage of every kind of crawling creature nor footstep. so many things must first be stirred in body. then the r r all. 387-418 . which gnats and other insects plant upon oui Indeed. he lives and draws in the breath of heaven to give him life. and leave it by itself without the destruction of the eyes too. and before they can by jostling in these spaces set between. and darkness follows on. e . and scatters into and deserts the chill frame in the frost of death. its train without demur. at once light gone. though the soul be rent from him all around and wrested from his limbs. rush together. will not be done that tiny But if is part in the middle of the eye is eaten away. us.tiny moment of time. however much the bright ball is in other In such a compact are places unharmed. one. However much the trunk is mangled with the limbs hewn all around. if the pupil has abode unharmed.

were. it is inasmuch as mortal. I will hasten to set forth verses long sought out and found with glad effort. since the blood is withdrawn from the veins. and since therefore it cannot be held/ together in swiftly. since. Be it yours n to link both of these in a single name.1 20 Book IIL 11. death. and 1 The text is uncertain. Moreover. . : altars smoke breathing steam on high. and grows together with it. which was. is since I have mobile and made of beginnings far smaller finely made it of tiny bodies and of first- minute atoms : them in speed of move when smitten by some for indeed it is moved by images of smoke slender cause and cloud n even as when slumbering in sleep we see or cloud or smoke far surpasses —for than the liquid moisture of water to motion. and compose shown that it a single thing. and when. : borne to us —now therefore. when left has when once it is withdrawn from man's limbs. when vessels are shattered. but this was probably the meaning. which more rare than our body (and can contain it less) f 1 2. It is a case. and the liquid parting this way and 'that. to choose proving that well. as it departed. since the body. and has the body. I. how could you believe is that the soul could be held together by any air. I continue to speak of the soul. Proofs. when by some chance it is shattered and made rare. air it cloud and smoke part asunder into air. you behold the water flowing away on every side. For indeed. the vessel of the soul. cannot hold it together. and is more prone . we feel that the understanding is begotten along with the body. 417-446 ) B. It is born. worthy to guide your life. suppose that I speak of mind as they are at one each with the other First of all. you must believe that the soul too is scattered and passes away far more and is dissolved more quickly into a its first-bodies. The is minds and the light souls n of living things have birth and soul mortal. and sending up their for beyond all doubt these are idols that are .

fail all things give all way and therefore d. strength hardened. and is it its the stinging strength of wine has entered into heat has spread abroad throughout his veins. Afterward. and sometimes in a heavy lethargy is carried off into a deep unending sleep. _ has its itself suffers wasting . For both pain and disease are alike fashioners of death. 5- Intoxicts a ^ ^dy why that there follows a heaviness in the limbs. . . in which it hears not voices. age. so the wheregrief and fear . Nay The . summoning it back to life. And so it is natural that the nature of is the mind should also be dissolved. Then when their years are ripe j^"^ . greater their force of is their sense and increased is mind. bedewing face and cheeks with their tears. For as with feeble and tender body. more. nor can know the faces of those the b affect the who stand round. when eyes and head fall nodding. even as the high breezes of the air . natural that should also share in death.Book III. as the contagion of disease pierces into it. for it loses its reason and speaks raving words. sso ] ve{1 it. . inasmuch as is born with the body.. so a weak judgement of mind and their goes with it.. grows with it. when now the body shattered by the stern strength of time. during the diseases of the body the mind often wanders astray . mind. and. as we have been taught ere now by many a man's decease. like the bodv has pains. same time becomes weary and worn with follows this that Then . Therefore you must needs admit that the mind too is dissolved. 4. his and mind as legs are entangled he staggers. and children totter along with it comes to old age. then the reason is maimed. the tongue raves. as at the smoke. and the frame has sunk with its force dulled. his tongue is sluggish. just as the . diseases it we see that.. 11. into we I see that it with have shown. a when man. inasmuch Again. the mind stumbles. at once. 446-479 121 grows. body t 3- The mind too fore it is biting cares and and poignant pain.

and fro. 11. falls. the groaning is wrung from him. and the humours of the distempered it hiding-places. he loses his wits. they testify that. When mind The text is are tossed 1 by such great maladies. as on the salt sea the waters boil beneath the stern strength of the winds. then. and. along the way they are wont. but the sense probably this. by now the cause of malady has ebbed. Further. within. his soul rent asunder by the violence of disease 1 throughout his frame. when biting as I have shown. you may be sure. and gathers foam. often before our very e^k *" T" tears s . . though which ren by a lightning-stroke. he writhes. where is their paved path. he breathes in gasps. Still further life. and in wretched plight uncertain. Because. he first rises. Thereafter. some man. sobbing. robbed of any Nay more. except that the mastering wont to might of the wine is confound the soul even within the body? But whenever things can be so confounded and entangled. e ^' es ' se * ze d suddenly by violent disease. if a cause a whit stronger shall have made its way 6. his muscles grow taut. and are from his mouth. and foams at the mouth he groans and shivers throughout his frame. mind heavy. because his limbs are racked with pain. 47p~?07 swim. his eyes quarrelling grows apace. because the force of mind and soul is confounded. and more than all carried crowding forth because the particles of voice are driven out. and tossing to and fro wearies his limbs. and then this sort that go along with them why the other signs of does this come to pass. shouting. as . all . and regains and soul then even within the body his soul. as and little by little body return to their were staggering. is confounded.122 and his Book III. is torn apart and tossed to rent asunder by that same poison. returns to all his senses. they must needs perish. Loss of wits comes to pass.

and ' » ' we see that can be changed by medicine. 3. passes out of its own limits. thereafter through the rest of his frame. and contract its parts into one place. or So surely is true fact it is changed by medicine. mind is cured. and with double-edged . yet nevertheless that place. forth all of the soul is severed nor does it come intact at It one moment. ' Mind. . it must be counted mortal. and so withdraw sensation from all the limbs. the whole. For whosoever attempts and essays to alter the e ° . to which so great is abundance of soul gathered together./ re- futation to prove the falsehood. or take mind. seen to run counter to false reasoning. are rent asunder 11. pass the traces of chill death. must needs be . Since this nature body. Again. nor that any whit should be added For whenever a thing changes and or depart from it. and to shut off whether retreat from him who flees. cannot ontract f into one place. must indeed add their order. we often behold a man pass away little by little and limb by limb lose the sensation of life first of all the toes and nails on his feet grow livid. then the feet and . it gives signs of its mortality. In cases ° t cat j ^e soul perishes legs die. straightway this is the death is of that which was before. 507-5 37 why do you 123 believe that and distressed.* v can be us that cured by it lcinc ' nature. as have proved. J just like the sick body. without the body in the open air they can continue life amid the warring winds? And since we perceive that the 7. this too forewarns me the mind has a mortal life. or seeks to change any other parts to it or transfer them from away some small whit at least from But what is immortal does not permit its parts to be transposed.Book III. But if by chance you think that it could of its own power draw r itself inwards through the frame. step by J^^he' step. And so whether the mind I sick.

nor does it matter whether it passes away scattered through air. soul anything apart and mind by themselves have no power. still does. and in every part less and less part of life remains. last on and feel sensation. We must know that just as torn out by the roots. throughout sinews and bones. and allow that the soul could be massed together in the body of or if it still those. Nay more. the vessel of the mind. sundered us. so the mind cannot exist by itself without the body and the very man. Doubtless be- the eye by itself. cannot discern from the whole body. if cause in close mingling throughout veins and flesh. from cannot feel nor be. The mind. cannot exist without apart the body. short of life the other organs of sense which guide the helm and. who seems to be. who as they die leave the light of day part by part. in every the whole man. their first-beginnings are held close . so. if it were our wish to grant what is false. just as hand and eye or nostrils. And since the mind is one part of man. and so perishes. as we said before. for neither union. one with the other.124 is Book IIIy II. but in fact are in a time melted in corruption. like any other organ of sense. you may be sure. just as are ears and eyes sottish. inasmuch body clings to it with binding ties. seen possessed of greater sensation but since such place nowhere found. you must needs confess that the soul is mortal. it is rent in pieces and scattered abroad. the or is drawn into one out of all its various parts 9. it is clear. nor yet bereft of soul can body . n which abides rooted in a place determined. since sense fails and grows more and more and all . Again. and so enjoy life without body can the nature of mind by itself alone produce the motions of life. the living powers of body and mind prevail by else you like to as the 10. or aught picture more closely bound to it. as it were. it peiishes. s $7-567 . Soul and body live by their mutual union.

which outside the body cast out into the breezes of air after death they cannot make. since the body cannot endure the severing of the soul. when. which are in the body. and through all and all the So that in many ways you may learn that the pores ? nature of the soul issued through the frame sundered in parts. and limp on the bloodless trunk. soul trickles forth through the limbs. as the ing up of s° U be fQ r departure. scattering abroad like smoke. cou!d not because they are not For indeed air will be body. as at the hour of death. Wherefore. the winding ways. it was rent in pieces before air. because its foundamoved from their seat. you must needs admit that the mind and the soul are dissolved. . Again. and that the body has changed and fallen he break- tions have been utterly crumbling in such great ruin. why do The f^ay^f the body t you doubt that the force of the soul has gathered together from deep down within. all the limbs to fall bauce of the flaccid. the face seems to grow same dist ur. nor can they freely leap asunder with and so shut in they make those . but that it decays with a foul stench. 1 1 j 1 the soul produce made in the sinews and the vital and again. out into the breezes of still Nay more.. and confine itself to or those motions. Even so it is. and to wish to within the limits of resu t j n„ in death. when right within the body.Book UIj by all 11. air the same way held together. it slipped forth and it swam moves 12. ' be released from the whole body . and has trickled out. yet often from some cause the soul seems to be shaken and to move. In the . if the be held soul can hold itself together. 567-597 i2y great spaces between the body. while A great | life. yea a living thing. since life the cause of in soul and body is closely linked// 11. and that even within the body in itself. which before it m . as men . sense-giving motions. again the whole protection of the body is undone and the breath of life is sensations of the driven without.

or the heart has failed last link alarm. and in which each several thing can abide it is 1 created. is the understanding and judgement of the mind has place. and in ruin with the body too the power of the soul. lament that it it would not at its death so it much was dissolved. all his as he soul depart all at once. the heart has a shock. had 11. like mind never begotten for all any other thing. and one and all struggle to clutch at to life.iz6 when the all is Book III. would For no dying not only be unable to last on through all time. and both fall so that a cause a whit stronger . if driven outside the body. as The fixed Again. 597-62$ n . but could not hold together even for a moment ? For it is clear dies. say. nor is flame wont to be born of flowing streams. went forth and 13. But if our mind were immortal. if Moreover. its left its slough. but i a quarter -i is fixed may have its manifold parts its that never can the order of arranged limbs be seen reversed? So surely does one thing follow on another. ^ from senses are dissolved each in their own place. is immortal and is There may be a verse or else the construction slightly careless. why . except t jiat p} aces determined are assigned to each thing for its when birth. For then the mind is shaken through all and through. . 1 the nature of the soul lost here. but rather that does a snake. just as he knows that the other man ^^ no one. without in the open air. that so it men in one abode in it- in head or feet or hands. frail as it is. Why do you doubt after all this but that the soul. might bring dissolution.'' determined. nor cold to be conceived in fire. but rather failing in its place in 2 quarter determined . feels his soul going forth whole nor coming up first to the throat and body. robbed of its shelter. g U ^ et U p aDO ve.

Examples that nature is everlasting. assuredly. I trow. while at his side on the ground his dying foot twitches its toes. Then another struggles to rise when his leg is lost. : \ parts. so that be l c* nno ! doubt the force of the soul too and separates into any its will be cleft in twain. ' r beyond ' s " rvive all m the severed parts. cannot r ' ' exist . exist. and often knows not that his left arm with its shield is gone. and at the same time. Yet neither eyes nor nor again tongue apart or ears fore feel by themselves or even but they apart nose nor even hand can exist for the soul apart from body. Nor in any other ' way can we picture to ourselves n the souls wandering in the lower world of Acheron. torn asunder and riven together with the body. carried away . the souls cannot there. is When y of soul the whole body. some force suddenly it hew it in the middle with bits swift blow. by the wheels among the horses and the ravening scythes and another sees not that his right arm has dropped. and ' if we whole a living & cut. disclaims. ' cleft But what is immortal. 625-655 127 14. so suddenly lop off limbs. when sundered from our body. . Thev tell how often scythe' lu " bs hewn . so that severs each half apart. An Immortal soul must have senses its And so painters and the own : souls thus former generations of writers have brought before us endowed with senses. off in battle bearing chariots. And the head lopped off from the warm living trunk keeps on the .Book IIIy can feel 11. glowing in the mellay of slaughter. while he climbs up and presses onward. suppose it endowed with five senses. we must. that the part which falls lopped off from the frame is seen to shiver on the ground. through the suddenness of the stroke. because his mind is swallowed up in the fervour of the fight with the body that is left him he makes for the fight and the slaughter.from body. since we feel that ' the sensation of see that the present in is 15. while spirit of in spite of all the mind and the man cannot feel the pain. life is And thing.

. ought to remember a previous existence. and when we are crossing the threshold into membrance and that that which now if 11 17. when our body is already formed the Moreover. . trow. smitten by the burning pain of the wound. it may quench it with its Shall we say then that there is a whole soul in all bite. could not n - jjf t y^quU not tnen be natural that it be so closely to grow with the body. why can we not re' ' Moreover. you will then perceive all the hewn parts severally writhing under the fresh blow.. yet so that the whole body . but the text is uncertain. of life all 11. is been severed: which was one together with the body has wherefore both body and soul must be . and it enters into the body at our birth. member also the part of our life already gone. 6 ss-68 s eyes. 1 Reading truncum for utrumque. 1 1 • • body from without. a far step from death . . has passed away. since each 16. thought mortal.. has now been created. own those little parts? But by that reasoning it will follow that one living creature had many souls in its body. in order that. for its the last vestiges of soul. living r ° power of the mind is wont to be put in just when we are born. which was before.128 has yielded Book HI. And in each case so that soul the soul divided. t ^ie body and long body. and scattering the ground with gore. and the fore part making open-mouthed hinder part. why j Q we not p reserve traces of things done before? For if r the power of the mind is so much changed that all reof things past is lost to it. If the soul is .. eternal. .. I is.. if the nature of the soul . if you should choose to chop into many parts with an axe 1 of a snake with quivering tongue. that state is not. If the soul entered the • 1 . together with the limbs in connected t jle verv blood. angry tail. alone by itself as in a den. but 'tis natural that it should live all with it. we immortal. alike is cleft into is many parts. until it ground the look a snake intcf bits • and the wide-open up Nay more. wherefore you must needs admit that the soul. should be seen . yea.

and the if it be hid in a piece of bread nor. it will J^"^ follow that it cannot rightly be held immortal. the 546. out. 685-716 129 rich in sensation. nevertheless again. For neither can we think that they could be so closely linked to our bodies if were grafted in them from without but that all they this — is is so. perishes and the opera 10C new nature out of itself. and then permeate through our limbs. still are dissolved as they permeate. Wherefore. If it in us from withthink that the soul is wont to be grafted ™ihcn all the more distributed. and unravel themselves intact from all the sinews and bones and joints. again and we must not think that souls are without a birth. as that the teeth. Moreover. when it is parcelled sent about into all the limbs and members. however whole they may pass into the fresh-made body. is 11. biting on a sharp stone when they are so interwoven. by chance you 18. so soul and mind. parcelled out among seen that the nature of the soul is neither without is a | birthday nor exempt from death. or released from the law of death. born from that which then the limbs. and so passes away. For that which ™u st pe in sh For even as food permeates dissolves. declares : for the soul so interlaced through veins. and bones . Wherefore it perished. out among all the pores of the body. too.Book III. If soul *** body ? For if they are left and are still there. But if will it perish as it fuses with the body. have their share in sensation toothache shows and the twinge of cold water.15 t . pores there are sent whereof this nature of the mind is formed. it is clear. plain fact on the other hand flesh. are seeds of soul left or not in the lifeless 19. which now holds sway in our body. since it body. issue — forth entire. can they. sinews. while through all the furnishes a abroad into the limbs the particles.

why are they always implanted m the . For indeed. But still grant that it be and hunger. yet there seems to be no way whereby they could. and can r pass severally into their ' and do not consider why many thousands of souls bodies. and 'tis through contact with the body that the mind suffers many ills. But if has been removed and fled from the limbs while still up: if how un not. t k e worms f rom without. these ever so profitable for them to fashion a body wherein to enter .? the loss of some parts. ' r when no part of the flesh is itself in the body. whether seeds of the little to live in. But there is no ready reason why s h ou lcl make the bodies themselves. why is the habit made by ' of flight handed on to deer from ? their sires. and themselves build up a home or whether they are. swarm over the heaving frame ? ° But if by chance you believe that the souls are grafted in ' canuo come trom without. Races vvoven. 716-74? must T has left the it e" . why brood of lions and cunning with foxes . nor [b) enter bodies j^ or ' . boneless and bloodless. ° does fiery passion n go along with the grim Again. 20.130 soul Book 1 II. or (a) t ey cou not fashion bodies for go hunting for all the worms. yet there is this that seems worth asking and putting to the test. nor will contact be of animals can only characteristics a sharing of sensation. and how does so great a store of living creatures. so that it has left is it ^f the generation of that corpses. ac- entire. » r teem with worms in a corpse i Their souls worms. why they should ' J ' * ^ themselves be at such pains. t can jt b e tn at they are grafted in bodies already already made for neither will they be able to be closely inter< formed. how now putrid. grafted in bodies after all those sculs already quite formed. so that their be- cause their soul is father's fear spurs their limbs x And indeed all . body maimed by II. when they are without a body. whence one only has departed. ' should gather together. as it were. they do not flit about harassed by disease and cold For the body is more prone to suffer by maladies. other habits of this sort. Souls then do not fashion for themselves bodies and frames.

For the parts are transferred and shift from their n paS sing rom one wherefore they must be able to be dissolved too f . . 744-77? life. when it changes its body for what is changed. "• Even away together with the body. then living creatures would have characters body. and loses it changes so former life and The soul cannot Or in what manner will the force of mind be able along with each several body to the coveted bloom of life. 11. trained as the bold strength of a horse. and the fearful dove . when men say that an immortal soul is altered. order . foal is why P ass into no child has reason. why the mare 1 not i i_ as well men. the dog of Hyrcanian seed would often [ f f . the frame. through the breezes of air at the coming of the ° men would be witless. of wild beasts. own seed . 2 . 1 We may 1 be sure from • a weak body the mind they will be driven to say that in too is weak. But if they say that the IlUIIlUll souls of lf men always pass into human s -« ail T '11 bodies.. grows with their and breed grows along with the body of each animal ? But if the soul were immortal and were wont to change its bodies. argued on false reasoning. and so passes ° ' For it is immortal soul C ° M : • away. they change old to young. lest its home. 1 • not cnan o e bod y t0 throughout the limbs. is dissolved. so that at last they may all pass ano ther. and wise the fierce tribes # would b 01 miscelf laneous characters. since its much throughout sense. still I will sou i s on iy ask why a soul can become foolish after being wise. . worn out with the long spell of years. its 131 if it limbs and temper from the fiist moment of not because a power of mind determined by ' r be determined y . unless its earliest wax it the body at issue forth abroad from the aged limbs? does ? birth Or why strong and attain be partner too with does it desire n to it f^^ ™ Jj* 1 unless born fear to immortal remain shut up in a decaying body. hawk would fly animals flee the onset of the horned hart. immortal souls e n r intermingled . fall on it ? But an *° JjjJ J| ld to leave immortal thing knows no dangers.Book III. But if that indeed comes to pass. you must j needs admit that the soul is mortal. 2I. 1 LTold age.

unless by chance the souls a have compact sealed. it must . than that what is mortal should be linked in union with other. rent asunder in the whole body. appointed place. that the souls should be present at the wedlock Venus and the birth of wild beasts. But if this could be. that immortal souls should stand waiting for mortal limbs in numbers numberless. to link the mortal with the everlasting. Cut since even within our to be ordained body it is determined and seen where soul and mind can dwell apart and grow. nor can fishes live in the fields. For what can be pictured more at variance. of mind itself exist in head or shoulders. shall first forcibly at all 26. The the body has perished. the immortal and everlasting to brave raging storms? 11 Moreover. nor clouds in the deep waters.J 3 25. but at least remain in the same man or the same vessel. Book IIL 11 776-806 Think of the imof mortal souls wrangling for their Again. all the more must we deny that it could continue or be begotten outside the whole body. far sooner might the force canthey Dot exist. is but foolishness. a tree cannot exist in the sky. seems to be but mortal laughable . Soul have entrance. indeed. when 17. nor blood other things. and be wont to be born in any part you will. nor sap in stones. have their be present in wood. or right down in the heels. and to think that they can feel together union of mortal and immortal is and act one upon the absurd. that whichever arrives first on its wings. nor exist far apart from sinews and from which blood. like all n Again. if ever things abide for everlasting. more estranged within itself and inharmonious. and mind. you must needs confess that the soul too has passed away. Nay. apart So the nature of the mind cannot come to birth alone without body. and should wrangle others body ! one with another in hot haste. Wherefore. It is determined and ordained where each thing can grow and have its place. so that they strive not with one another. which first before the may find an entrance .

the time gone by we felt no possession. . is rather to be held immortal for this reason. And all is even as in We not conscious after deatb battle. or because such as come before we can feel is some way depart defeated what harm they do us (clear facts in show sick us that this not so). things might part asunder and be broken up even as the sum of sums is eternal — — room without into which they may nor are there bodies which might fall upon them and break them up with stout blow. into which. shaken by the hurrying turmoil lost.immorta uy * time. and it is plunged to the dark waters of lethargy. 11 806-834 133 needs be either that. to us. when 1 the world. 1 For besides that it falls along with the diseases of the body. the soul because life. But if by chance nor is there any scatter. fortified it is and protected from things its life fatal to or because things harmful to come not at all. which abides untouched. A line of which this was probably the sense. nor does it concern us C. and when its evil brings remorse. and makes it ill at ease with fear. is naught to us. they 28. or else because there is no supply of room all around. n eath. yes. as it were. when the Poeni came from all sides to the shock of ill. and wears it out with deeds are past and gone. because they are of solid body. There is Md a whit. there comes to it that which often torments it about things that are to be. nor suffers a whit from assault . yet sin too the peculiar frenzy of the mind and forgetfulness of the past. Death care .Book III. then. as is the void. because they are exempt from blows. any of the bodies of matter whose nature . nor suffer anything to come within ?|? them which might unloose the such as are close-locked parts within. we have con ^iti ~r declared before out all or that they are able to continue through. ' inasmuch as the nature of the mind _ is but a mortal ls nothin g shall . beat back assaults. The * ou .

If time should marriage of body and soul. we have naught to fear in death. on whom these misfortunes might crowd. and prevents the being of him. by whose union we are made one. Nor. it now us. shuddered and reeled beneath the high coasts of doubt to which people's sway must fall all human power by land and sea so. Book III 11. that tween lies Grief a break in life. it feeling. or stir our feeling no. you could these same seeds. and think how manifold are the now are made. when there shall have come the parting of* body and soul. . when once the remembrance it of our former selves were snapped in twain. a For. have often been placed in the same order as they are now and yet we cannot recall that in our mind's memory for in be. would not affect us. For when you look back over all the lapse of immeasurable time that now is gone. whereof we easily believe this too. and that he who is no . been rent asunder from our body. he must needs himself ill a percipient : too exist at that time. after it has it is would naught to us. yet who are made one by the mating and not concern us. even once more the light of life were that done. when we shall be no more. motions of matter. form still would not concern us at all. far astray and all the motions have wandered and pain necessitate everywhere is to be grief and pain for from sense. Since bnt death prevents death forestalls this. if same atoms should be vouchsafed to us. who then Even if be no more. birth. if by chance there man. we may know that our feeling. now we care not at all for the selves that And even we once were. us. know that nothing at will all will be able to happen to . you may . and sea with sky. And the even if the nature of mind and the power of soul has soul could feel alone. 834-867 of war. not at all are we touched by any torturing pain for them. yet. not if earth shall be mingled with sea.*34 any more than we in were before heaven. that may befall him. if time should gather together our substance after our decease and bring it back again as it is reunite the that now placed.

does he remove and cast himself root and branch out of life. ™ viving to grieve at e at< oi : J" himself enough from the outcast body. nor has no more wife and sweet children run up to snatch the desire for thy good ' Now no more first kisses. much he deny but live on. that it unwitting supposes something of himself to For when in life each man pictures to himself Heimngines a self sur " will come to pass that birds and wild beasts will all . I trow. D lying on the surface on the top of an icy rock. . himself that he believes that he will have n any feeling in death. For if Yet one tre tment an evil in death to be mauled by the jaws and teeth f J J of It will not sharp pain to be hurt him no mor laid upon hot flames and cremated. or to stand there it is and be pained that he lies mangled or burning. taints it with his own self. and that it were no whit different if he had never at any time been born. some secret pang. For he does not. and to grow stiff shall thy glad home welcome thee. he pities himself for neither does he separate himself from the corpse. 11 867-896 1 3 ^ more cannot be wretched. grant nor the grounds of his profession. when once immortal death hath stolen away mortal life. that j j after death earth. but thinks that it is he. And so. and. when you see a man A professed chafing at his lot. his heart lies words do not ring true. I cannot see it is how honey and with cold. or to be placed in ^ r r of wild beasts. mangle his body in death. feeling. . nor what he professes. as he stands watching. however - s often insincere. nor withdraw . or be destroyed he will either rot away with his body laid in n by flames. and touch thy heart with a silent thrill of of^fe . or to be crushed and ground by a weight of earth above. _ another. and not that in real death there will be no second to live and mourn to himself his own loss. stifled. sees Hence he chafes that he was born mortal. or the jaws of wild mortality be sure that his of you may and that deep in beasts.Book III.

when a man springs up from beset us.. that thirst would burn the poor them with its drought. one should waste away in never-ending lamentation. Book Illy 11. shalt so be for all time to come. drhk^or * to-morrow faces with garlands but in board. or that there would abide with For never does In sleep we them a yearning for any other thing. from thee all ' : add not the many prizes of life. nor does any yearning for ourselves then slumber. 8p6-p2y No more shalt thou have power to prosper in thy own. him who speaks thus if it we should what there and is so ex- Men say: that ceeding bitter.' men say. and that unending grief no day shall take from our hearts.' But if they saw this clearly in mind. un q Uenc hable x for thee. Brief is tm^ enjoyment for us puny men : soon it will death they 6 nor ever thereafter will it be ours to call it back. from great anguish and fear of mind. For all we . . As though in death this were to be foremost among their wretches and parch ills.' But of . when mind and body g no thirst desire for life.' Yet to this they nor does there abide with thee any longer any yearning for these things. much alike rest in less in care sleep may then be never-ending. Pitiful thou ways. they would free themselves ' and the h vin should not grieve at his entering . as thou wert turned to ashes . indeed. . as thou art now fallen asleep in death. even . ask. and followed it out in their words. hard by us on the awesome place of burning.' be past. man j on ° f or hi mse lf an(} life. But 'tis we who have wept with Thou. or to be a sure defence to thine ' and pitifully has one malignant day taken art. when they are lying at the comes at the last to sleep rest. any This too men often do. have no an „. °. tears into rest. and hold their cups in their hands.. released from every pain and sorrow. And yet at that time those first-beginnings not at all far through our frame away from the stray motions that bring sense.13 6 joy. and shade their ' : they say from the heart.

. nswer can we make. whom the :han what see we to be nothing for :hill breach of life has once overtaken. that lor have )f holes.Book Illy ileep 11. en aa man would she not rightly sharp tones? ' her voice and chide im in Away with tears henceforth. thou shouldst never die. a rest But if all thou hast reaped hath >een wasted and lost. why life. and life is a stumbling-block. If thy body is not yet wasted with years. mortal. p2$—prr 137 less and gathers himself together. even if thou shouldst if live on to overpass all genera- What nay rather. smitten in years. suppose that the nature of things should of a Nature may re " us* udden lift up her voice. hat knows no care? I eek to add more. yet all things remain as they /ere. buke us for •ebuke some one of us :o ' : Why is death so great a thing lamenting our e * thou dost give way overmuch to lamentation? why groan and weep at death? For ickly i the life that is past and gone has been pleasant to thee. why thou not retire like a guest sated with the banquet all its 11 and with calm mind embrace. all to be lost again foolishly way unenjoyed rouble? >r . grieves to . thou fool. and sets out in her pleading a true plaint? iut if now some older man. and thus in these words herself J y r ' . Again. but that nature brings a just charge gainst us. just. and pitifully bewail his decease r / raise more than thou w old . Much if then less ihould we think that death is to us. why is not rather make an end of and pass life and For there naught more. should ions. thee. as though heaped in a vessel full run through and perished unenjoyed.' Especially lake lament. nor does any one wake and rise again. . which : I can devise discover to please thee all things are ever as they /ere. there can be at our dying :here follows a greater turmoil and scattering abroad of natter. lost >f blessings. nor thy mbs worn and decayed.

things. yield them to thy sons * for SQ t j lou mus t. set a bridle the prizes of on thy laments. yea. These then nature holds up to ti Is me t ] iat js to come when we there aught that looks terrible in this. yet all of them too will follow thee. and will pass away So one thing shall never cease to rise up out of again. of f » which stories the lower Acheron. when they have had their fill of life .. I trow. # right in her charge and chiding. another. . and. and one thing must be restored at the expense of others nor is any one sent down to the pit and to black Tartarus. will everlasting time. have been as naught ' us as a mirror are be no more to us. Thou hast enjoyed life and now dost waste away. come. ere thou didst think death is standing by thy head. birth. prf-p8o rogue... uncompleted and unenjoyed it. dead and t jiat seems gloomy? ? not a calmer rest than any sleep The mythical tortures of Yea. : be glad to make room for future and with calm mind. all those things. to all to see how the past ages of death. te jj us j we may be n t jie sure. . and despisest the gifts at hand. For the old ever gives generations. just as thyself. : . to us than Q f t ]ie the past before our gone.. in her plea. Yet now He should give up all these things so ill-fitted for thy years. II. these generations have passed away before..' She would be right.. Neither _ does wretched Tantalus fear the great rock that hangs 1 dep^ x Bernays' suggestion gnatis seems the best of many proposals. and future. aught Is it . There must pj ace thrust out by new grow needs be substance that the generations to come may . before thou hast the heart to depart filled and sated with good things. are in our life. before ' ° we are born. But because thou yearnest ever for what is not with thee." Look back again granted to none for freehold. after our life is The on lease. thy life has slipped from thee.138 all Book III..

ever the ungrateful nature of the mind. 139 idle world are alle g° nes of the blow miseries of ls • . and bring their fruits and their diverse delights. However . whom as he lies smitten with love the birds mangle. For to seek for a public man. though he cover not only nine acres .1 !r . endure for ever grinding toil. this is to all thrust uphill with great effort a stone. as the seasons of the year do for us. I trow. yea. . yet never satisfy it. and is never truly given. careworn he will not be able to endure everlasting pain. too is clear to see. which for that to is and but in name. and headlong makes Then to feed for for the levels of the plain beneath. Nor do birds make their ' in Acheron. nor for lover » yet ever to supply food from his own body. the vessel full of holes. he The Sisyphus in who open-mouthed seeks 1 Sisyphus the ""successful from the people the rods and cruel axes. belching forth awful vapours from his jaws. 980-1011 tells. nor can they verily the man ressed in all the length of time find food to grope for deep in °PP way his into Tityos. . antalus is lies huge his breast. But this is our with Tityos tne Tityos. 51on . sprawling limbs. as 'tis the tale numbed with but rather in life that the vain fear of the gods threatens mortals . and evermore comes back conquered and dispirited. aching anguish devours him. but the whole circle of earth. vast the mass of his out- terrors of [f!' stretched limbs. moreover. this. good things. to m the Danaids s" . fill it full with contented. Tartarus. or care cuts him deep through some other our life passion. air. is the story of the maidens in the flower of youth. which yet can in no way be filled Cerberus and the furies. as he . when they come round again. power. which after rolls back from the topmost peak. they fear the fall of the which chance may deal to each. who pile the water into filled full full. ' 11. though we are never with the joys of life.Book III\ over him in the terror . . and the lack of light.

holding his sceptre. even as though he had been the meanest houseand poets. But it is fear of punishment for misdeeds in life „ r punishment . the deeds are notable —and the atonement they for crime. among whom Homer. nor does it see meanwhile what end there can be to its ills.°. for although conscious mind. the rack. made naught with and heroes. and man y other kings and rulers of empires who held sway over mighty nations. and made a path for his legions to pass across the deep. its misdeeds. thou knave. he himself. Again. after a ripe old age warned Democritus that the mindful motions of his memory were waning. The son of the Scipios. — fear notable as in this life. terror of Carthage. of the roarings of ocean. which are not anywhere. and it fears that these same things may grow worse after of fools death. slavei /Yes. and taught them on foot to pass over the salt pools. of his own will he met death 1 Some lines are lost here. are not with us. yes and the inventors of sciences and delightful : and the comrades of the sisters of Helicon sat alone. fearing for itself. his horses. : of ose w. thunderbolt of war. gave his bones to earth. who and philosop . the metal plate. « ^ n( j s j nce hjjn have fallen. executioners. prancing lost upon it the light of day. Here after all on earth the Think t life becomes a hell. . 1012-1041 the . has fallen into the same sleep as the rest. arts. yea. and breathed yet out his soul from his dying body. o nave died before you. Even who once n paved a way over the great sea. sets goads to with lashings. the dungeon and the terrible hurling down from the rock. pitch. scourgings. nor verily can be. or what limit sears itself and at last to punishment. he who was a thousand times thy better. yet the torches .I40 Hell ear is BOOk Illy II. This too you might say to yourself from time to time £ ven Ancus the good n closed his eyes on the light of ° o / day. the -ings.

1041-1069 141 and offered her up his head. who surpassed the race of men in understanding and quenched the light of all. even as they clearly'feel a weight in their mind. he yawns at once. mind harassed with empty fear. : feels no better. or even makes for town. whose a . could thus lay aside the burden. and longing ever for restless lve *' change of place. their cares. despite sure. even as the sun rising in the sky quenches the to stars. as now for the most part we see them . knowing not each one of them what he wants. for indeed abroad he furiously driving his ponies. of ill lies upon their breast. with countless cares on every shifting currents of and dost wander drifting on the thy mind.' If only men.BOOk illy U. eager to be back. which wears them out with its heaviness. nor canst what is amiss with thee. Epicurus. who dost waste in sleep the greater part of thy years. and whence 7 If men new l e e cause or so great a mass. and snore when wide awake. could learn too from what causes that comes to be. poor wretch. we may be . Wilt thou then hesitate and chafe You must not esitate meet thy doom? thou. when like a sot beset. life is wa in S who hast a discover often thou art side. Epicurus himself died. * e y ° uld w they would not pass their lives. though he were hurrying to bring help to a burning house. whose life is wellnigh dead while thou still lives t and lookest on the light. nor ever cease to see dream-visions. as though he do now. as home. He races to his country sinks into a in hot haste way each man his will yet. when he has set foot on the threshold of the villa. as it were. and of a sudden returns again. In this struggles to escape himself self. in fact struggling x ° esca P« he clings to the which. The man who is tired of staying at home. often goes out abroad from his great mansion. when he had run his course in the light of life. or heavy sleep and seeks forgetfulness.

Nor by prolonging life do we take mums tne period of death. when that is ours. that in question. and not for a single hour. io6p-iop4 he knows not the cause of but would nature to learn their he cannot shun. or nor could issue at hand. all their being. and hates himself. nor can we subtract anything whereby we may be perchance less long dead. a sure end of life is ordained for mortals. Moreover. away J a J jot from the time of death. But we have not what we crave. . we crave something ' ^^ may it ancj ^ same is t hi rst f or iif e besets us ever. since else. nor can we avoid death. Therefore you may live on to close as many generations as will will yet no whit the less that everlasting death await you. but if he saw it clearly. It uncertain too what fortune time to come what carry to us. but we must meet it. what evil craving for life is this which constrains w j t j1 suc j1 f orce t0 ij ve so res tlessly in doubt and danger ? Verily. than he you : who perished many months or years ago. open- mouthed. because in his sicknes9 his malady . l every man would leave all earn tne nature of things. after death tne state that is m which mortals must expect after their death. nor will he for a less long time be no more. give us no new peasure. we spend our time amid the same tilings. it seems to surpass * afterward.142 Book III) II. we move ever. who has made an end of life with to-day's light. to come Our craving for h e is ug Again. it is and study is first to his state for all eternity. nor A longer e cou by length of so long as ° all else . or is what chance may bring in truth us. life is any new pleasure hammered out.

and are conscious of your profit. essay to give loathsome the rim all even as healers. song of the muses. never trodden before by the foot of man. so that the unwitting age of children may be beguiled as far as the lips. so now. First because I from the a dark teach about great things. when they first wormwood to children. have you my reasoning in the sweet- as though to touch it tongued with the pleasant honey of poetry. 'Tis approach those untasted springs and drink my my fill. and meanwhile may drink the bitter draught of wormwood. joy to 'tis mission. touching all with the muses' charm. For that too for is seen to be not without good reason . then because on theme I trace verses so full of light.BOOK I IV IntroL^retiu's's traverse the distant haunts n of the Pierides. since this philosophy I full it. if perchance I might avail by such means to keep your mind set upon my verses. often seems too bitter to those who have not tasted and the multitude shrinks back away from desired to set forth to it. and hasten to free the mind close bondage of religion. and though charmed may not be harmed. But since I have taught of what manner are the . touch round the cup with the sweet golden moisture of honey. but rather by such means may be restored and come to health . and while you take in the whole nature of things. my for joy to pluck new flowers and gather a glorious coronal my head from spots whence before the muses have never wreathed the forehead of any man.

films or even rind. that there are what n of things . or that shades fly abroad among the living. and they too we . from our sleep . spurred by everand in what way each several thing can be created from them . The Idols. like films stripped from the outermost body of things. i. whatever it be. Decause t h e image bears an appearance and form like to I say then that likenesses of things gj yen visible that. call idols when they meet yea. or that something of us can be left after death. shed. and in sleep too. in part scattered loosely abroad. fly forward and backward through the air . it appears to be learn world. as we lay languid.together. which may be called.i 44 Book IV^ all 11. which in awful wise have often roused us. and whereof composed it grew in due order with the body. That we may First of all. from Things throw oft either loose. . when body alike and the nature into their of mind have first- perished and parted beginnings. beginnings of things. which. ere this. us in waking hours affright our minds. it wanders abroad. from whose body wits. lest by chance we should think that souls escape from Acheron. the nature of the mind. and in part more closely knit and packed if more com. : of vision. and since I have taught what was own accord they motion . as it were. and in what way rent asunder The images it passed back into which are the cause tQ te ^ ' u w iat j now I will begin its first-beginnings exceeding nearly concerns this theme. of their lasting on. and how differing in their diverse fly forms. as when now and then the grasshoppers lay eSm ° . asunder several The existence of is proved" parallels by and their shapes are Q g ^y things from the outermost body of things. when we often gaze on wondrous shapes. however dull be our since among smoke things clear to see many things give off bodies. even as wood gives off an d Ares heat. 26-?8 > A. and the idols of those who have lost the light of day.

in that they are few. but often too from the And commonly is this surface. 546. And since these things come to pass. yea. order wherein they stood. from the awnings of as L a thealre * For there they tinge the assembly in the tiers beneath. and could preserve the outline of their shape. since on the surface of things the are many tiny bodies. the scene within laugh. 1 and constrain them to flutter in their colours. not onlv from j/ ow off from ! Colour " deep beneath. which fly There 1 are then sure traces of forms. and e . cast off For in verily we see ' many ' things 2. since they are throwing off from the surface. when stretched over great theatres they flap and flutter. s °" s when . as around. about every- Translating Munro's suggestion patrum coetutnque decorum. For why these films should fall and part from things any because . none can breathe a 11 word e ar to prove. spread everywhere on masts and beams. yellow and red and steely-blue. and all the bravery of the stage and the gay-clad company of the elders. ?8-88 i 4f pact like l smooth coats in their birth give off a caul likewise summer. above all. they can be less entangled. Since then the all all canvas gives out this hue from several thing also its outermost body. more than films that are thin. inasmuch as ready to part.15 v . the thorns the slippery serpent rubs off its vesture on &c. ls and give out bodies abundance. e thrown _ / oft.Book aside their IF y 11. and placed in the forefront. a thin image from things too must So images c an needs be given off from the outermost body of things. each in either case must needs give out thin likenesses. And the more closely are the hoardings of the theatre shut in the more does ness. ' the surface of hlIlgs done by awnings. bathed in brightthe light of day is straitened. which could be cast off in the same ' • unimpeded there atoms on surface f . as we said before. such as their own colour. for often we see the brambles laden with these wind-blown spoils from snakes. and when calves at from their outermost body. and be cast the more quickly.

since the first-beginnings Think are so far beneath the ken of our senses. seeing that they are are a constant succession of images of things. yet thrown back with constant and ceaseless repulse. fine in texture are all the they are composed. all smell. give back a picture from the surface of the mirrors. Of what kind must we think any one of their entrails to be? What of the round ball of their heart or eye? their limbs? what of their still members? what more. that they made of the images of things given off. Moreover. begin with.1^. return nothing which can avail to rend it. 3. in water. yet now that I may assure you of this too. although no one can see them one by one. smoke. what of how small are they? of the . and it is seen that they cannot by any other means be so preserved that shapes so exceeding like each several thing may be given back. which. there when the is thin film of surface-colour is cast off. and so much of the fineness of the atoms smaller than the things which our eyes first begin to be unable to descry. 11. whereby they from deep may hasten to issue all in one mass. and other like things stream forth from things. Fineness of texture of formed. &c. since it is ready at hand. endowed with slender bulk. Lastly. and placed in the forefront. and in every shining surface. (a) are beginnings of all First of there are living They much things sometimes smaller than the smallest part of the smallest so small that a third part of them could by no means be seen. But. Come now and And to learn of how thin a nature this image is the images. nor can they be seen Nor is colour hindered like the other effluences apart one by one. on the other beneath. scattering loosely. hand. learn in a of which few words how things. endowed with an appearance like the things. because while they arise and come forth from deep within. Mirrors. they are torn in their winding course. it must needs be. 88-120 where.6 Book IV. I. nor which come are there straight outlets to their paths. heat. whenever idols appear to us in mirrors. There are then thin shapes of things and likenesses.

and to turn . sickly Things 6 j™. and staining the calm face of the firmament.. though never will you see anything at all : ' you may know how fine is the nature of the first. into the outline even as from time to time we see clouds lightly gathering together in the deep sky. but a long passage has immediately succeeding lines with lost.. whereof the scent is formed . I- beginnings. and not rather learn that many idols of things wander abroad in 2-J many ways with no powers.. caressing the air with their motion. whatever things breathe out a pungent savour from their body. and is are . and then a huge beast seems to draw on and lead forward in the storm clouds. and being appearance. fluid cease it 0^!^. the scent will for long cling them. there are those too which are begotten of of themselves in this in form in the own accord... and ye J ou fingers. and sometimes mighty mountains and rocks torn from the mountains are seen to go on ahead and to pass before the sun . probably of about 50 lines.Book IV. 1 what swift and easy ways those and begotten. and chance (you press) any one of these by on v °" ™ ^ between two 1 to your so that (fingers. formed g^L-faT like the sky which called air which moulded many ways not to are borne along change their of forms of every kind on high. of their fine 11 120-144 see 147 living thing several first-beginnings whereof their soul and the nature mind must needs be formed ? do you not how we (6) can see- and how tiny they are? Moreover. which come off oo w hJch from their things.^ scent - wormwood. K 2 . For often the faces of giants are seen to fly along and to trail a shadow far and wide.nothing. unable to be perceived? But that you may not by chance think that after all There are ° e only those idols of things wander abroad. and flow unceasingly from things idols are These ima S es fall off We may fill in the sense of the been certainty. Come now. and .).. panacea. bitter centaury lightly if strongly-smelling abrotanum.

And just as the constant succession shoot out many rays of light in a short moment. of wood. moment. off. there at once cannot give back any idol. so too in like manner from things it must needs be that many idols of many ways to whatever in all things are borne off in an instant of time in directions on every side . Moreover. and part from them. surface of may it it cast it And when as this reaches all things is ever quick to stream some glass : things. so that of light from the sun. it is above through but when reaches rough stones or the substance torn. so that rightly is the creation of these the sun must needs So does things said to be swift. But when things that are formed bright and dense are set athwart its path. For ever formed. exceeding suddenly it becomes foully stormy. 1. so that all you might think that darkness has left Acheron. 4. inasmuch as side we turn the mirror to meet the surface of things. 144-172 1 . so that you may know that from the image in the mirror an gives us outermost body there flow off unceasingly thin webs and thin shapes of things. at any time you you quick formation of the place each several thing against the mirror. Therefore many idols are begotten in a short example.148 7ery swiftly Book IV is ^ II. the image comes to view . as through glass. (I the outermost surface that so they will set forth . For neither can they pass through. and filled the great vault all on sides quicker the little ! of the sky . it comes to pass that the idols stream back from will. The streaming away from things. even when the weather in the sky has but form in now been most . it to The us. such as above all is the mirror. passes through them. neither of these things comes to pass. . -). so terribly. so that it away. And however suddenly. the whole world may unceasingly be filled. 1 when one the noisome night of clouds is images At least line lost here. 3. Wherefore 2. for the smoothness is careful to ensure their safety. nor yet be torn . Clouds things in the mirror answer back alike in form and colour. the sky in a moment how much clear.

Book IV. 11. yet how small a part of these is an idol. as it were. and do not pause usually : fast on through the space of air between. and after that. first because it is a tiny cause. is Swiftness ° ™ towards whatever place they each strain on with diverse rather impulse. are borne on with so swift a lightness of bulk and then because they are given off that they can easily pass into anything you will. like the sun's light and heat. Wherefore must needs be that the idols can course is through space unthinkable in an instant of time. when 11 particles of things are given out abroad from deep within. smitten move by the blow from those that follow. 172-204 149 has gathered together. these are seen to fall in Proof t i ieory< Bodies * f and spread themselves over the whole of heaven. What then of those things which are ready at a moment of time g t om e surface of ngsm . Moreover. I will proclaim in verses of sweet discourse many even as the brief song of a swan is better than the clamour of cranes. ' In this because there is the light of the sun and Light to of tiny first-particles. with what swift motion the idols are carried on. 1. which spreads abroad among the clouds of the south high in heaven. there is no one who could say or give an account of this in words. For in hot haste the light P artlcIes of place of lieht is taken by light. and to fly over sea and earth and flood expanse the sky. are knocked forward. ix Proof Q0 7- often we may see that light things class made of tiny bodies °™ are swift. were ooze through the intervening air. and what speed the air. r ' rare texture bodies of they are J made which. in that they . Come now. 11 far away behind which drives and carries them forward. and as endowed with texture so rare it 2. one flash it in like manner goaded by another flash. given them as they swim through so that a short hour is spent on a long course. do the shapes of black fear hang over us on high . and as though driven in & ° & j r / in passing t l ie sun# a team. First of all very than in . his heat.

. of the when the heaven fi is starry. the image falls from the coasts of heaven to the coasts of earth? Wherefore more and more you must needs confess . since we feel unceasingly. . These idols are that bodies are sent off such as strike the eyes and . Again. and course through within. in a moment the calm beaming showTthe pace of stars °* t ^le rmament appear in answer in the water. all things each several thing is carried off in a stream. the cause awake our off fr vision. 1. . and sent abroad to every quarter on nor is this flux. often moisture of a salt savour comes into our mouth. just as cold streams off from rivers. always to descry and smell sound. 204-228 When they are cast off and notrim g binders their discharge. once in the forefront? an t ose 07/ 3 Proof in experience. which ' * * walls fly all gnaws away around the shores. too. . do you not see that they ° / rising trom must needs move swifter and further. Nor do diverse by similar vo i ces cease to abroad through the air. sprav from the waves of the sea. and to hear them .15-0 quicker t Book IV^ 11. when we walk by the sea. Our other senses are affected om unceasingly . times the same expanse of space in the same time rays of the sun crowd the sky? This. more t ^ian a ^ seems to show forth truly in what swift many which the The reflection motion the idols of things are is a bright surIac e of water borne on. that as soon as placed beneath the open sky. all any delay or respite granted in and we are suffered things. when we watch wormwood being diluted and mixed. heat the sun. B. a bitter taste touches is it. Do you not then see now in how short an instant of time movement of the idols. So surely from all sides. and on the other hand. A And from . certain things scents stream of sight.

a" Touch S1 £ light and the clear brightness. it each thing And comes to pass that we see how far away the more air is driven on in front. And how far each thing is away from They before them . 228-259 1 y 1 Moreover. then we handle ™ same orma " : tion they square thing. but the whole things are descried. it must needs be that touch If the and sight are o a stirred by ' a like cause. and so passes f the tinguish. side. We do not separate ldols > but the whole For when wind too lashes us little by little. But you must know that these things are brought to pass by means exceeding quick. and the longer the breeze which brushes through our eyes. comes to pass that. . its image ? . lies in the images. Herein by no means must we deem n there is cause to wonder why the idols which strike the eyes cannot be seen one by one. brushes through the pupils. except Wherefore it is clear that the cause of seeing causes.1 jj -j causes us to see and provides that we disus. for that cause it °J" _ we turn our sight. . by the air that has its place between ^ "^ we it and the eyes. so that we see what it is and at the same time how far it is away. object.Book IV. can judge and. the image current n given off. nor without them can anything be the idols of things are The mee ever turn " idols r seen. and it stirs our touch in the darkness. what must be a ec te y square thing can fall upon our sight in the light. straightway it pushes of air. and thus it all glides through our eyeballs. since a shape felt by the hands in the darkis known to be in some way the same as is seen in the 2. ness 11. Therefore is. object. and are cast off and meted out to every But because we can see them only 11 with our eyes. . to whatever side we all things there strike against it with their drive shape and hue. as it were. the further each thing is seen to be removed. Next those things which I call borne everywhere. For when it is and drives before it all on.

strike only the surface of when we with our Morewe touch a stone. and therefore seems Wherefore. the air through doors. But when we have perceived the mirror itself too.I5"2 So we do not feel Book IV. then things brushes through the eyes. 2yp-j8p us. and lets many For things out of doors be seen from the is brought to pass by two on our side of the jambs is house. but individual particles of rather all at once. and so makes us able to perceive all this air before the mirror. and though and giving over. and a second air. Come now and mirror . 11. to be just so much it is distant from the mirror. Peculiarities beneath. not right at that we should wonder . finger. the image of the mirror has cast itself coming to our pupils. straightway the image which is borne and being cast back returns to our eyes and drives air. why the image is seen beyond the It is of the mirror. just as if something were lashing us cold. for indeed it seems removed far within. the image of the So when while before it it first is mirror. our eyes. The image seems to be behind the mirror. because. then follow the folding doors themselves on right and left. feel the we the very outside of the rock and its colour on the surface. then another current. it pushes and all the air which has its place between adrift. For that vision too first with things seen twin airs. yet we do not feel the colour with our touch. as those things which in very truth are seen outside a door. we us the feeling of strike a stone its body without. but rather resistance of we feel the very hardness of the rock deep learn down the whole. on and rolls in front of it another and makes us see this before itself. receive we first seen in such a case. and when piercing cold streams on feel we are not wont to each separate particle of that wind and cold. and then those which in very truth are seen without the doors. from us passes to the mirror. afterwards the light outside a current of air. I. drives it and and finally the image of the object. and then we perceive blows coming to wind or pass on our body. when the door affords an unhindered sight through even as it. all again and again.

against a pillar or stra on t a beam. 1 Curved nzonta mirrors return '" ia S es Wltn cheirality. pass that Thus it will come to dashed t the left. however far distant from the sight along a twisting path. such as hoc illis fieri.Book this If i 11. i-i is it is brought about by comes to pass that the part of 2. and were to mould again its own is ^ °" z j^ features dashed back towards us. quae transpiciuntur. . what was before the right eye. before it is dry. since in either case the two airs. comes to pass too that the image made. it comes to pass that it is 4. changed to the right. idemque. surely does the image reflect when a left hand is from mirror to mirror. 290-314 iy 3 {that appearance comes to be both for those things which are really seen out of doors. so that even five or six idols are wont to be from mirror c For even when things are hidden far back in an h"lnz inner part of the room. Right hand and on the right is seen in mirrors on the eft are it i • i • • 1 ] the image comes to the plane of the changed in mirror and strikes against it. it is not turned round un. it may be that they will all their e^h^/me be brought out thence by winding passages. just as if one were the image because when to dash a plaster mask.because ' changed. 11 endowed with a curve like to our send back to us right-handed idols. and it at once were to preserve its shape turned back. 1 • Next 1 our limbs which left. be seen to be in the house. yet. all flank-curved mirrors. but is dashed back straight . thanks So to the several mirrors. Moreover. A line has probably been lost. either because the image is borne across from one part of the mirror to flanks. °. and. handed on from mirror ™*? to mirror. and also) 1 for those things which send back a vision from the level surface of the mirrors . is It 3 Images e . and presented. now in turn and the left in exchange is now the right. and then once again it is changed about and returns to where it was before. like j straight to meet us.

Moreover. when it has arrived. yellow. and then else towards twice dashed back. and shun to The sun. air of in their eyes. believe that idols walk step . from whateyer p art Q £ t jle m rror vou retire. infection tinge lib things with their . or because the image 11 is twisted around. many times as and more potent. there hot haste a bright air full of light. because of the seeds contain. sent back at equal angles. too. because the curved shape of the mirror teaches 5. because his own power is great. Jaun- diced persons infect the their way in. flies II. disorder- 2. Bright things moreover the eyes avoid. another. the^elT™ it were > cleanses the e y es air. and strike n^ texture> Moreover. and burn the eyes. straightway the idols it to turn round towards us. when the black first nearer. soon as it has filled the passages of the eyes and opened up those which before the black had . just because. air And light. and the . any piercing brightness often burns the eyes for the reason that it contains many seeds of fire.. whatever the jaundiced look sickly-yellow. because ' ' many seeds of * yellow . from their bodies to meet the a i so are all idols of things. which give birth to pain in the eyes. upon becomes r stream off Moreover. it. and leap back Peculiarities °f S R °h' things. because. 3. as abroad the dark is shadows of the former For the finer latter many with times more nimble. darkness because the follows in enters and seizes on the open scatters the gloom. images with an(j own many ' we m xe d i .1 5-4 Book IV. you would by step and place their feet as we do. and imitate our gait.. which by their pallor.. The in image the mirror keeps step with us. e can L 11 1 1 1 SCC j^ cw see things that are in the light out of the dark- in the light n ess. blinds... 314-346 us. i cannot be constrains turned back all from inasmuch as nature" things to be carried back. which is eyes. sinking ° heavily into the deep. j^^ Tom j ^m are borne through the clear air. finding their ^^ upon the eyes.. if you try to raise your ^°°k u P on from « things blind eyes to ^ meet him. and which.

in very truth it due order the ground is bereft wherever we. because the air of the gloom. But. bec * use the round.. stir them. we cannot do so that this in but not . straightway follow the idols of the things which are lying in the light. following we move. For always new rays of light are pouring out. it comes to pass that the structures of stone are air its . . and the former perish. likewise the which we have left is filled again for this cause comes to pass that. For that which we are the light wont in to name But a shadow can be nothing is else but air devoid c" '/ of light. like wool drawn into a flame. if indeed you follow us. and the blow from it passes . as we move on. because. on the other hand..because every angle from a distance is seen flattened. see chokes the And when we a from afar off n the square towers of eyes. the movements and gait of men. and . angles are frequent collisions constrains it to become blunted. comes on afterwards. Square town. nor does its stroke come home to our eyes. 146-376 15-5- beleaguered. worn away a little as though turned on the lathe .' tne ground. cut part of it it because in certain spots of the light of the sun ° it off. but wise our shadow seems to us to resembling them as though in shadowy shape. the thc lma § es . and excite our eyes we see. the darkness out of the light. it comes ook to pass for this cause that they often look towe " j / round from a distance. believe that air bereft of light can step forward. or rather it is not seen at all. 4. and fills all the out of channels and beleaguers the passages of the eyes. away. yet they do not look like things which are really round to a near view.Book IV\ 11. what was but now the shadow of our body. seems always to follow unaltered straight along with us. 'in transit. . successive eces ° f. worn off while the idols are being borne on through much air. Likemove in the sunshine. so that !*S none of the idols of things can be cast upon them and darkness ' . '" ' ° > 6 darkness which is denser.. and 5- Our to follow our footsteps and imitate our gait .. . by . When for this cause every angle alike has escaped our sense.

And in like manner sun in their places. stars to be at rest. between which there is a free wide seen at a distance. so sure does it come to appear to them a single island. mind Station- on the eyes this fault in the mind. we 2. In all And is yet we do not grant For it is : such crises sensation deceived. and to lift it above the mountains. is thought to be passing by. 5. when The rising sun with twinkling nature begins to raise on high the sunbeam ruddy fires. borne along. still another. and the pillars racing round. yet actual fact and moon seem to abide 3. And again. . And mountains rising up afar off from the middle of the waters. inasmuch and yet they are all in they rise and return again to their distant settings. make When giddy persons their sur- roundings seem to spin. which I said a little before. 11 The ship. 4. whether it is the same shadow mind draws a the same light which was here. there is light and shade but whether it but the or not.i T6 Book IV) is 11. Do not then be prone to fasten 1. when it seems to be standing journey. heaven with their bright when they have traversed the body. Passages between mountains are not shows that they are borne on. which remains at anchor. issue for ships. yet seem united to To children have ceased turning round themselves. that scarcely now can they believe that the whole roof is not threatening to fall in upon them. wrong that pass now passes there. The seem with skimming ceaseless towards the stern. this alone must needs determine. theirs to see in what is several spots not false. or whether that rather comes to the reasoning of the inference. 377-40? Therefore readily likewise filled again the ground robbed of light. in which ary objects seen from a moving ship seem to move. nor can the eyes know the nature of things. of the firmament. and is and washes away its own black that in this the eyes are a whit shadows. The hills and plains seem to be flying is . that the halls are turning about. past which All the sail. we are driving on our ship the vault stars. fast set in still. seem to be as motion.

Book 1V^ stand. all Though a 8. affords reflect us a view beneath the earth to a depth as vast as the high so gaping mouth of heaven stretches above the earth that you seem to descry the clouds and the heaven and . ' them with his all .e those mountains above which the sun seems to you to seems aglow mountains ° close at hand. little by little it contracts to the pointed head of a narrow cone. are scarce distant from us two thousand in the east. A h tiny a pool of water not deeper than a single finger-breadth. which diverse races inhabit. and hide its light . the force seems to be carrying of the horse. as he touches ' 11. until all together into the point of a cone that out of sight. a javelin : but between them and the sun lie the vast levels of ocean. and stands whole length on equal columns from end to end. joining roof with floor. Again. though he stands still. nights of an arrow. . Persf)ec ive * the way. nay often scarce five hundred casts of fire. and all the right hand with the left. and many strewn beneath the wide coasts of heaven. and again to set in it has brought 9. And yet 6. 406-434. on the body ' seems to upstream. Sunrise sea * a the waves. and tribes of wild beasts. as we are colonnade runs on straight-set lines resting ourselves. whoIe sk y- bodies wise hidden beneath the earth —yet in a magic 7. yet when its is seen from the top end. athwart the current. and we look down into the hurrying waters ° ' ' A horse 1Ilg stan in a stream of the stream. own 1 y7 c °. It happens to sailors on the sea that passes the sun seems to rise from the waves. since verily they behold . sky. when our eager horse has stuck fast amid a river. ? n0 the which lies between the stones on the paved street. and to be thrusting it in hot haste up the stream and wherever we cast our eyes all things seem to be borne on and flowing forward. thousands of lands are set between.

when we do we see. seems to be broken back and turned round. double the furniture throughout faces of the whole house in twin 13. Again. and mountains. and on foot plains. double the lights of the lamps with their flowery flames. above . ships in the harbour seem to press upon the water maimed. senses all in vain. and to turn upwards again and twist back so that it almost floats on the 11. yes. and to hear sounds. bound our limbs in sweet slumber. Re- but water and sky so that you must not nothing think that the senses waver at every point. double as we l 00 k. and to be far different from their true a hand be placed beneath t nger on p ress all ^ jt comes makes it perception that things which we p ass by a new kind of look at seem to become see double. is straight. stars carr 7 scattered clouds across the sky. and to give answer. some walled room. S And when winds in the night season ake the seem to move. but all that is sunk beneath the water. and in the blind gloom of night we think to see the sun and the light of day. But to lightly those who know not the sea. all the body lies in yet then we seem to ourselves to be complete awake and moving our limbs. Dreams. the part of the oars which is raised up above the and the rudders are straight For all salt sea spray. when sleep has men. though in sky. sets. ong e ^ e ancj seem to glide athwart the storm-clouds. 10. 11. and with broken poop. is new sea. all of . A mov n g on high in a direction Then if by chance course. we seem to pass to new new streams. C Moving water's surface. then the shining signs i 12. and.iy8 else Book IV. to cross over night not speak. when the stern silence of set all about us. 434-465 . and double the double their bodies. and rest. Wondrously many other things of this sort which would fain spoil our trust in the of the opinions of the mind. since the greatest part of these things deceives us on account which .

Or cannot reiute the .. whence Where n 1 does nis does he turn. and must needs be that we perceive in one way what is soft or cold or hot. • . i . head in the place of his feet. since he denies that admits that he knows nothing. i • concept e if the of the true begotten senses cannot be gainsaid. in one way smells . But (a) reaS0I1 > speak against the on 11 t when it is wholly sprung from the senses? t« resting ror senS ation senses. the taste of the mouth has its power apart . or senses sprung from 1 false sensation.Book IV. he knows not whether that can be known either. 11 Likewise. which can of its own authority a truer Next then. who plants himself with his anything can be . know what • is knowing. tnat ' since he has never before seen any truth in things. any one thinks that nothing is known. refrain Against him then I will from joining issue. all reason too becomes false. If the sce P tlc 11 Again. what must be refute the false by the true. n what thing has proved that the doubtful differs of truth ? from the certain? is You t< will find that the senses. yet I would ask this one question he know : • known. I its trow. each own power. first from the and that the senses are false. and not knowing each in 1 8 et criterion what thing has begotten the concept of the true and the false.. For each sense so it one has faculty set apart. will the ears be able to pass judgement on the eyes.. ourselves. held to be of greater surety than sense? Will reason. 11 avail to • • 1 1 111 . and in another the diveise colours of things. which the seen. and see all that goes along with colour. touch on the ears? or again will the taste in the mouth will the nostrils disprove it. 4<5y-4p4 iyo by the senses are For nothing is harder than to distinguish things manifest from things uncertain. so that things not seen mind straightway adds if of itself. we add counted as 11. And yet were I to grant how can that he knows this too. he For something must be found mus t find with a greater surety. unless they are true. or the refute this touch eyes ( b) l ^e senses cannot retute show its it false ? It is not so.

still it is better through lack of reasoning senses^the foundation to be at fault in accounting for the causes of either sna P e > rat her than to let things clear seen slip abroad from your an<^ grasp. why those things which close at hand were square. do measurements fall. so it must needs be that one sense cannot prove another false. all awry. it must needs be that the will be made faulty and crooked. Therefore. h as b een d rawn up ancj arrayed against the senses. whole structure whit in any place. . less To deny the veracity 01 sensation is to build withT instru- 1 then. on which life and existence £ a jj ony gui e awa y .i do Book IV\ 11. 495-522 arise. if the first ruler is awry. iif e itself For not only would all reasoning too would collapse straightway. false. r / o Again. just as in a building. leaning forwards or backwards. knowledge and the to P^ uc ^ U P th e whole foundations rest. and to make for what is opposite to these. level sags a ments. or . Nor again will they be able to pass judgement on themselves. if the Know. and out of harmony. . so that some parts seem already to long to fall. is true. are seen round ^ to admit " may fa^ than to 6 rom a distance. since equal trust must at all times be placed in them. and to assail the grounds of belief. all betrayed by the first wrong even so then your reasoning of things must be awry and senses. and avoid headlong spots and all other things of this kind which must be shunned. which all springs from false The other Now it is left to explain in what manner the other senses. bulging. nor (c) can e " ses ^• themselves. and if t ^le EC uare 1S wron l g an d out of the straight lines. that all this is but an empty store of words. in another sounds. And Sensation It is better whatever they have perceived on each occasion. un- you chose to trust the senses. ^^[^ . ^ nc^ ^ reason is unable to unravel the cause.

the voice often scrapes the # sense. i.component x with shrill buzzing sound. upon the sense with their body. et reboat et gelidis e Read."g^"^is gotten of their smoothness. S ore of bodily elements. roughness of voice comes from rough. the first-beginnings of voices (a) it can : have risen up in greater throng through the narrow stnke sense ln ! tne and begun to pass forth and then. so that they can hurt. ?22-f4p a 161 senses perceive each their own object — path by no means Hear- when 11 every kind of sound and voice is heard. with Bernays. First of 11. And so the voice must needs be of bodily form. indeed. Vossius. and atoms cyntian pipe shrieks when the swans at night from the ccld marches of Helicon * lift with mournful voice their clear lament.Book IV^ stony to tread. they have found their way into the ears and struck ' ' all. its Now ness in first-beginnings. Nor do the first-beginnings sound pierce the ears with like form. : (&) shout- when 8 makes . since they can strike on the senses. And likewise c it ( ) con " does not escape you how much body is taken away and m "u in from men's very sinews and strength by speech weakens l c ° ?' continued without pause from the glimmer of rising dawn to the shades of dark night.Roughness 01 and likewise smoothness is be. above all if it is poured out off drawn with loud shouting. in 8 ls produced sou " . in truth. and when the barbarous Bere. the door too is scraped. 2 These voices then. since one who speaks much loses a part from his body. when we force them forth from deep 1 Read. when the trumpet bellows f^Jofth deep with muffled tones. the passages are crammed.15 . since. Moreover. For that voice too and when sound are bodily you must grant. There is no doubt then that voices and words are composed passage. with I. raucum Berecyntia cycni node oris 546.s throat and shouting makes the windpipe over-rough as it Sound ° ° r r corporeal issues forth . .

seek our comrades wandering amid the and with loud voice summon them scattered I here and there. Therefore one voice apart immediately into many voices. in what manner among solitary places rocks give back the counterparts of words each in due Hence the echo. and at times mock us with the echo of a word. when it is no long distance from which each single utterance starts and reaches to us. since it sunders itself into all the several ears. when you have seen places give back even six or sent forth but one so surely did : beat back to another and repeat the words trained to come back again. seven cries. it flies across the breezes. severs apart. the pliant tongue. when we dark hills. And so it comes what One to voice is you can perceive the sound. while to pass that jostled together. Such places the dwellers around one hill . passes by and perishes scattered in vain through the air.162 The is Book IV) 11. imprinting on the words or else it is a shape scattered voices abroad. But if between be over great. you could give account to yourself and others. And when you see this clearly. artificer of words. Some beating upon solid spots are cast back. sound. serves set its keeps form. passing through much the space air the dislocated words must needs be disordered. and give back the and a clear-cut sound. Again one single word often awakes the ears of all in an assembly. 549-581 voice formed to words by tongue and lips. Therefore. order. At close quarters it within our body. Solid things But that part of the not straight upon the ears. it must needs be that the very words too are clearly heard and For each utterance predistinguished sound by sound. crier's mouth. and the utterance and becomes indistinct. its but at greater distance is shaping and preserves its form. and the shaping of the lips in its turn gives them form. shot out from the flies ears. and shoot them abroad straight through our mouth. yet not distinguish so confounded and the meaning of the words : can travel many entangled does the utterance come to you. which falls can beat the voice back.

see a talk carried on through closed doors. ? 8 0-608 163 fancy to be the haunt of goat-footed satyrs and nymphs. and that the race of country folk hears far and wide. through which every image can is Moreover. lest by chance they be thought to live in lonely places. filled And . even ° r r ' ' as a through stRU S l . multiplied in all with voices they are in a ferment around. we need not wonder by what means voices . though which where cannot see. when Pan. deserted even of the gods. by whose clamour to f J J J country through the night and sportive revels they stories of spreading ' declare that the dumb silence is often broken . unless they stream through straight pores. and that launs > sounds of strings are awakened. which glves ns and they say that there are fauns. head. tossing the piny covering of his half-monstrous ofttimes with curling lip runs over the open reeds. one from another. All other marvels and prodigies of this kind they tell. Often too we the eyes cannot see things clear to view. "' or as are those in glass. but idols refuse to pass.Book IV) 11. a voice voices are begotten severed in every direction. even as the whole race of man is over greedy of pratt- ling tales. alive L 2 . the idols ° sls l . since fly. stopped by the fingers of players . We hear we through places. because. For the rest. so places r hidden from sight are ° all vol " s * re . spark of fire is often wont openings to scatter itself into its (6) because far several fires. a V n torn asunder. or else are led on in some other way. Therefore they boast such wonders in discourse. so that the pipe ceases not to pour forth woodland music. voice can pass unharmed through winding ' For they are through pores in things. which the pipe pours forth. we («) because come and arouse the ears may be sure. when once one voice has issued forth and sprung apart into many. and sweet sad melodies.

and keep an body is even moistness in the stomach. the more each several thing is filled with roughness. the limbs. Next pleasure comes from the savour within the limit of the palate . 608-634. on in the direct line. all palate. and pleasantly stroke all around the moist sweating vault above the tongue. as with sound. chewing our food. when the bodies of produce pleasant taste. But. while it passes through the walls of the house. First of we perceive taste in our mouth. Therefore. when we press it out squeezed from the food enters the pores of the palate. founded. 2. we seem to hear a sound rather than Taste the is Nor do the tongue and taste. rough unpleasant. press the idols only move straight as they have once been started . and through the winding passages of the loose-meshed tongue. Book IF. And yet even this voice. Different New hew for different creatures there is different food foods suit different creatures. provided only you can digest what you take. and words. the more does it it Taste is confined to the palate and does not prick the sense and tear in its onslaught. and poison I will unfold. 11 whereby we perceive produced when savour need longer account or give more trouble.i<*4 directions. but can perceive voices outside. and spread it abroad in the limbs. they touch pleasantly. can yet seem to others most sweet . on the other hand. but when it has passed headlong down through the jaws. what to seme is noisome and bitter. the oozing savour are smooth. no pleasure while it is all being spread abroad into Nor does it matter a whit with what diet the nourished. Then what we press out is all spread abroad through the in Smooth elements will pores of the palate. there is accompany digestion. But all idols 11. wherefore no one can see beyond the wall. and enters the ear all con- they start. is dulled. or for what cause. just as if one by chance begins to squeeze with the hand and dry a sponge full of water.

Now from these facts it is easy to learn For be sure it is similar of each case 1 : thus is when fever has attacked a man. when what is sweet to some becomes bitter to others. many just as they are unlike to outer view and a diverse outward seeds are it is right that contour of the limbs encloses them each after their kind. mingled so also are they fashioned of seeds of varying shape. the smoothest bodies must needs enter the pores of the palate caressingly. may be able to learn by what means this comes to be. so the shapes of the openings must needs differ. so must the spaces and the formapassages. Therefore. on the other hand. b g^ U j e further. That you poison. to us hellebore is biting ing but it makes goats and quails grow fat. 165 and what is And there is herein a difference and disagreement is sweet to so great that what is food to one. but. must be three-cornered for some creatures. Some of its pores 1 these then must needs be smaller. others. square their limbs. they jj^ent for animals. dies its and puts an end to by gnaw- body. Moreover. we can the rough and hooked bodies which penetrate the passages. first of all own you remember what we have said ere This is now. and caU!>es a The text uncertain. bitter t0 even as there is a certain serpent. for the man to whom it is sweet.Booh IP\ to eat. when touched itself another. by a man's spittle. which. that the seeds contained in things are mingled in because many ways. II. Besides all living creatures which take food. S which we call the openings. and some of many angles in many ways. many again round. but this must be the general sense. And ^. . to others biting poison 1 . for those to whom the same thing is sour within. be different in all p alate and and in the mouth and palate too. For according as the arrangement of shapes and the motions demand. since the seeds are unlike. some greater. 634-664. texture which shuts and the passages vary according to the them in.

11. Then the strength of dogs sent on before leads on the hunters far And so through the breezes bees are whithersoever the cloven hoof of the wild beasts has turned its steps. its frail nature scattered Firstly.166 man's taste Book IV. . and we must think that it is always streaming and being cast and scattered everywhere abroad but rolls . all is carried as far as sound. or repel different creatures drawn on however by the scent of honey. because by little among the breezes of air. whenever it stirs the nostrils. Smell never travels as far as may This very smell then. and about the positions of the first-beginnings are changed it comes to pass that the bodies which before it suited his taste. . or the violence of disease aroused in 86 whenhe" is ill. another attract on account of the unlike shapes of the elements. For it strays abroad and comes but yet no smell at slowly. and vultures by corpses. little and dies away too soon. suit fitted. 664-694 is his bile rises high. and in that way races of wild beasts. I forebear to say as the bodies which strike the pupil of the eyes and stir the sight. in one case be thrown further than in another. on each to So diverse scents assigned to diverse creatures lead its own food. For both kinds are mingled in the savour of honey I have often shown you above ere now. and dif- one smell to otners > is better fitted to some living things. 3. some then ^Y* then Ws wnole bod y W disordered. „ smeli I will tell n in streams off things to ' touches the nostrils. citadel of Romulus's sons. and others are better way in and beget a sour taste. as voice. things what manner the impact of r First there must needs be of scents flows many and off whence the varying stream on. which can win their no longer. Similarly smell as Come now. But sound. saviour of the far ahead the smell of man. ot}ier all . scents and the white goose. and constrain them to recoil are preserved the from noisome poison.

. n creatures. when they them are cast "*. because. and with shrill cry to summon dawn so surely do they at once bethink them. since a it all things within &s > when m (b) f because j does not find path through stone walls. Yet this does the class of savours. And 1 so dogs often nor do tidings of things rush hot to the sense. a free outlet from the eyes is afforded them. melted in the fire. * r< into the eyes of lions. ravening lions can by no means face and gaze upon the cock. confidence our eyes. Nay. one may see that it is fashioned of larger first-beginnings than voice. and jhouid possibly come before the preceding paragraph. and yet these things cannot in any way hurt either because they do not pierce them or . pain. and have to look for the not happen only among smells and in The same but likewise the forms and colours of thing occurs all. but not our5 ' because. whose wont it is with clappthat certain of them are too ing wings to drive out the night. where voice and sound com. all things are not so well fitted to the senses of but with sight: certain things hurt the eyes f certain creatures: pungent to the sight of some . so that they cannot bear and cause sharp in fierce seeds in 1- s { *<Vt' c V» . Wherefore too you will see that it is not so Conse" easy to trace in what spot that which smells has its For the blow grows cool as it dallies through place.. there are in the because body of cocks certain seeds. monly pass. is [ ess easy to trace to the air. although they do. indeed.atoms.Book IV) coming from the thing : 11. selves of flight. . footprints. 1 This section seems misplaced. up against ^. which. so that they cannot by staying there hurt the eyes in any part. stab into the pupils. we may be sure. 694-721 167 (a) because r fr n deep within it is not readily set loose from for that smells stream off is and depart from o^ ( j^ e _ things far beneath the surface shown because seem to smell more when broken. Again. when crushed. caimot look at cocks. go astray. eyes.

is you may like easily eyes do: from Inasmuch the one the other. since there For in truth the image of the Centaur comes not never was the nature of such a living creature. and arouse its sensation. idols of things n First of all I say this. fine and of itself wondrous nimble. may unite. Idols. which easily become all directions linked with one another in the air. in many ways in on every side. any one such subtle image stirs their mind . they cling together readily at once. when they come across one another's path. The mind sees as the That learn these things this. because of their subtle nature and fine fabric. what we see with the mind. see Centaurs and the limbs of and idols of those Scyllas. and what we see with the . which fill think of monstrous forms. and . fine idols.id8 The cause Book IV. since these pierce the pores of the body and awake the fine nature through And so we of the mind within. and those again which are made and put together from the shapes of these. as I have shown ere now. from of a living thing. whose bones are held in the embrace of earth since idols of every kind are borne everywhere. For many wander about indeed these idols are and piercing through to the mind. let me tell you what things stir the mind. come to pass as I as tell. All other things of this kind are And when they move nimbly with exceeding lightness. for the mind is fashioned in the same way. 722-7fl of thought. some which are created of their own accord even in the air. wandering everywhere. and learn in a few words whence come the things which come that into the understanding. 11. far finer in their texture than those make us the eyes and arouse sight. of Cerberus who have met and the dog-faces death. some which depart in each case from diverse things. Come now. but when by chance the images man and horse have met. like spider's web and gold leaf. as we have said ere now.

which is know that the mind So too the . the understanding believes that to check l eir long ago won to death and doom. First of all it is asked why.Book eyes. and is im ?§ es visiting the mind. IV ^ //. whereby the supply so great. and is torpid in slumber. Now. nor can they by true facts. except that it sees finer idols. any one instant that we can perceive.^ severally stir the eyes. indeed we must suppose that this comes to pass in quick process: so great is the speed. therefore. if we wish to ° ' ' Problems ot \ . since I have shown that I see a lion therefore r"c . And in these matters n many questions are asked. 1. set forth the truth plainly. the memory and mem0I7 1S lies at rest. This nature constrains to come to pass just because all the senses of the body are refute the falsehood ' checked and at rest throughout the limbs. Moreover. insomuch that we seem surely to behold even one who has quitted life. flux of ever- the former seems then to have changed gesture. as when we are awake. has ' it is For the rest. maybe. move and time. in that it sees a lion and all else neither more nor less than the eyes. "s f. the abundance of the little parts of images. but that these same idols » ' stir our caused by minds then. holden by death and the earth. and there are many things we must make clear. so great the store of things. And when sleep has relaxed the limbs. can . How we whatever the whim may come to each of us to think of. 7?i-78o like i<*9 they must needs be created in manner. in may be continued. to do this toss their it For : arms and their other limbs in rhythmic J comes to pass that the image in sleep seems as eat ° "} the dreamvisions is inasmuch when the first image passes away J 01 its to constant ° l! erent ' and then another comes to birth in a different posture. other cause awake. nor does it argue ° r not awake against us that he. not wonderful that the idols should The move. we may moved in like manner. ° ° veracity. it whom beholds alive. And . the understanding of the mind is for no by means of idols. ou = l and dreami. images.

banquets. the discern them sharply. nately they shoot out swiftly their supple arms. an which we perceive. and the the former seems then to have changed it its mind only sees sharply see those to gesture. many it times infinite succession discovers. Or is will this be nearer truth ? Because within is. as soon as will. posture. in the How ? in thinking of in sleep same place and spot the mind of others is What. when they begin to perceive things which are fine. Moreover. does nature create all things at a word. and we behold repeat to the eyes a gesture made by the feet in harmony ? Idols in sooth are steeped in art and wander about trained to be able to tread their dance in the nightBecause at time. you not see the eyes too. and therefore it comes to be. battles. that when a single there word uttered. therefore . Again. away and then another comes to birth in a different the several spots. Do the once of anything we want before us. strain themselves and make themselves ready. when things all far different. away.170 think at Book IF^ mind watch on our 11 780-811 straightway his idols keep ? thinks of that very thing. every is instant a single time. the mind makes itself ready. save those for which it has made itself ready. a procession. which reasoning comes to pass that in any time lie of images however small the all several idols are there ready at hand in So great is the speed. Do that without that things sharply? And cannot come to pass that we see yet even in things plain to see you . mind cannot strains to therefore all that there are besides these pass which it attends. save those which . and does the image rise up we desire. because they are fine. so great the Therefore when the first image passes store of things. when altermeasure. and make them ready for us? And that when 2. it will see it what follows upon each several thing really the case with waking sight. and hopes it will come The same is to pass that . sleep do we see moving images idols dancing forward in rhythmic and moving their supple limbs. again. whether it pleases us to think of sea or land or sky either? Gatherings of men. unnoted.

it is if 171 to you do not turn your mind them. nor plead- g^ v ed their use. time. and deceit. or else ' 1 to have become a man before our very not one face or age follows ° after another. or again. ing in words before the tongue was created. mind loses all else. and the limbs. in order that we might be able to do what was needful for life. by distorted reasoning set effect for cause. Nor did but being e sight exist before the light of the eyes was born. trow. and C. 11 811-842 might notice that.ce 111 sleep. sleep and its forget- fulness secure.Book IV. which men proclaim. but rather the birth of the tongue came long before discourse. existed before their use came about they cannot then have grown for the pur- . but what is born creates its own use. that we should not think this strange. All other ideas of this sort. and what was before a ' ot is dreams woman. in order that for the ' we may have power purpose of their use. therefore the tops of shanks and thighs. and very far away. to plant long paces. seems now eves. Herein you must eagerly 11 desire to shun with foresighted fear to avoid this error . this fault. The do not think senses ^' that the bright light of the eyes was created in order that not created we may be able to look before us. since nothing at all was born in the body that we might be able to use it. But not. or that. and the ears were created in short all : much I before sound was heard. are able to bend . that the forearms are jointed to the strong upper arms and hands given us to serve us on either side. It involve ourselves in the snare of self- different kind rises happens too that from time to time an image of The inc ° here " ce before us. based upon the feet. save only the things to which it is Then too on small signs we base wide itself given up? is it How opinions. all if just as if the thing were sundered from you the the then strange.

to mangle limbs and befoul the these things were known body with gore long before gleaming darts flew abroad. and the slaking of the thirst was born before cups. which are invented to suit the needs of but nature has no life. again and again. selves. and all the nature undermined is . is no cause for wonder. For shown n that many bodies ebb and pass away from things in many ways. might well be thought to have been discovered for the purpose of But all using them. and thereafter revealed the concept of In this class first of all their use- fulness. by motion and many bodies by sweating are squeezed and pass out from deep beneath. it cannot be that you should believe that they could have been created for the . trained held up the defence of a shield. This. pose of using them. And of a surety to trust the tired body to rest was a habit far older than by art. on the other side. many are breathed out these means then the is through their mouths. For because they are sorely tried living creatures. Therefore food when Drink quenches taken to support the limbs and renew strength it passes within. limbs The desire is for food purpose of useful service. by body grows rare. we see the senses and the wherefore. to join hands in the strife of battle. and on this follows pain. 11. These things. 842-871 may create things for a purpose. before the left arm. body caused by the waste of verily I have the body's tissue. then. likewise. and to muzzle the gaping desire for eating through all all the limbs and veins. those other things lie apart. wounding blow. Likewise. and nature constrained men . to avoid a the soft-spread bed.172 Art Book IF. which were first born them- design. But. mois- ture spreads into the spots which demand moisture. . when they pant in weariness . but most are bound to pass from which food in turn repairs. that the nature of the of every living thing of itself seeks food.

thirst is Thus then the the body- washed away from our body. The mind t :n stl rs it straightway strikes the force of soul which is spread r abroad in the whole body throughout limbs and frame. always quick to move). thus the is hungry yearning satisfied. as we imag ^ r ourselves have said before. The upon our mind. atoms. and inasmuch is _ hand. Nor yet herein is this cause for wonder. at such times the body too becomes rarefied. hand what it will do. with in air. soul goes on and strikes by little the whole mass is movement. comes through the opened body. 871-poo 173 the exceJSlve and the many gathered bodies of heat. how it is ° granted us to 1 move our limbs in diverse ways. though the text is uncertain. and what force is wont ' Causes of our move~ ments. and strike the mind. like a ship. I will tell : do you hearken to my words. I say that first of all idols of walking fall ' 1. ere the mind has seen before. 5 r a re fi "^'h* spaces. *\ ^j it is and so scattered to it is all the tiny parts of the body. and air (as indeed it needs must do. n This must be the sense. that the dry heat dryness and heat in may no panting longer be able to burn our body. since it is held in union with it. which furnish the fires to our stomach. Next. and quenched like a flame. And that Then the is easy to do. Then comes the will n for indeed no moving is res ® nted one begins to do anything. and turn parallels foi 1 and wind.mind: then follows a " so. an image of the thing formed. are scattered by the incoming ' ° moisture. 1 is borne on by sails whlch helps motion.Book IV^ 11. that There are such tiny bodies can twist about a body so great. when we wish. . Here then severally. brought about by two causes acting ' & that the body. And wishes to start and step forward. since it is the body. how it comes to pass that we are able to plant our steps forward. Moreover. and so little and the -a nis thrust forward and set in ^° ^ ' body.P . stirs itself so mind that it . and lts s C s and pierces through the passages in abundance. when the ' act of will. as it sees this before. to thrust forward this great bulk of our body.

and by : tread-wheels a crane can move many things of great weight. and cannot discern. flame can rise sudden be kindled again throughagain from a secret . or out abroad and gone its way. cast hidden deep within. the soul and when sleep hinders it from being. and loose the cares of the mind from the breast. lest you should say can be. For is no doubt that this sense exists in us. helm whithersoever it will . when utterly. many better than the clamour of cranes. or driven out. The cause Now in what ways lets this sleep floods repose over the of sleep. as fire is hidden when choked beneath much ashes. First when soul of all sleep scattered in scattered about comes to pass n when the strength of the soul among the limbs. 900-928 For in very truth the wind the moving round the whole mass of us. for no part of the soul stayed behind hidden in the limbs. and with a breast that utterly rejects the comes the is when you is are yourself in error words of truth part company with me. out the limbs. g. then we and its cessation shows that the soul has gone but not that : must suppose that the soul is disturbed and cast out abroad : yet not all of it . I will proclaim in verses of sweet discourse. rather even as the brief song of the swan is than in . //. for then the body would lie bathed in the eternal chill of death. and lift them up with light poise.174 Book Z/7. and a single hand steers it. tiny causes e. would whence could firei sense as on a mean death. and twists a single in a wind means of pulleys and or a crane. thanks to . Do you I me a fine ear deny that what It and an eager mind. a ship with whatever speed it be moving. among the lend which spreads abroad clouds of the south high in heaven. For indeed. limbs. and in part has been pushed back and passed inward deeper within the body. of a great that is finely wrought of a subtle body drives and pushes mass by on a great ship of great bulk. and in part has been the limbs. For sense is due to the soul : there For then indeed the limbs are loosened and droop.

rupuon. or by bark. and inside.. . . cannot be united in itself. Again. Wherefore. since it is touched ' buffeted close at hand by the breezes of air. driven out or sinks through the limbs. it by little there comes to be. a falling asunder throughout our limbs. Further. when it . again. even as you lie down. nor by J motion act and react for nature bars its meetings and chokes the ways and so. since the body is buffeted on both The blows s read anJ P and since the blows 1 pass on through the tiny ' cause disfirst pores to the little parts and first particles of our body. drawn is breathe. when the motions are changed. p2p-p?p 17 j But by what means this new state of things is brought This is brou S llt about. and the slumber which as air. because food brings about just what air does. is thumped and by air [. the body grows all the limbs are slackened arms and eyelids . 1S sense withdraws deep within. and for this cause outslde it is that wellnigh all things are covered either by a hide. . torn asunder it . is much heavier because then more bodies than ever are disordered. the air at the same time smites on as weu the inner side. support the limbs. and were.Book IV) 11. must needs body is sta!"v be that the body on the outer side. and the hams. and whence the soul can be disturbed and the body J grow 6 slack. Wlthln or distracted. as creatures breathe. as were. And since there is nothing and the unpor e - which can. buffeted by its oft-repeated blows. . sleep follows after Food acts '" Just the food. or else by shells. you take when full or weary. or by a hard skin. droop. Then comes to pass that a portion of the soul is cast out abroad. feeble. In the same manner the soul comes to . and relax their strength.. I will unfold : be it your care that First of all it I do not about because the " scatter my words to the winds. and part retreats and hides within part too. while J ' same way it is being spread into all the veins. first-beginnings of For the positions of the and so the soul ls body and mind are disordered. in and breathed out sides alike. bruised with the great effort. often give as it J!"^ £ in slack- ness " way.

that even when they have ceased to apprehend them with their passages in their minds. traffic in their cases fight the same things lawyers think that they plead and confront law with law. and strain every nerve as though for victory. or on whatever things we have before time. so that even they see men lyre. pfp-ppo be in part thrust deeper within . but even every living animal. most part to whatever pursuit each man cleaves. for the we see most part. senses. and we that we pursue our and seek for the nature of things for ever. . so that the . and drink in with their ears the clear-toned chant of the pass before their eyes. and pant for ever. and behold the same assembly glories of the stage all true bright before them. when their limbs are w lain to rest. which we pursue in spent t"e . And if many days in succession given interest unflagging to the games. the games their sleep. or else as . tnan 1S lts wont. and the tasks wherein not only men are wont horses. So exceeding great is the import of animals : zea ^ anc^ pleasure. yet there remain open whereby the same images of things And so for many days the same sights wide awake they think dancing and moving their supple limbs. Thus forth. generals that they battles. Dreams actions And clings for the and . . yet sweat in their sleep. mind was more . in writings in our country's most part all other pursuits and ever of men men have in delusion during for seem to hold the minds For instance. and set it is when it tongue. to spend their efforts.i~6 Book IV^ 11. it is also more abundantly driven out abroad. and its and This is at the same time the diverse speaking strings. j n truth y OU }]] see strong horses. much . may enter in. and is more divided and torn asunder in itself within. arts for the found. sailors that and engage in they pass a life of conflict task waged with winds. strained in . in our sleep we seem mostly to . waking task life.

offer fight and battle. as off though they saw them in eager flight. as 546. and on sleep. and all again snuff the air with their nostrils. scarcely recover themselves from sleep. the more must it needs rage in its But the diverse tribes of birds fly off. a birds. though bereft of reason. if start). roused from slumber they often pursue empty images of stags. the earth.Book IV^ though the barriers 11. diverse perform mighty tasks. as ing. and. are captured. 1 The end : of the line has been ousted by an intrusion from the next the sense was probably this. quivering with the turmoil of their body. the minds of men. Many in their sleep discourse of high affairs. as though they were falling They may d ea evett "\ headlong with all their body from high mountains to . flying in pursuit. ^. More. as of a panther or savage lion. M . loud cries. just as if they beheld unknown forms and faces. a loud cry. as death. and utter groans through though they were bitten by the teeth fill all around them with their — their pain. But the fawn- house-dog?. Many meet death many.16 Munro suggests. °& s ' And hunters' dogs often in their soft sleep yet suddenly hunting- toss their legs. raise . join battle. and. ppo-1023 177 1 were opened (struggle to at once give tongue. often in sleep do and dare just the same kings storm towns. until they shake the delusion and return to themselves. sudden in the night time trouble the peace of the if in their gentle sleep they have seen hawks. ways. and were following the tracks of wild beasts yea. are beside themselves with fear. which with mighty movement ' ° J groves of the gods. ing brood of pups brought up in the house. and very often have been witness to their own guilt.and so of ™ en in over. Many men though being murdered all without movfight hard. in a moment shake their body and lift it from the ground. as and again and they had found . And the wilder any breed may be.

whoso'er Thus. he who receives a blow from the it be who wounds him. and the Babylonian coverlets of rich beauty are soaked waters of whose time. for an unspoken desire foe. Innocent children often. which idols come from without The and nature of love desire. his and gulps almost the whole if throat. and the blood spirts by which we are smitten. is stirred in us that seed. out in that direction. that drop of Venus's sweetness has trickled into our heart and chilly care has all This pleasure is Venus for us our name for love. from it first of from it comes Cupid. and there arises the desire to seek that us seek union with the object body.178 or of trivial needs. pour forth the filtered liquid from their whole body. first when limbs. 1024-1060 down Likewise a down thirsty beside a stream or river a pleasant spring. from every body. Shun Venus and her cares and desires. whence we are struck by the if it is near at hand. Book man sits IV } 11. D. coming together into fixed places. glorious face or beautiful colouring. there stir heralding a and rouse their passion to bursting. life Later on to those. then. foretells the pleasure to come. the red stream reaches our darts of Venus. bursting forth way from out the whole body through the limbs and frame. bound fast in slumber they think they are or a'' lifting their dress at a latrine roadside vessel. and. by which the mind is smitten with love. it from man only the influence And as soon as it has been makes its aroused. For as a rule all men fall towards the wound. and straightway rouses at last the natural It makes parts of the body . blow. inclines to that whereby he is smitten . For one whereof we spoke the age of manhood strengthens our cause moves and rouses one thing. into the seething the vital seed is passing for the first it when the ripeness of time has created in their limbs. . There before. . . a different cause another of man stirs human seed.

nor are they what first to enjoy with eyes or hands. and this is the one thing. else indulgence. But it is best to flee those images. whence comes the source may in turn be quenched. and thereby store up for yourself care and scare certain pain. be it what it may.pain. whereof the more and more we 11 2 . Yet and satiety lever at nature protests that all this happens just the other way . and to turn your mind some other way. by feeding. But Venus lightly breaks in kissing. and often fasten their teeth in the lips. comes. and day by day the madness grows. can turn the move- Nor is he who shuns love bereft of the fruits of Venus. What they have grasped. whence arise those germs of madness. the fire hope that from the same body." and if For away from you what feeds your love. wandering after some wanton. P lea * ure * ' involves For surely the pleasure from these things is more un. tainted for the heart-whole than for the love-sick in the very for moment of possession the passion of lovers sure ebbs and flows with undetermined current. of her are at hand. and to hurt even the very thing. and not to keep it.Book IV. For therein there of their flame. set once for all on the love of one. followed after. her loved name is present yet images to your ears. and vent your passion on other objects. and the misery becomes heavier. or . because their pleasure is there are secret stings which spur them with them is the force of these pains in love. they closely press and cause pain to the body. For the sore gains strength and festers For the pain on 7 . 1060-1089 179 the object of your love is away. 11. and heal them while still fresh. The lover's but rather he chooses those joys which brine no pain. unless you dissipate the first wounds by new blows. or ments of the mind elsewhere. and fond pleasure mingled sets a curb upon their teeth. and dash mouth against mouth not unalloyed.

.180 have. yet all for naught. all . thereby the desire for water and bread is easily sated. and pressing . and struggles in vain. Then the same madness respite in their furious passion. the Book IV) 11. 1089-1122 desire. as they the body. but he seeks after images of water. though he drinks amid the torrent stream. nor enter in and pass away. passes into the body to be enjoyed save hope is this love-sick scattered to the winds. more does our heart burn with the cursed . and is still thirsty. nor can they with their hands tear Satisfaction wander aimless over only begets new desire. when in a dream a thirsty man seeks to drink and no liquid is granted him. For meat and drink are taken within the limbs and since they are able to take up their abode in certain parts. since they cannot tear aught thence. which could allay the fire in his limbs. Even at last when x ^ e lovers embrace and taste the flower of their years. nor can they discover what device may conquer their disease . eagerly they clasp and kiss. when they returns. lip on lip breathe off deeply . in such deep doubt they waste beneath their secret wound. merging the whole body in the other's frame . Love saps Remember too that they waste their strength and are effort. the old frenzy is back upon them. even so in love Venus mocks the lovers with images. then for a while comes a little sated. though they gaze on it with all their eyes. s ren S : worn away with remember that their life is passed .. But from the and often Just as face and beauteous bloom of man nothing delicate images . for at times they seem And at length when the it. nor can the body sate them. to strive and struggle to do is gathering desire yearn to find out what in truth they desire to attain. off aught from the tender limbs.

even you. 1122-1149 181 in- grow on the beneath another's sway. and to beware ° you are that you be not entrapped.Book IF\ 11. and cnter- becomes hairwell-gotten wealth of their fathers ribbons and diadems . Meanwhile their substance slips and their duties away. . and the sea-dark dress is for laugh it 1 ny q™°. Sicyonian slippers green flash are set and lovely with their yes. and their fair name totters and : ^^^ a is S honour. or because she has thrown out some is is and idle word and in left its sense in doubt. and all is — ™^ • | b{ ^ thought of of remorse that life passing being spent in sloth. sometimes it is turned to Greek The ammen > With gorgeous napery and games and countless all in vain. or because he thinks she casts her eyes around some other. while and sickens slack. . and is turned to Babylonian coverlets. or sees in her face and looks too freely. cups. so that it is better to be on the watch . these . and it is planted the passionate heart. And are ills. and roughly used drinks in sweat. into the meshes of love. dered in a ™ pr nt ever being frayed. is not so hard a task as when as I ' caught amid the toils to issue out and break through the strong bonds of Venus. and becomes alive like deep a flame. mistress's feet . ills are found in love that is is true and fully Crossed ' prosperous but when love crossed and hopeless there ills s ^* Avoid love without number ' which you might detect even with closed eyes. perfumes. to ruin in wantonness. and wreaths and garlands since from the heart of this fountain of delights wells up some bitter taste to choke them even amid the flowers either when the conscience-stricken mind feels the bite robes and stuffs of Elis and Ceos. upon some trace of laughter. l en before ' have taught J beforehand. and viands feasts are set out. And yet even when trammelled 1 It is impossible to replace with certainty the mutilated word. For to avoid being drawn caught. and huge emeralds in gold.

and plants his kisses. the tearful lover. the thick-lipped Even the fairest is 'a living kiss'. 11 1149-1179 caught do not shut your eyes to defects. than the A ' black love is called honey-dark the foul and filthy wiry and wooden * unadorned '. One be' comes a slender darling '. Then ' the fat and full-bosomed is Ceres' self with Bacchus at decline . More of this sort it let were tedious fair of face as for me to try to tell. the green-eyed 'Athena's image '. he cannot see his rest. prospering in high favour. the snub-nosed is ' is sister to Silenus. whom you seek and woo. since he many ways deformed and ugly And one laughs at another. the ' a gazelle '. or a Satyr ' . and her maids poor wretch. and anoints the haughty door-posts with marjoram. But yet her be let not indispensable. far from her and giggle in secret. and fettered you might escape the snare. But when he finds this out. unless you still stand in your own way. flee A lover. a '. and of herself. poor . the fiery. when she can scarce live from ' 1 wonder and ' full of pure delight'. and at the first o'erlook all the blemishes of mind and body in her. surely she all does just the same in ugly. yea.1 3r if 82 Book IV. the lumpy and majesty '. the squat and dwarfish 'all 'one of the graces'. as the from others. poor wretch. ' she has a isp ' . most part men act blinded by passion. and from her every limb : the and is not really different surely we yet surely there are others have lived without her before. spiteful gossip is ' a burning torch '. often smothers the threshhold with flowers and garlands. yet often. breast ' . and urges him to appease Venus. is wallowing in a base passion. things. She stammers another half dead with cough is ' frail '. power too : of you Venus issue forth will. is often offended. denied entry. far greater '. And man so we see those in dearly loved. For for the and assign to women and cover them with endearing glosses. and we know it. own ' ills. the dumb is modest ' . reeks of noisome smells. ungainly and cannot speak. excellencies which are not truly theirs.

Book IV. But those by from the whom you form of both. love . and yearning for mutual And the male * joys she woos him to reach the goal of love. because their nature too flow. The female if she when kisses. ' common. 11 1179-1218 183 wretch. one single breath should meet him as he comes. and not spiteful. except is afire. because he sees that he has some honest pretext more to her than it is right to grant to any Nor is this unknown to our queens of love . wild beasts. o'erlook allowance. yet if. the flocks. showering her P well as For often she does it from the heart. mingling side side the father's features of both parents. And often when mother. the more are they at pains to hide all behind the nay scenes from those whom they wish to keep fettered in assigned mortal. your turn. spring alike body and the mother's blood. all for it all bring to light naught. in no other way would birds. It comes to pass too some- . clasping her lover she holds him fast. Nor does the woman sigh always with feigned love. the pleasure in the mingling of sex the woman by The causes ° S sudden force has mastered the man's might and seized o e it j^' on it with her own. and the deep-drawn lament long-planned would fall idle. and pardon human weaknesses. again and again. thanks to the mother's seed. upon the doors . just seed as the father's may make them see with the like the father. admitted at last. are often tortured in their chains is common Wherefore. It is better to rea1 n '^ and faults in is of a fair mind. then children are borne like the parent. and then and there he would curse his folly. since you can even so by thought and seek the cause of all this laughter. as I say. and is burning to over- Do ? you not see too how those whom mutual pleasure has bound. he would seek to be gone. cattle. and mares be able to submit to the males.

the voice. bodies and limbs. so that they might fortify their old age with children. For every offspring is fashioned of the two seeds. more resembles. the father's seed. since indeed these things are none the more created from a seed determined than are our faces and and its connexion with the child's sex. Book IV. that they may make all their wives pregnant with bounteous seed. and whichever of the two that which is created of that parent it has more than an equal can yourself discern. and recalls the look. and their sacred weary the For the coup- wedlock are seen to be very diverse. majesty of the gods lings in Yet in vain they lots. father therefrom Venus unfolds forms with hands on to father . starting and concealed in the body of their from the stock of the race. for the reason that many first-beginnings in many ways are often mingled parents. as men believe for the most part. share as Causes of sterility. and males Again the female sex may spring from come forth formed from the mother's body. but must live out his years in barren wedlock . And often even for those. . varying chance. the hair of ancestors . II.184 or to ancestors. for whom wives fruitful ere now in the house had been unable to bear. And many have been barren in several wedlocks before. which. whether it be a male you offspring or a female birth. I2l8-12$6 and often times that they can be created like their grandparents. a well-matched nature has been found. . yet at length have found a mate from whom they might women conceive children. Nor do powers of seed. and grow rich with sweet offspring. that he divine deny to any man a fruitful sowing may never be called father by sweet children. and sorrowing sprinkle fire the altars with streams of blood and the high places with their gifts. recall the form of their grandparents' parents.

Sometimes of 'tis 11. and the neat adornment of her body. or that she accustoms you easily to live your life with her. however light. times a woman may may Nay more. 1278-1287 185 Venus that a woman by no divine act or through the shafts A woman xl out of form less fair is loved. for that which is is struck ever and again by a blow.Book IV. habit alone can win love . yet mastered in long lapse of time. mere habit. and gives way. Do you not see too how drops of water falling upon rocks in long lapse of time drill through the rocks? . ' ' -"or dress. by win love by c aracter her unselfish ways. For at 7 beauty > bring it about by her own doing.

a clean heart . and yet life 1 1 gone on without these things. noble Memmius. which now is called life from high and thick darkness. the hydra with its pallisade of poisonous snakes? what the triple-breasted might of threefold Geryon? . by even ot Hercules. con- a god. But if you think that the deeds of Hercules n excel this. found out that principle of wisdom. speak as trow. yea a god. ' Ceres is fabled to than those and heroes* of old : have taught to men the growing of corn. and Liber the could have ^' 'Vi ^ °f tne vine-born juice . For set against this the heaven-sent discoveries of others in the days of old. befits the majesty of the truth I then he was a god. us. and who by his skill saved our seas His services far ereater we must now known to us. who first life. For what harm to us now were the great gaping jaws of the old Nemean lion and the bristling boar of Arcadia? i Or what could the bull of Crete do.BOOK V Intro- Who can avail by might of mind to build a poem worthy to matcri the majesty of truth and these discoveries ? Or who has such skill in speech. ceived and sought out by his own mind? There For if will be no one. thanks to wherefore more rightly is he counted a god whom now sweet solaces for life soothe the mind. spread even far and wide among great peoples. or the curse of Lerna. as tales tell us that some But a good life could not be without races live even now. y QU w qj be carr e j st \\\ further adrift from true reasoning. born of mortal body. that he can fashion praises t0 EDicurus who dis- hi ^o h is matc h h^ s deserts. and enclosed it in calm waters and bright light. who has left us such prizes.

. what For he abundance with wild terrors battles and perils r must we then enter into despite our r pangs of passion then rend the troubled S ave u s a . of which the words brackets give the general sense. have snown the laws f nature. pray. could they have done alive? Not a jot. and 1 how they must in needs abide by nor A line is lost. breathing fire from their nostrils near the coasts of the Bistones and Ismara? Or the guardian of golden apples of Hesperus's daughters. where none of us draws near nor barbarian dares to venture? this sort And all other monsters of which were destroyed. and in his discourse to reveal the whole nature of things. 1 or the horses of Diomede the Thracian. by what law . not arms. clean heart. dwelt in the Stymphalian (fen). fierce. with fiery glance. yea and what fears besides? what of pride. will? What sharp man. But unless the heart is cleansed. with his vast body twined around the tree-trunk. things it. In his footsteps ings I tread. 11 zg-sS 187 (How who could those birds) have done us such great hurt. what hurt. shall this man not rightly be found worthy to rank among the gods? sayings in Above all. yea. and is filled with trembling throughout forests and mighty mountains and deep woods . the dragon. are created. and nature. but for the most part we have power to shun those spots. what harm the glowing could he have done beside the Atlantic shore and the grim tracts of ocean. . since 'twas his wont to speak many and taught "* a '"' good and godlike words about the immortal gods themselves.Book V. had they not been vanquished. I trow the earth even now teems in such : beasts. and while I follow his reasonall . filthiness and wantonness? what havoc they work? what of luxury and sloth? He then who has subdued all these and driven them from the mind by speech. Now that 1 and set out in my discourse.

now brought me to this * point. to use ever. of the and in what manner the race of men began . groves.i 88 Book V. which throughout the circle of the world the gods. altars. sun. ' courses of the sun and the heavenly bodies. II ?8-88 and the mortality can they break through the firm ordinances of their being. . are borne back again into the old beliefs and adopt stern overlords. steers the . I must of the treat creation of matter established earth. suppose that they roll on by any forethought For those who have learnt aright that the gods lead a life f ree f things come rom care) all y et if f rom ti me to time they wonder by all without the interference ' what means things can be carried on. the train of my prove that the world is reason i n g has 5 give a i so mortal. stars. . even as first of all the nature of the mind has been found orme d an d created above other things with a body that has birth. and how came to birth . and to be unable to endure unharmed through the long ages. but it is images that are wont in to h e f sleep to deceive the I mind. keeps and of the courses revered shrines. of the origin and varying speech one to another by naming things what ways that fear of the gods found its way into in t h e ir breasts. and be made. knowing of religion.11 j account how the world is made of mortal body and . of the helmsman. with kindly and living creatures.. t j lg of the gods. sea. or should All these of the gods. whom in their not what misery they believe have all power. in . t jiat wanderings of t ^ ev Q f their courses lest by chance we should think the moon t le r own w Qi tw xt earth and sky fulfil ' j j i from year to increase of earth's fruits favour to the year. lakes. speech. moon then what living creatures sprang from the h an d which have never been born at any time. life has left . and images of Moreover. what remains. . . I will unfold by what power nature.. eart of the ) what ways that gathering of and the ball sky. animals. above among t hose things which are descried above our heads in the coasts of heaven. when we seem to behold one for must whom . that I must 6 .

for me to prove it surely in my discourse .Book V^ has 11. and the massive form and fabric of the world. when you bring to men's ears something unknown before.The world . Memmius. you will behold all things shaken in mighty But may fortune at the helm steer this far away from us. mises. you * and the heavenlv bodies are divine. For the rest. and moon must needs abide for everlasting. first of all look upon seas. how strangely This sounds tr:in f and wonderfully this strikes upon the understanding. Nor does it escape me my mind. and lands. and may reasoning rather than the very fact a little while but reasonin S niust make us believe that all things can fall in with a hideous rending crash. that I may delay you no more with pro. and sky . and with reasoning ° point to declare destiny in far more sure than . by chance restrained by religion you should think that earth and sun. Yet still I will Perhaps events wil Maybe that the very fact will give credence words. t0 p rove . stars. I will unfold many ' a solace for . their three bodies. It is no sacrile & e to who speaks out from the tripod and in deny that the world laurel of Phoebus. even happens. and its deep-set boundary-stone. and how hard it is ge. 88-116 189 can be and what cannot. the destruction of heaven and earth that is to be. for by this way the paved path of belief leads straightest into the heart as it always of man and speak out. their three textures so vast. lest of their divine body. three forms so diverse. and sky. and therefore should suppose it right . wise. that earthquakes will arise and within sibie proof: shock. sea. one single day shall hurl to ruin . held up for many years. nor lay hands upon it . and yet you cannot place it before the sight of their eyes. Yet before I essay on this more holy / the Pythian priestess. in shall fall headand long. their their W1 threefold nature. yea and in what way each thing its power limited. because my learned discourse . to my the quarters of his mind.

that world : world. there are holy abodes of the gods in any parts of the For the fine nature of the gods. grow and have its place. It is determined and ordained where each from which tiling can they cannot exist. nor blood be present in wood nor sap appointed place. inasmuch as they cannot be with the sense of life. that they are thought rather to be able to afford us the concept of not even sentient. So the nature of mind cannot come to birth alone without body. and would fain quench the glorious sun in heaven. it could last on in the crumbling sods of earth or in the fire of the sun or in water or in the or the high coasts of heaven. yet these are things so far sundered from divine They are power.190 that after the for their Book V. it cannot be that you should believe. dowed with The gods have no dwellings in the divine feeling. nor can fishes things. and be wont to be born in any part you will. quickened This. have their live in the fields. For cannot be that we should mind. They are not then created en- heavenly bodies. or right down in the heels. but at least remain be. too. who by their reasoning shake the walls of the world. But since even within our body determined and seen to be ordained They cannot be in earth where soul and mind can dwell apart and grow. nor clouds in the salt waters. far sooner in the same man or the same it is vessel. apart in stones. what verily is far it removed from vital motion and Soul and sense. nor exist far apart from sinews and blood. all like other suppose that the nature of mind and understanding can be linked with every body even as a tree cannot exist : in the sky. all the more must we deny that outside the whole body and the living creature's form. branding things immortal with mortal names . far sundered . and are so unworthy to be reckoned among gods. IL 116-148 n manner of the giants all should pay penalty monstrous crime. But if this could might the force of mind itself exist in head or shoulders.

it which believe that it is will worthy to be praised. first lie wallowing in darkness and us ? grief. t-i . and for that cause 'tis ey ma " e tne world work of the gods. that they should essay to do anything for them. and to to imagine established for the races of men for all it . and that is fitting to praise the for the sake ° nian * sin ever to stir from its seats by any force what was time by the ancient with argument. to say that for man's sake they were willing to fashion the ° glorious nature of ° ' the world. when he led a life of happiness. to change their former life? take joy in for him. For nothing can touch which may not itself be touched. V y 11. to desire . so long as enticing pleasure shall hold him. benefit blessed ones. wisdom all else of the gods. it cannot indeed touch anything which can be touched by us. for such an one what could have kindled a passion for new things ? Or what nor would e ill had it been to us never to have been made ? Did l . and to be everlasting and immortal. For it is clear that he must for novelty: new things. nor could he y have " a d a desire ' our sakes? so long after. we had until the creation of things dawned upon For never been created v/hosoever has been born must needs wish to abide in life. what profit could our thanks r For Our thanks bestow on the immortal and f ou r not is but foolishness.. ! hurt us 11 our life. or to assail it overthrow from top to bottom and to add of this sort. who has never tasted the love of life. But for him. and was never . as are all which I will hereafter n prove to you nor did l .. . to whom the old are painful . ..Book from our the mind senses. Or what new thing could have enticed them when they were aforetime at rest. with plenteous argument. Further. Memmius. 149-180 beneath 191 is scarcely seen it lies and since far by the understanding of all touch or blow from our hands. fine even their bodies . but no sorrow has befallen in the time gone whom by. forsooth. Therefore even their abodes too must needs be unlike our abodes. .

what harm there never to have How. in every and have passed into such movements. That the world is But even of things. way. 1. and to prove from many other things as well. . that it is no wonder if they have fallen also into such arrangements. meeting one with another. First. Of the field-land that remains. and the concept of man. two thirds almost burning heat and the ceaseless all of frost steal from mortals. yet nature would by her force cover it up with thorns. and waste pools and the fall which holds the shores of the lands. ever and again replenished. were it not that the force of man resisted her. and moved by their own weight. Besides. of all that the huge of heaven covers. driven on by blows from time everlasting until now. have greedily seized sea. II. not divinely knew not n what are the first-beginnings yet this I would dare to affirm from the very made for man. again. workings of heaven.I 92 Book V^ Further. this present as those whereby sum if I of things is carried on. and essay everything that they might create. 180-209 is it in the ranks of the living. the world was made by the chance arrangsment of For so many first-beginnings of things in many ways. or in what way was the power of the first-beginnings ever learnt. could the gods been made? how was first implanted in have had a pattern or an idea to the gods a pattern for the begetting of things. that by no means has the nature of things been Vast with which tracts of the earth are useless for so great are the flaws fashioned for us by divine grace it stands beset. yea. and to unite atoms. n so that they might know and see in their mind what they wished to do. or what they could do when they shifted their order one with the work on ? other. have been wont to be borne on. rocks possess far apart man. may be proved by its imperfections. half thereof mountains and expanse : forests of wild beasts it. ever wont for his livelihood to groan over the strong mattock and to furrow the earth with the . if nature did not herself give a model of creation? No.

since all for all of them the earth itself brings forth things bounteously. into the coasts of light. dls «a e > j and death. and subduing the soil of the earth t ^ n t ne ^ we summon them sometimes. of which this sum of things is seen to be made up. and nature. lacking first j™™*? helpless and. whereby to protect their own. dumb. when nature has cast him forth by from fills his mother's womb ^fenceless. He rass e . too. and he for one for the place with woful wailing. First of 11 all. as is but right whom it remains in life to pass through so much trouble. . help for travail life. are all created of a *^ tal (a) because- body that has birth and death. Moreover. The 'S the light breath of the winds and burning heat. either the sun of them with too much heat. some tribe of wild beasts to ? do harm to the race of man of the year bring f" by wild beasts. naked on the ground. The cruel waves. like a sailor tossed by the all 3. and are in heaven burns rains great toil things grow leafy all in flower. of their own to profit. or sudden them and chill frosts. accord the crops could not spring up into the liquid air . nor beasts. But that by turning n clods with the share. nor must there be spoken to any of them the fond and broken do they seek diverse prattle of the fostering nurse. 209-239 193 ' the fertile and only deep-pressed plough. the quaint artificer of things. K of such. nor garments to suit the season of heaven. and they have no need of weapons or lofty walls. and A. But the diverse flocks and herds grow up and the wild have they need of rattles. nay. the child. and the blasts destroy the winds harry them with headstrong hurricane. when won by throughout the land. must we '^^ 54C15 . why sea ' does nature foster and increase the awe- 2. by land and maladies? Why do the seasons Why lies does death stalk abroad before her time? Then ashore again. since the body of earth and moisture. and even now to birth.Book V. 11. is.

and that waters are ceaselessly : it is up from the sea the oozing forth. lest you should think that I have snatched at this of the separate this proof for myself. partly because . and have maintained that they too are born again and increase. it in the as he unravels their fabric with his rays. gives off a mist and flying clouds of dust. we see the mighty members and parts consumed away and brought to birth again. Earth is mortal. when To prove Herein. 239-268 is think that the whole nature of the world fashioned. we may know that sky too likewise and earth had some time of first-beginning. away dust. 3. earth nourishes and increases.194 mom parts are Book V^ 11. some part of earth. It flies and fire are mortal things. and so by wind and sun. themselves too we perceive always to have death and birth likewise. therefore you may see that the earth eaten Water mortal : away. partly because the strong winds as they sweep the seas. of the world Wherefore. . restored all is and since without doubt the parent of seen herself to be the universal tomb is of tomb. whatever the universal graze and gnaw their banks. For the rest. Earth is the over. Morein its mother and the universal own proportion. For verily things whose parts and limbs we see to be of a body that has birth and of mortal shapes. and again increases and grows. because I have assumed that earth elements: I. that sea. comes to pass that there is never overmuch moisture sum. nor have hesitated to say that moisture and breezes perish. in clouds of which stormy winds its scatter through to all the air. diminish them. and so does the sun in heaven. and streams moisture. when baked by ceaseless suns. trodden by the force of many feet. there is no need of words to prove great downrush of waters on every side shows this forth. first of all. or is de- Part too of sods is summoned back swamp by is. is things. and springs are ever filling with new moisture. and will suffer destruction. the stroyed by rains. drawn But the water which is foremost is ever taken away. streams.

™°^ Q^_ whatever flows off from things. straightway all perishes. to k up a constant N 2 . ever sendin S out light. are constantly flowing away. the 4. ° new supThat you may learn plies. as rays of light. and the substance of the moisture u t " ( oozes back.mortal ° ' ' the sun is . ness. Nay more. on whatever spot it falls. is all carried into the stantly great sea of air . is and at once supplies the place of light with new always For that which is foremost of its brightness. and of rivers. and to pass back into r sure that all things ° y restoration. to break off the they fall. 268-297 195* sent hither and thither under every land. wherever the clouds are carried so that you may learn that things any other way can cu t off b y clouds« ever have need of fresh brilliance. Air is * body in countless ways each single hour. For the and passes * e" a brine is strained through. . and perishes. the efflux things air. which are on the earth. Next then I will speak of air. and. into would by now have been dissolved and turned ' Air then ceases not to be created from things. where the channel once cleft has brought down the waters in their liquid march. except that the very fountain-head of light gives supply for ever. from this : hisra y s that as soon as clouds have begun for an instant it perish as to pass beneath the sun. and that the foremost shaft of light ever perishes. nor in things be seen in the sunlight. and unless in turn it were to give back ein ° . For always. things. and replenish all them as they flow away. all and thence comes back over the lands with streams together at the fountain-head reappear ln s P rm S s - freshened current. were. which changes in its whole 3.Book V^ it is 11. hanging lamps ''g enrtti and bright with their flashing fires and thick smoke. is overshadowed. since ° ' it is ro mt in ^ s ' . and renewing them lts . Fire sun in heaven. So even hts on lights at night. u " ess the part of the rays beneath y and the earth . in like manner hasten by aid of their heat oily have torches. ceaselessly floods the sky with fresh bright. Likewise that bounteous source n of liquid light. bodies to things.

and believe that they grow inquiring moreover whether you old i 1 And stones torn up from high mountains rushing headlong. //. Book new light . once again gaze on this around holds the whole earth in all If the is sky Now sky. while the sacred presence cannot prolong the boundaries of fate nor struggle against the laws of nature ? Again. as it were. fires. made altogether of a diminished and increased. There many and replenished when it receives things back. if from time everlasting they had held out against all the siege of age without breaking. do we not see the monuments of men fallen to bits. 1 The line is corrupt. as some tell. shrines and images of the gods growing weary and worn. For indeed they would not be suddenly torn up and fall headlong. do you not behold stones too vanquished by time. stantly see examples of the mortality of the strongest high towers falling in ruins. and rocks crumbling away. and stars throw it is yea quick. lest you and lose ever what is foremost of their flames . rising again and again. 298-32? to supply does In such eager haste is its destructhe quick birth of flame from all the fires. broken off. tion hidden by So then we must think that sun. moon. should by chance believe that they are strong with a We con- strength inviolable.196 supply of flame. Again. and sibi I have translated Munro's correction : quaerere proporro seue se?iescere credas. unable to brook or bear the stern strength of a limited time? things. is it : things out of itself. (b) are must needs be lessened. its which above and : all the embrace n if it universal begets parent. nourishes other things out of body For whatsoever increases and itself. nor out their light from new supplies. if there was no birth and beginning of the earth and sky. it is constantly that has birth and death. Moreover. nor quit the spot. and they were always from everlasting. they are quick to flicker with their the light. Z7 . and receives them mortal it is for again when they perish. .

Book V,
why beyond
the

11.

326-3 ss
doom
of
as well

197
Troy have
?

Theban war and the

proofs tha?
is

not other poets sung of other happenings have so many deeds of men so often passed away?
are they

whither

^Jj°in
youth,

why

its

nowhere enshrined

in glory in the everlasting
I
is

memorials of fame?

But indeed,

world

is

in

its

youth, and quite new

trow, our whole the nature of the

firmament, nor long ago did it receive its first-beginnings. Wherefore even now certain arts are being perfected,

even
ships,

now

much now has been added to are growing but a while ago musicians gave birth to tuneful
;

harmonies.

Again,

this

nature of things,

this

philo-

was found sophy, is but lately discovered, and I myself could turn it into the speech of the very first of all who

my country. But if by chance you think that all these same things were aforetime, but that the generations of
men
cities have fallen perished in burning heat, or that in some great upheaval of the world, or that from cease-

If you think

°
viiiza _

tions

have

f^^^^

worldravening rivers have issued over the lands and swallowed up cities, all the more must you be vanquished ^"JJould and confess that there will come to pass a perishing of prove that
less rains

earth and sky as well.

For when things were
if

assailed

by

js

motUim

such great maladies and dangers, then

a

more

fatal cause

had pressed upon them,

far

and wide would they have

Nor in any spread their destruction and mighty ruin. we see one another to be mortal ; except other way do that we fall sick of the same diseases as those whom
nature has sundered from
life.
11

Moreover,

if

ever things abide

for everlasting, it

must

(c)

The
fulfil

needs be either that, because they are of solid body, they not beat back assaults, nor suffer anything to come within any

of the

them, which might unloose the close-locked parts within, such as are the bodies of matter, whose nature we have

of

immor.

tality.

198
all

Book V^
;

II.

355-384

declared before

or that they are able to continue through

time, because they are exempt from blows, as is the void, which abides untouched nor suffers a whit from
assault
;

or else because there

is

no supply

of

room

all

around, into which things might part asunder and be broken up even as the sum of sums is eternal nor is

there any room without into which they may leap apart, nor are there bodies which might fall upon them and

break

them up with
is

stout blow.

But

neither, as I have

shown,
as

the nature of the world endowed with solid

body, since there is void mingled in things ; nor yet is it the void, nor indeed are bodies lacking, which might
infinite space

by chance gather together out of

and over-

whelm this sum of things with headstrong hurricane, or bear down on it some other form of dangerous destrucnor again is there nature of room or space in tion
;

It

must

the deep wanting, into which the walls of the world might be scattered forth ; or else they may be pounded and The gate of death perish by any other force you will.

then be
subject to

then

is

death,

of the sea, but

not shut on sky or sun or earth or the deep waters ' it stands open facing them with huge

.....

vast gaping maw. and have Wherefore, again, you must needs conhad a birth. for indeed, £ ess t ^ at t h ese same things have a birth;

things that are of mortal

body could not from

limitless

time up
The

till

now have been

able to set at defiance the

stern strength of immeasurable age.
(J)
great contest of the

f ur j ous iy

Again, since the mighty members of the world so fj^ht one against the other, stirred up in most r

elements

may one
day be brought to

unhallowed warfare, do you not see that some end may Either when the sun and j ong conte st? b e set to °

/as
^^

every kind of heat have drunk up

all

the moisture and

Book V,
won the day
:

11.

384-413
:

199
as an end by
l

which they are struggling to do, but

so great yet they have not accomplished their effort a supply do the rivers bring and threaten to go beyond their bounds, and deluge all things from out the deep

e vlctor y
f

the other.

abyss of ocean ; all in vain, since the winds as they sweep the seas, diminish them, and so does the sun
in heaven,
as

he unravels their fabric with
all

his

rays,

and they boast that they can dry up moisture can reach the end of its task.

things,
a

ere

So vast
as

war

Story

tells

do they breathe out in equal contest, and strive one with another for mighty
in this fight fire gained the

issues

they struggle fire and water have ; yet once

upper hand, and once, as the held the moisture reigned supreme on the plains. For upper hand. story goes, fire won its way and burnt up many things, all-devouring,

when the
astray

resistless might of the horses of the sun went and carried Phaethon amain through the whole
all

heavens and over

lands.

But, thereupon, the almighty The myth

father, thrilled with keen anger, with
his

sudden stroke of p haethon

thunder dashed high-souled Phaethon from his chariot to earth, and the sun, meeting him as he fell, caught the
everlasting
steeds,

lamp of the world, and tamed the scattered and yoked them trembling, and so guiding them
:

along their own path, replenished all things ; so forsooth but it is exceeding far sang the old poets of the Greeks

removed from true reasoning. For fire can only prevail r ,. , when more bodies of its substance have risen up out 01
,

,

.

,

,

.

represents the excess

infinite space

;

and then

its

strength

fails,

vanquished in

of fire . atoms.

some way, or
breath.

else things perish, burnt up by its fiery Moisture likewise, 11 once gathered together and The

story

began to
living

prevail, as the story goes,
its

when

it

overwhelmed De
its

i u(re .

men with

waves.

Thereafter,

when

force

200

Book V,

11.

413-444

was by some means turned aside and went its way, even all that had gathered together from infinite space, the rains
ceased,
B.

and the strength

of the rivers was

brought low.

The

Birth of

the World. It was not

But by what means that gathering together of matter established earth and sky and the depths of ocean, and
the courses of sun and moon,
I will set

forth in order.

made by
design, but

by the
chance
concourse of atoms
after ages.

For in very truth not by design did the first-beginnings of things place themselves each in their order with foreseeing mind, nor indeed did they

make compact what but because many firstbeginnings of things in many ways, driven on by blows from time everlasting until now, and moved by their own

movements each should

start

;

weight, have been

wont

to be borne on,

and to unite

in

every way and essay everything that they might create, meeting one with another, therefore it comes to pass that scattered abroad through a great age, as they try meetings

and motions

of every kind, at last those

come

together,

which, suddenly cast
nings of great things,
of living things.
First

together, become often the beginof earth, sea and sky, and the race

atoms

Then, when things were

so,

neither could the sun's orb

gathered together in a wild discordant
storm.

be seen, flying on high v/ith its bounteous light, nor the stars of the great world, nor sea nor sky, nay nor earth nor air, nor anything at all like to the things we know,

but only a sort of fresh-formed storm, a mass gathered together of first-beginnings of every kind, whose discord
was waging war and confounding interspaces, paths, interbecause lacings, weights, blows, meetings, and motions,

owing to their unlike forms and diverse shapes, all things were unable to remain in union, as they do now, and to
Then
the

give

and receive harmonious motions.
hither fly off

From
and

this

mass u

various

parts began to

and

thither,

like things

Book

F

y

11.

444-47?

201

to unite with like, and so to unfold a world, and to sunder parts of the world , ,. • , , members and dispose its great parts, that is, to were sepa _ its

mark
itself,

off

so that

the high heaven from the earth, and the sea by it might spread out with its moisture kept
fires

rated or!

apart,

and likewise the
apart.

of the sky

by themselves, un-

mixed and kept

Yea, verily, first of all the several bodies of earth, The earth because they were heavy and interlaced, met together j^thered in the middle, and all took up the lowest places ; and the together at

more they met and interlaced, the more did they squeeze aud out those which were to make sea, stars, sun, and moon, squeezed
and the
walls of the great world.

For

all

these are of

°U
hic h

were

smoother and rounder seeds, and of much smaller partides than earth. And so, bursting out from the quarter
of the earth through
its

to form

"
h

"y e

j-

loose-knit openings,

first

of all bodies,
'ides

the fiery ether rose up and, being so light, carried off with it many fires, in not far different wise than often we see

of ether
r<

now, when first the golden morning light of the radiant sun reddens over the grass bejewelled with dew, and the a mist, yea, even pools and ever-running streams give off
as

e

up

the earth from time to time
all

is

seen to steam

:

and

move upclouds with body now formed weave a web beneath wards, the sky on high. Thus then at that time the light and and formed was set all around mmU spreading ether, with body now formed,

when

these are gathered together as they

and curved on every side, and spreading wide towards in all else in its greedy every part on all sides, thus fenced embrace. There followed then the beginnings of sun and
.

moon, whose spheres turn in air and ether for neither earth nor the great ether claimed them for itself, because they were neither heavy enough to sink and settle down, nor light enough to be able to
;

,

... midway
,

1

betwixt earth

._.

.

1

Sun and moon were
createi

202
glide along the

Book

F

y

11.

47$-?o7

topmost coasts, yet they are so set between the two that they can move along their living bodies, and are parts of the whole world ; even as in our bodies some
limbs

may

abide in their place, while yet there are others

Then

earth

sank in the middle and formed
the sea,

moving. So when these things were withdrawn, at once the earth sank down, where now the vast blue belt of
ocean stretches, and flooded the furrows with salt surge. And day by day, the more the tide of ether and the
rays of the sun with constant blows along
its

outer edges

constrained the earth into closer texture, so that thus

smitten

it

the more did the

condensed and drew together round its centre, salt sweat, squeezed out from its body,

go to increase the sea and the swimming plains, as it yea, and the more did those many bodies of heat and air slip forth and fly abroad, and far away from
trickled forth
;

earth condense the high glowing quarters of the sky.
while

Plains sank

down,

lofty

mountains grew
settle

in height
all

;

for

mountains were left
standing.

indeed the rocks could not

down, nor could

parts

Summary
with sea, and

:

subside equally in the same degree. So then the weight of earth, with body

now formed,

earth sank

sank to

its

place, and, as

it

were,

all

the slime of the world

air,

slid heavily to

ether

unmixed
above
it.

the bottom, and sank right down like dregs ; then the sea and then the air and then the fiery ether
itself

were

all left

unmixed with
all, floats

their liquid bodies

;

they

Highest of
all

are lighter each than the next beneath,

and ether, most
air,

the

ether

moves liquid

and

lightest of

above the breezes of

on

in its

nor does

it

mingle
;

its

liquid

constant

breezes of air

it suffers all

body with the boisterous our air below to be churned

untroubled
course.

by headstrong hurricanes, it suffers it to brawl with shifting storms, but itself bears on its fires as it glides in changeless

advance.

ind with one constant

For that the ether can follow on quietly effort, the Pontos proves, the sea

which "e ' ^ . here J universe. preserving ever the one constant rhythm of its gliding. or else an them air streaming from some other quarter without turns and by tire inside ^ r y drives the fires . that is what I teach. it «. or else that either by there another current beneath. ™° ^° straining on to the same goal. For it is hard to declare for certain . me . which may exist throughout the universe . yet the shining signs are remains * on either because swift currents of ether are rm l e stars are shut within them. S°7~T3i 20 3 which flows on with changeless tide.' and so roll on the fires this way and f / > <. and of these it must needs be one which in our world too 1 This paragraph seems misplaced : but it is not clear where it should come in (possibly after the next paragraph).Book V y 11. if C. and that then another current of air flows above. and go on to set forth many causes for the motions of the stars. feeding their flaming bodies everywhere throughout the sky. s 11 we must say that the air presses on the pole at i. It may be while also that the whole sky can w \ abide carried in its . 1 Now let us sing what is the cause of the motions of First of all. whither its own or else they can themselves creep on. . ° e 5 ~y either end. and holds it outside and closes it in at both mo e ends . as we see streams moving is koveor bv a current bel ° their scoops. currents. If the round. and it may be a subsequent addition. round. and seeking a way out are turned moved r a lt round and round. to drive up the sphere round wheels with reversely. towards which the twinkroll ^ * s \iy e eB ling stars of the everlasting world on . which the poet did not properly work into its context.°^ es causes act *° of these causes but what can happen it is in this world and does happen through the universe in the diverse worlds. °r v^ ^ food invites and summons each as they desire to J reach their r move on. The the great globe of the sky turns the stars. * that through the nightly quarters of the sky . fashioned on diverse plans. ' place.

no weight because of their close ^ wno limbs are no weight. no burden. 'second thin out and . the earth. connexion. linked and closely bound in one with those airy parts of the closely con- nected with the air. which is nature underneath from the beginning of its being. is in no wise the task of one treading forward step by step. . Do . just because it is so shocks beginning of their being. nay nor do we feel that ag man ^is own ie we ight of the body is resting on the feet . weights which come from without and are laid upon us. ° J ' soul. a determined part of 2. can lift the body. earth shows suddenly by violent thunder. . it. j 31-56 1 . as our limbs are Moreover. which steers the limbs? Do you not see now ne arly linked and closely bound in one with J .. thanks to its close though exceeding fine. Similarly ^^j cause am id w hich it is £ or it has its place r it and life. but all connexion. nor ° the head a burden to the neck. Of such what is the power of each thing. when its shaken all motion nexion with anabove bv that communieating to it its could not by any means do. For they cling one to the other with is above it . gives strength to the motions of the heavenly signs but to affirm which of it is. great matter is it. linked and closely ' bound in one from the . nor does every ' weigh down the air ' even is our limbs are 1. which it own common roots. it? And again. not suddenly brought in as some alien body. what can lift . but it has been begotten along with it from the first beginning is So then the earth of the world. you not see too how great 3" is the weight of our body. though often they are many times smaller. The is earth Now supported Q f ^ ^d^ that the earth \ x js may rest quiet in the its mid region natura l tna t less. nor cast from elsewhere on alien air. which the force of the soul. grow mass should n gradually and that it should have another " ature . were j t not bound up with the airy parts of the world r J r and with the sky. supports. For this .204 Book V. them 11. shakes with ' ' ' its conthe seen to be of us. ' ° the body in a nimble leap save the force of the soul. hurt us.

light as borrowed rays whether she illumines places with The moon ust she moves along. " la y ^ e slightly so long as their twinkling light clear.smaller. arrive at our senses and cheer the spots on which they fall.in blaze some less. than it is seen to be by our senses. 561-591 when 20f it is is power of a fine nature. heat of the sun and the light he sheds. tne y do not look shows a clear-marked shape and an out. : the heavenly . linked with a heavy body. the form I felt. or throws out her '* J ° size we from her own body. Lastly. even as the air earth. inasmuch as all fires is that we see on earth. however that may be. so long as their smaller or tn. The moon. and just the size she is. ' larger or soever distances fires can throw us their light and breathe smaller than Nor can the ! their warm heat upon our limbs. their fire is no whit shrunken to the sight. clear-cut all along her outer edges. lar o er perceived. as ^'"S5 . since the a so long as * e en . linked with and the force of the mind with us ? sun's blazing wheel n be much greater or The sun s not muc For from whatless. moves on with a shape no whit greater than seems that shape. almost nothing to greater or a less. % are clear in are seen to lessened. they lose nothing of ™e s e ! lt " the body of their flames because of the interspaces. grow confused in shape. with which we perceive her with our eyes. so that as v/ell must needs be seen truly from it you could alter too. just as she is. ere their outline is Wherefore it must needs be that the moon. do V not look smaller - and bulk of the sun earth. line well defined. Even so.Book how great can be the V y 11. all the fires of heaven that you The stars inasmuch as she see from earth . very is so we may know that the further they are away fires can only be a very minute degree smaller or larger by a little tiny piece. are seen to change their size only in small degree from time to time to greater or them. is seen by us from earth in the heights. own see it. For all things For as long which we behold far sundered from us through much air. outline.

small as it is. - For. great This. and shoots out its rays. to n ^ seas an d all lands and fthi small sun heat. on which the sun spends the period There is not. Democntus. if by chance there is air ' it (£) because kindles rounding air » ready to hand and rightly suited to be kindled when smitten by tiny rays of heat . I say. he betakes himself to the solstice-goal of may be caused j Cancer («) because the nearer . and how turnn g ^ack thence. a heavenly assigned for these things. has at his command much fire fire with hidden heat all heat all around him. the sun. Nor is there any single and straightforward account n of the sun. $92-623 how the sun.2o6 The h t Book is V y 11. it may be that from the s £ rC) though it be not great. too. and stars the stroke of the sun's rays. because the r particles ' ' ' fountainhead of all of heat from all the world gather together on every side. blazing light seizes on the air with its burning heat. and floods sun out over the plains? Or again. that here from a single fountain-head their blazing light streams forth. ° s" n moon. that it is around it ra(}i ance) so never marked by any laden with heat and increases only is which The orbits ' . m ^ ^^ ^^ - ^ warm |. 11 can senc* out so S reat ^S^t. it is body is to c j ear t j iat t earth. first and foremost. not wonderful. too. Do you not see too how widely a tiny spring of water sometimes moistens the fields. any single cause runSr as of a ' ^ . sky with its flood. rosy torch. the may come ' to p ass as t h e judgement of the . . . and how the moon is seen in single months to traverse that course. even as sometimes we see crops or straw caught in widespread fire from one single Perhaps. and to bathe all things in its may be n p Qr j t £ rQm g Qne we jj f light ' 1 ° caused for the whole world is opened up and teems with boun(a) because it is the one teous str eam. that the nearer the . to show how from the summer regions he draws ° ' near the winter turning-point of Capricorn. shining on high with its (c) because "I 1 " spark. moreslowlv holy man. sets before us. ^'° and their meeting mass flows together in such wise.

the less can they be moved 6 f For swift keen strength ^^j . and the other to hurl him back from the icy shades of cold right to the heat-laden quarters signs. . away and is is lessened beneath. and fainting has breathed out made weak by much because ' the sun light is s ex- or because the same force. it comes to pass that she seems to turn quickest in all back more speedily to each several sign. the moon seems ° the signs catch her up all around and pass Therefore. . the less can she strain level on her course moon su than ' with the signs.Book V^ with the whirl of heaven. either Night when 1 after his long journey n the c • sun has trodden the is caused either (a ) farthest parts of heaven. can be moved by airs from the opposite quarters in turn. because the signs come back to her. e stars. which carried on his orb tinguished . 625-655 its 207 borne on is it several stars are to earth. . ]T from one !u° piC t v?r . the sky and nearer to earth. I shaken by the journey and . above? Why should those stars be able to be borne on by currents con- trary one to the other through the great orbits in the heaven? But night shrouds the earth in thick darkness. the sun it is left behind with the hindmost signs. passes 11. each at a fixed season. And even more the lower her course. his fires air. and the burning think that the And in like manner must we moon and those stars which roll through ° the great years in great orbits. ' because then moves less swiftly l the much moon : lower than the burning signs. the further it is from the an \. transverse one such as to push the sun currents 1C away from the summer signs right to the winter turningplaces and their icy frost. being lower than the sun. eo PP 0S e ^ (b) because ere are . It may be too that from quarters of the world athwart his r path two airs may stream alter' nately. Do you not see how by contrary winds the lower clouds too are moved in directions contrary to those less and so loon n W1 . and stars. ° Moreover the weaker the whirl L? ? Therefore with which she the more do her. and so little by little heaven. is borne along.

fain to kindle it. and spreads the light. and make up the orb. n as he fulfils his below the earth and above. that again ought these seeds of fire can stream together at so fixed a time as i ^^ gatner Nor ^ this to and renew the brightness of the sun. increase either because the course m unequal 1 arcs same sun. as he goes round. thunder. returning again beneath the ty in advance with his rays. 6 5 4-68 6 his course above the earth. much the more he replaces. come round even now it in fixed order. one after the other they sequence. snow. constrains him to turn beneath the eartk back the earth. winds come to pass at seasons of the year more or less fixed. and then fires which - ^ the new^u * ct * . either because the eart ^' seizes tne s i advance which each day cause the light of a new sun to come to rtn Even so story tells that from the high mountains bcause th of Ida scattered fires are seen as the light rises. parts r ' may be the coasts of heaven. U caused either dawn through the 6 Likewise at a fixed time Matuta n sends abroad the rosy coasts of heaven. rains. when nights take and day.208 or (6) because he travels under Book V. many Trees blossom at a fixed time. or because the fires come together and many seec s Q f j leat are wont to stream together at a fixed time. me age ^jjg teet h ° has nature. gradually g° recurrence nt0 a single ball. clouds. ^ _ fall. in . and whatever he has taken away from the one so (a) because part. and the let a soft hairless and Where c *" s S youth grow hairy with soft down beard flow alike from either cheek. and at a fixed time lose parallels in t ^ e j r fl ower> £ ven so at a £ xe(j t . except at the equinox. be cause of wonder herein. P OPO ht 0n anc* a g am daylight grows . events > For we see many all wonderful It wmc ^ come to pass at a fixed time in things. The f dis- And wane ' likewise may be that days grow longer and nights less. and divides his circuit into unequal portions . 11. Lastly. For since the first are in a i effects beginnings of causes were ever thus and things have so come fallen out from the first outset of the world. the returning sun sends his same sun.

Book V) sky. 686-714 209 the part opposite it. those seem to speak the truth (who say that a new sun born every day). as he lights earth and heaven with rays : winding his slanting ""ty e 1 ua - is shown by the plans of those who have marked the quarters of the sky.. Therefore in winter ° certain regions. ? delayed bv dense air . 1 and keeps to the path of her course below the °PP 0Slte the sun. . . of A which this was possibly the sense. ^ | lf the she . the more she retires from the sun's orb. because » at some seasons. therefore slowly. his in alternate parts of the year the fires. 1 . J ' 11. • The moon may shine n opposite as him she . towering on high. light. until he arrives at that sign in the at that e time where the node of the J V. little it then rises. and.. . has glowed with quite full light and. by f ect d were. now more quickly. . hide her light. until the radiant ensign of day comes forth. Or else. which cause the that gather sun to rise from a fixed quarter. .. The phases and day by day turn that light more straightly to our of the moon may . have it. nor can it easily pierce through and burst out to its rising. as .. are 1 wont to stream together to g ether ° more it is now more is slowly. 1 when struck by the sun's rays. by the signs . to and trom who picture that the moon is a position like a ball.7 which the sun covers the space of a year in course. _ of the north wind and '" t0 whlch of the south wind. . . the su 1S time the long nights lag on. adorned with their signs in due order. 54G-15 . year makes the shades of night arcs of ° day For in the mid-course of the blast and night equal to the daylight. . orbit. Or else again. because n the air is thicker in or as out all (6) and therefore the trembling ray of his ° ! fire is delayed beneath the earth. has seen his setting by little she must needs retire back again. in his divides on account of the position of the r whole starry J revolution are neces- . the sky holds ' the sun his turning-points apart at a distance then made equal. the nearer she glides now to the her gradual sun's fire from the opposite quarter through the orbit of movement . • W because or fires . as those . because in the same way ° ' . line is lost. sight. until be caused. moon shines ei [.

accomand so chance. Volturnus. in every way obstructing and yet it cannot be seen. and then little by little she twists back again towards us and away again. . essays to prove in opposition . and so by turning round the sphere produce changing phases. if it light. opaque body which on without Or she may turn round. light which light. . the sphere of a ball. seasons Then follow the other and their winds. n order. tinged over half its surface panies obscuring her with her. way before them with glorious colours and Next after follows parching heat. 714-74? sun. n denying the science of the astronomers. that is endowed with gleaming she turns with fires . or there were any why you should venture to adopt the one less than the other. Then autumn advances. by another glides together . teach by reasoning or prove since so many things can be created in fixed by words. the round mass of the the Babylonian teaching of the Chaldaeans. like the succession would and pass away. just like. is and another be supplied in its room of the seasons. because it is borne hides her 2. and step by step with her Euhius Euan. thundering on high. which is borne on and own light. and before place. why a fresh moon could not be created every day with fixed succession of phases and fixed shapes. just as if what each of as them cause (c) If a fresh moon is fights for may not be the truth. until she turns to our sight and open eyes that side. own : her light also a way by which she can roll on with and yet show changing phases of brightness. Or again. the scents. and carries away from ball us the light-giving part of . For there may be another body. it difficult to them close fills treads Venus's on the all steps of Zephyrus. by a regular succession of forms.210 (6) If she Book V^ There is 11. Spring goes on her way and Venus. winged harbinger and following mother Flora strews and . because she has one side. whichever it be. so that each several day the moon created created daily. and as com- panion at her side dusty Ceres and the etesian blasts of the north winds. shines by her 1.

when. body . throwing her and at the same time J. And *" besides. Last all the year's end brings snow. and again time is blotted out. while she passes out For the rest. his light. since I through spots unfriendly to her own light ? have unfolded in what manner each D. it is Wherefore it is less followed by cold.Book V. should she not be able to grow faint in a certain region of the world. 7 4?~77 T 211 and the south wind. since so many things can come to pass at fixed times. with chattering wonderful if the moon is born at a fixed at a fixed time. . while the moon monthly journey . and the O 2 . glides (a) when and at through the sharp-drawn shadows of the cone j^ f^ the same time another body be unable to run beneath sun and the moon or glide above the sun's orb. to break off his ' ° n !° (o) rays and streaming light? And why indeed. so that we might learn what force and what days cause started the diverse courses of the sun. Eclipses of Likewise also the eclipses of the sun n and the hidings of the moon. and herself on high to keep the sun hidden in her e ™^ ed S beneath. of II. why his J^ should not the sun be able at a fixed time to faint and through lose his fires. by some which glides on ever without light. For why should the moon be able to shut out the earth from the sun's light. to t _ We h e e ar y j thing could take place throughout the blue vault of the of great world. if the moon (c) as in the caS( on '. and winter renews numbing teeth. frost . in l jf- journey through the he has passed by places hostile choke his to his flames. . dark orb before his glorious rays que should not be thought that another body could do this. whose strength is the lightning. and . you must think may be brought about by several causes. shines with her own light. and again renew air. which cause his fires to be put out and perish ? of And why should the earth be able in turn to rob the the moon ^ ' moon of light. and thrust her m be caused ^ (b) head high before him in the it line of earth.

774-806 in what way they might go with their light obscured. formed by the rains and the warm heat of the sun wherefore we may wonder the less. For neither can living animals have fallen from the sky nor the beasts of earth have issued forth from the It remains that rightly has the earth salt pools. if then more animals and first birds. For much heat and moisture . many races born in many ways by diverse means. so then the newborn earth raised up herbage and shrubs first. Even lormed on the limbs then living and the body of fowls strong of wing. the flowering fields gleamed in their green hue. season. Then was that the earth first gave birth to the race of mortal things. as now it in the summer the shells. since out of earth all things are produced. won the name of mother. . and the soft fields of earth. The forth earth first First of all the earth gave birth to the tribes of herbage brought vegetable life.212 Book V^ 11. own will leave their smooth and livelihood. when. greater were born. they wink and once journeyings of the moon. and thereafter produced the races of mortal of four-footed beasts : creatures things. and again open their eye and look upon all places shining with their clear rays . now I return to the youth of the world. reaching their full growth when earth and air were fresh. and shroud the unexpecthiding ing earth in darkness. as it were. left their eggs. and what first with new power of creation they resolved to raise into the coasts of light and entrust to the gusty winds. And even now many animals spring forth from the earth. hatched out in the grasshoppers of seeking life spring their then animals. and bright verdure all around the hills and over all the plains. and thereafter the diverse trees were started with loose rein as on their great race of hair down and and bristles are first growing through the air. First of all the tribe of winged fowls springing from eggs and the diverse birds .

For time changes the nature of the whole world. nature would turn Nature fed a t to that place the pores in the earth and constrain them to most like to milk . For one thing away and grows faint and grows up and issues from feeble with age. the a warmth raiment. and one state after another must needs overtake all things. couch rich in much soft down. and one state after changes another overtakes the earth. So then time place of scorn. rightly has the earth won. and almost at a fixed time brought forth every animal which ranges madly every- all things where on the mighty mountains. self formed the race of men. ^m c !° thed every woman. a like but in time e t " ase Q b woman worn with the lapse of age. the nature of the whole world. needs come to some end of child-bearing. fleeing moisture and eager had opened them. but can bear what it did not of old. . there roots . so that it cannot bear what it did. ^°™ bs and when in the rooted in the eart time the age of the for air. heat. she ceased. clinging to the earth by their fullness of thereby. give forth from their opened veins a sap. Wherefore. with sweet milk. The earth fur- even as now nished food for the young. nature alters all *"^ things and constrains them its to turn. little ones. when she has brought forth. 806-836 213 springing in the fields able spot or place was afforded. since she her. because all the current of her is filled nourishment is turned towards her paps. wherever a suitn grew up wombs. and with them the fowls But because she must of the air with their diverse forms. world called not into being hard ^ nor winds of mighty violence : nor exceeding heat grow and come to their strength in like degrees. again and again. Earth was name of mother. of the nor was excessive cold." s e rightly does she keep the m t h g r of . the But the youth for all things frosts grass ere .Book V^ abounded then 11 . thereon another rots universal avv ° succession. nor does anything abide like itself : in accord- all things change their abode.

. perished t ^ en which could not protect themselves p er i s h ecl an j could not beget and propagate their r For whatever animals you see feeding on the offspring. would All other monsters all and prodigies in vain. bravery has protected. things too found dumb without mouths. born with strange faces and strange limbs. either. in For we see that many happenings must be united for things. us. man's protection as a return for their by their usefulness are And many commended to there are. or blind without eyes. between the two. rJ)reat }1 f li£ e . or locked through the whole body by the clinging anything or take but they survive or of the limbs. that they may be able to beget and propagate that they may have food. side or avoid calamity or of this sort she what they needed. and deer their fleet foot. their their cunning. monsters too earth n then essayed to create. and so abide. either their craft or bravery. yet not both sexes. they must needs each have means whereby they can interchange mutual joys. 83 7-8 6> many deformities. aye or their swiftness has protected or claim and preserved their kind from the beginning of their being. are all trusted . lions. //. sundered from some things bereft of feet. And it must needs be that many races of living things . nor could they reach the coveted of age nor find food nor join in the work of Venus. and issue from their slackened limbs . foxes But the lightly- sleeping minds of dogs with their loyal heart. so that they could not do move towards any create . and then a way whereby birth-giving seeds may pass through their frames. which trusted to our tutelage.214 Nature first Book Z7. or in turn robbed of hands. and all the race which is born of the seed of beasts of burden. the man' ° ° And many woman. _. First of all the fierce race of services. that savage stock. since nature propagate eir bloom • forbade their increase. first woman may Many races be joined with man. and withal the fleecy flocks and the horned herds. and that their races .

understanding. or Scyllas either. But neither were there Centaurs. and clothes the cheeks with soft down . could r ' e ent f species be equal. for they neither reach their full prime together strength of their bodies nor let it fall must have been the general sense. then at last youth sets in in the prime of boyish that years. or any other beasts of their kind. That we may learn. you may know that these fell a prey and spoil to others. nor do which we might suffer their kind under our defence. r put ' pounded of together of limbs of alien birth. derived from this parent and that. with bodies half of seamonsters. the horse is in the prime of vigour. as life flees from them. various sleep he will clutch for the rnilky paps of his mother's animals are breasts. from this. for to feed and be kept safe brought their kind to destruction.Book V^ to the tutelage of flee 11 867-896 in- men. and limbs not P aralle! i when the stout Afterwards. neither that they might live on by themselves of their own might. whose limbs we see cannot agree one with another nor gain the 1 . all entangled in the fateful trammels of their own being. until nature us any useful service. girt about with ravening dogs. so that the power and animals of ' 1 strength of each. Memmius. which we grant them as a reward because of their usefulness. The text is uncertain. however dull be our never could av . . but the child by no means so : for often even now in his ' ^ . First of all. you may not by chance believe that Centaurs can be created or exist. when three years have come round. For eagerly did they the wild beasts and ensue peace and bounteous fodder gained without toil of theirs. 11 nor at any time can Monsters com " there be animals of twofold nature and double body. formed of a man and the load-laden breed of horses. but this . But those to whom nature granted none of these things. strength of horses fail through old age and droop. the growths e .

which even now spring forth abundantly from the earth. in front rear a dragon. But the race of man n was much hardier then in the . Book V. nor are the same things Indeed. For because there were in were no k earth many J seeds of things at the time ° when first the more SS1 th° th land brought forth animals. may . should breathe out at her The ° mouth fierce flame from her u e notion f the world as body? Wherefore again. that he could plant his footsteps right across the deep seas. may which to man is rank poison. in the middle. or the now. nor are they fired nor do s a ?. in maera. trusting only in this one empty plea of the world's youth. because the races of herbage and the crops and fruitful trees. how have come to pass that the Chia lion. as her the name shows. or that a man was born with such expanse of limbs. and that trees to blossom with jewels. we pleasant to them throughout their frame. such animals could have been begotten. one in her threefold body. see the bearded goats often grow fat on hemlock. a goat.2i 6 nor their as . and all preserve their separate marks by a fixed law of nature. yet cannot be created intertwined one with another. ? they agree in a single character. limbs of living creatures put together in one . ^^ fl were wont owe(j everywhere over the lands. 11. he who feigns that when the earth was young and the sky new-born. away in old age. yet that is no proof that beasts of mingled breed could have been born. but each of these things comes forth after its own manner. blurt out many things in like similar manner from his lips he may say that then streams of absurdities. and with his hands twist Such comniations the whole sky about him. Since moreover flame is wont as to scorch as much and burn the tawny bodies of lions just every kind of flesh and blood that exists on could it the earth. 8p6-p2f with a like love.. .

or cut Nor was there the bent plough. or to plant ' ve • not till. any sun rolling through the sky they prolonged their lives and longeasily to after the roving manner any sturdy steerer of how to work the fields with in the earth. nymphs. but dwelt in woods and the house. the earth bore then in abundance. — to appease their hearts. enough and to spare their thirst streams as for miserable mortals. > yet did they know how to serve their He had no c °* in ^ nor to use skins and clothe their body 'or in the spoils of wild beasts. iron. down the old branches off high trees What sun and rains had brought to birth. yea washed they dripped down over the green moss. which now you see ripening in wintertime with scarlet hue. and the arbute-berries.. Among oaks laden with acorns the they would refresh their bodies for the most part . be harmed by heat or cold or strange food or '="" And during many lustres of the taint of the body.Book V^ fields. But to slake and drank trorn and springs summoned them. young shoots but lived °n trees. and here and there welled up and burst forth over the washed the wet rocks with bounteous the wet rocks. o r he was not hardy fastened with strong sinews traversing the flesh . 9 25-9 $6 217 : ' was seemly for a race born of the hard earth Primitive " ian was built up on larger and more solid bones within. with knives. yea and larger. but lived in . nor knew any one of wild beasts. And besides these the flowering youth of the world then bare much other rough sustenance. . 2. even ' ° r now the downrush of water from the great mountains far streams. level plain. e } what earth had created unaskedTsuch 2 giTt~was~ehbugh fruits ot. Nor as purposes with r r fire. which they had learnt in their wanderfrom which they knew that gliding streams of water as flood. calls clear and wide to the thirsting tribes of wild beasts. Or again they dwelt in the woodland haunts of the ings. as it 11.

and never-ending night so much as ' possess the earth. when overtaken by night time. Nor did they look for daylight and the sun with loud wailing. for each And Venus would unite lovers in the woman was wooed either by mutual passion. with stones to hurl or clubs of huge weight many they would At night OI th % nd vanquish.218 caves and Book V. by And trusting in their strange strength of hand and foot a price. the tribes of wild beasts often made rest Driven from their home dangerous for wretched men. mUcuous woods . they would flee from their rocky roof at the coming of a foaming boar or a mighty lion. inasmuch as But much greater was another care. pr6-p8? and amid brushwood constrained to shun caves on mountains and forests. would hide rough limbs. because they had been wont ever from childhood to behold darkness and turn by turn. Whatever booty chance had offered to each. or feel mistrust lest the light of the sun should be withdrawn for ever. he bore it off for each was taught at his own will to live and thrive for . some ne avoided. to make mutual use of any customs or laws. it light begotten. their 11. when Nor could There was the shock of winds and the rain-showers. nor had they knowledge ^gy. and like limbs bristly boars these woodland men would lay their / and did * naked on the ground. e common weal. i. could not come to pass that they should ever wonder. ful. or and arbute-berries or choice pears. until darknesV but silent and buried in sleep waited mind- the sun with rosy torch should bring the light into the sky. a few they would avoid in hiding . or Some e beasts by the man's fierce force and reckless lust. acorns umed. For. of wild beasts. wou j^ ' j lunt t jie wooclland tribes of wild beasts . no common \ 00 ^ to t }. and love himself alone. and in the dead of night in . wandering fearful through the fields in the darkness of night. wrapping themselves up around with leaves and foliage.

in vain would the sea ^ j^ and men empty ed often arise and rage. of which this was probably the sense. as being buried in a living tomb.° lson< 7 not others.they known. o « . and lightly lay aside its J™/ threatenings. They all un. wild beasts and would fill woods and mountains and he looked on his living flesh forests with his groaning. until savage griping pains them of life. » . would summon Orcus had robbed but thoue cries. cloth- children sprung from them. then the wanton art of sailing lay as yet un- Then. And those whom flight had saved with mangled body. with more skill they give it to others. now P. now on the other hand 'tis not surteit f. 986-1015 219 would yield their couches spread with leaves races of Then more to their cruel guests. led to began to soften. . Nor then much more than now would the men leave the sweet light of life with lamentation. E. first it and they saw Fire. all wanted.| z tj on were learnt. 1 For fire brought about that their A iine is lost. nor did the stormy waters of ocean dash ships nor upon the rocks. idly. then the race of man '^i. holding trembling hands over their noisome with terrible sores. devoured by their teeth. ' witting would often pour out poison for themselves. Begin- Then after they got themselves huts and skins and and woman yoked with man and the laws of marriage) 1 retired to a single ° (home. wounds helpless and knowing not what Yet never were many thousands of men led a single day. ™". nor could the treacherous v/iles of the windless waves lure any man to destruction with smiling waters .Book l\ terror they 11. beneath the standards and done to death in in battle. For a to then more often would some one of them be caught and furnish living food to the wild beasts. fire. Then rashly. thereafter. want of food would give over their They died ot hun e r drooping limbs to death. too. surfeit of good things brings them low.

Again. breeding have prolonged tnPfenerations until now. off all things invented by should he be able to mark any man. by their winning ways. when with cries and gestures they taught by broken words that 'tis right for Compacts were for the most part observed. just as gesture. and at the by words. when their teeth and claws are scarce yet formed. and children. and pushes passionaWy. and friendship with neighbours. Then. and Venus lessened their strength. But the whelps of panthers and lion-cubs already fight with claws and feet and biting. and seeking an unsteady aid from their pinions. in a manner not than the very speech- naturally by lessness of their experiment. IOI5-IO46 under the now so well bear cold roof of heaven. the things that are before their eyes. would keep their or else the human compa<asj«vally race would even then all destroyed. neighbours began eagerly to form friendship one with another. But the diverse sounds of the tongue " nature constrained Words grew up men to utter. Yet not in all ways could unity be begotten. we see all the tribe of winged fowls trusting to their wings. all men to have pity on the weak. Why should one utter the diverse sounds of the tongue. when it tongue is seen to lead children on to makes them point out with the finger children and animals try their various powers. ha\^H M Origin of language. For every one feels to what purpose he can use his own powers. 11 and they commended to mercy children and the race of women. Further. to think that Language cannot have been deliberately him men any one then parcelled out names to things. ajgood part. Before the horns of a calf appear and sprout from his forehead^Jie butts with them when angry.220 chilly limbs Book V^ could not 11. and to same ? time others be thought unable to do this Moreover. and that from For why learnt their first words. nor could . if . not to hurt or be harmed. but the larger part. and use shaped the names far other of things. is mere folly. too. easily broke down the haughty will of their parents.

if it. when young stallion in the flower of his years the mares. Yet when and making for do S> they essay fondly to cubs with their tongue. nor indeed is it easy in any way to teach and " persuade the deaf what it is needful to do jifor they ' avail to constrain **-^ the con- ^make u °" ° e ? or 01 ers . or when they toss them with their feet. rages among and when. should be willing to learn all his names for that they things . likewise. . tne e_ g. race. ^ ^ Yea*^rily. be ° was implanted in him the concept of their use n whence was he given the first power to know and see in his mind what he wanted to do? Likewise one man could not a „d no U others? he °^° * many.. baring their hard teeth. are in fear or pain. this we may learn from things clear to see.. feelings When the lar?e loose lips of Molossian dogs start to snarl by different . nor in any way suffer the sounds of ears words unheard before to batter on their Lastly. or again strong. rage. when their joys even an im a s x ress tor i in anger. and from spreading nostrils snorts for the fray. them with open mouth. checking their closing teeth. \ any more to s not wonderful it j what is there so marvellous in this. when they . with strong voice and tongue. m sounds. at other times he whinnies with . a is not neighing seen to differ the horse. should ° mark off things with diverse sounds for diverse feelings? When the dumb cattle. they threaten with a noise far other than bark and fill all around with their lick their when they clamour. accept it . Again. thus drawn back . and vanquish them to his will. pricked by the spur of winged love. or far other than when left alone in the house they when whining they shrink from a beating with cringing body.Book V^ 11. grow that man evolved language. . 1046-1077 221 whence man T others too had not used words to one another. . it may be. feign gently to swallow them. yea and the races of wild beasts the . are wont to give forth diverse unlike sounds. they fondle them with growling voice in a way bay. human . ? would not endure no purpose.

anon the fiery hear of flame sparkles out. kindled with flames from heaven. . 1077-1107 trembling limbs ? Lastly. if diverse feelings constrain animals. when a branching tree is lashed by the winds and sways to and fro. since they saw many things among the fields grow mellow. Book V^ U. how much more likelv is dumb. or else the ignition many things flare up. and from see it all the heat of flames is spread abroad. while branches and trunks rub each For we of trees by friction. rooks. though they are to utter diverse sounds. or else possibly they should they may be a later addition by the poet. And day by day 1 those who excelled in understanding This and the next two paragraphs seem rather out of place here: be placed before the preceding paragraph. cook food and soften Either of these happenings may have And then the sun taught them to taught them cooking. And some of them change their harsh notes with the weather. lest by chance you should ask a silent question. when a stroke from the sky has brought the gift of heat. And so.22 2 and even birds. Yet again. the tribe of winged fowls and the diverse birds. it by the heat of flame. was the lightning that first of all brought fire to earth for mortals. hawks and ospreys and gulls amid the sea/ waves. it that mortals should then have been able to mark off things unlike with one sound and another. seeking in the salt waters for life and livelihood. reeling and pressing on the branches of another tree. Lightning brought 1 it men fire . fire is struck out by the strong force of the rubbing. against the other. as when they the long-lived tribes of crows and flocks of are said to cry for water and rains. The action of the sun's rays given fire to mortals. vanquished by the lashing of his rays and by the heat. Herein. utter at other times cries far other than when they are L-*tfuggling for their food and fighting for their prey. and anon to summon the winds and breezes.

first f standing for beauty was then of much avail. every '"£• great riches to a man to live thriftily with calm mind for never can he lack for a little.Book V^ and were strong in 11. since struggling to rise to the heights of honour. worn away to no purpose. battling their way along the narrow path of ambition . it is . in scorn to a noisome Hell . however beautiful their body. as by lightning. they follow the lead of the richer man. am ' 1011 ' lead a peaceful all in vain. . Thereafter property was invented and gold Then' came found. found a citadel. Is n ? J" inasmuch as their wisdom is but from the lips of others. and that is of no more avail now nor shall be hereafter than it was of old. so that it is far better to obey in peace than to long to rule the world with Wherefore let them Such kingly power and to sway kingdoms. which easily robbed the strong and beautiful of the diseach . a refuge fields to and they parcelled out and gave and and assigned S beauty or his strength or under. Yet if a man would steer his life by true reasoning. they made the path of their which goes e f . envy journey beset with danger. the topmost heights are most often set ablaze. man * for his honour . for. for the most part. a life sweat out their life-blood. and they seek things rather through hearsay than from their own feelings.[ and yet from the top. like smites them and casts them down anon lightning. to . and all places that rise high above others . however strong men are ^["^ich altered born. But It prompts ' men wished might rest to be famous a on and powerful. that their fortune sure foundation. since by envy. and they might in wealth life . uof-iisT 22 3 how to change their former mind showed them more and more Then came a c an § e> life and livelihood for new Kings began to build cities and to Kings built be for themselves a stronghold and flocks habits and for fire. and strength personal stood high.

so ** 'tis said. and brought to light misdeeds long hidden. every man in their toils. a life might consent to obey For the race of men. whence even now there is implanted .224 Monarchy was overthrown. feet of the for mob mourned and anarchy dreaded prevailed : the loss of its once overmuch. gave in to ordinances and For since each man set out to by punishment. many by speaking in their sleep or raving in fever have often. the head of him. unnoticed of the race of gods and men. betrayed themselves. Book so the kings V y 11. avenge himself more fiercely in his passion than is now suffered by equal laws. worn out with leading of violence. were put to death and the ancient and proud sceptres was overthrown and the glorious emblem on the head of kings was stained with blood. and beneath the high honour . lay faint from its feuds . nor is it easy for one who by his act breaks the common pact of For violence and hurt tangle and for the most part fall on which makes a quiet life impossible. punish- ment. and filled cities with altars. rites and taught men to undertake sacred rites at yearlyj[eswhich are honoured to-day in great empires and at great places . the gods Next. nay indeed. when every man sought for himself the power and the head- then magisship. Thence fear of punishment taints the prizes of life. ii$6-ii6<> And and majesty of thrones lay in ruins. from whom they had their rise. yet he must needs mistrust that his secret will be kept for ever . And so things would pass to the utmost dregs of disorder. wherefore the easily of its establish laws that they more and crime restrained own will it the close mesh of laws. eagerly now it is trampled. Then some and of and laws were trates them taught men to appoint magis- trates made. Origin of the belief in the gods. For though he be peace to lead a calm and quiet life. what cause spread abroad the divine powers of among great nations. -tivals. for this cause men were weary of leading a life Thence arose the fear of of violence. ordinances.

and the torches of heaven that rove through the night. day and night. clouds. n sky. snow. Men_ of mortals 13 used to perceive the glorious shapes of the gods ™y great with mind. and the flying flames. lightning. and the stern the sky.and beauti- * waking drous bulk of body. in due order. all this it is not hard 1. utter haughty sounds To these then they would assign ^y^" believed e sense because they were seen to move their limbs. and constrains .Book V^ of the gods over all 11. nor could they celestial was brought about. and the rapid roar and mighty murmurings of heaven's threats. 1165-1196 which of raises 22 j new shrines in mortals a shuddering dread. marvels. winds. gods. way. . And life to be mo such strength they thought that those endowed with could not readily be vanquished by any force.15 p . because fear of death never harassed any of them. when it has assigned such What what acts to the gods and joined therewith bitter anger ! ! 546. hail. and the they beheld the workings of the sky 2. men to throng them on the holy days For indeed already the races to give account in words. and to befitting their noble mien and ™ sense * ha y 1 they gave them everlasting because their images came in constant stream and the form remained unchanged^ and indeed above all because ample strength. rain. and to suppose that was guided by their ™ e And of the gods in the whom they they placed the abodes and quarters V because through the sky night and the moon are seen d ^. signs of night. sunlight. yet themselves not undergo any toil. and all the more in sleep with won. and at the same be time because in sleep they saw them accomplish many Moreover. And so ^"am!"*' learn by what causes that diverse seasons of the year they made it their refuge to lay all all to the charge of the buted them will. They and to * the appy thought that they far excelled in happiness. They ers ^ d £ " and come round. the world. Ah unhappy race of men. to roll on their moon.

but the groaning did they then beget for themselves. For indeed when we look up at the Yet the wonders of of the great world. and again whether there is an end. until which the walls of the world may be able to endure this weariness of restless motion. and proud kings shrink in every limb. strength of measureless timej] Moreover. nor to sprinkle the altars with the streaming blood of beasts. True piety consists not in worship. that there may be perchance some immeasurable power of the gods over us. think of the journeyings of sun and moon. whose heart does not shrink with terror of the gods. or whether gifted by the gods' will with an everlasting being they may be able to glide on down the everlasting groove of time. lest for some foul crime or or a storm at sea. but rather to be able to contemplate all things with a mind at rest. 1196-1227 causes. this misgiving too begins to raise up its wakened head. and the firm-set ether heavenly quarters heaven above the twinkling stars. when the fiercest force of furious wind at sea sweeps . before the shrines of the gods. For lack of reasoning assails our mind with doubt. haughty word the heavy time of retribution be ripe? Or again. which whirls on the bright stars in their diverse motions. what tears for our children to come Nor is it ! piety at all to be seen often with veiled head turning towards a stone. and it comes to our mind to may well wake divine a belief in power. thrilled with the fear of the gods. n and to draw near to every altar. whether there was any creation and beginning of the world.226 belief Book F y 11. nor to link vow to vow. and set at naught the mighty So too may a thunderstorm. then into our hearts weighed down with other ills. nor to lie prostrate peaceful on the ground with outstretched palms mind. when the parched earth trembles beneath the awful stroke of lightning and rumblings run across the great sky? Do not the peoples and nations not crouch in tremble. what sores for us. whose limbs do fear. no.

when a fire had burnt down vast forests with its heat on mighty mountains. all in like case. revea!ed b y a great forest fire. what wonder if the races of mortal men despise themselves and leave room in the world for the mighty power and marvellous strength of the gods. for whatever cause the flaming heat However that had eaten up the forests from their deep and had baked the earth with gold. copper and gold and iron were discovered. or else to put the wild beasts to death. vain. and cities are shaken to their fall or threaten doubtful of their doom. Metals were and with them the weight of silver and the usefulness of lead. the streams of silver and e and lead. and likewise of copper roots with terrible crackling. gathered together in cooled on and trickled from the boiling veins into hollow places p 2 . and enrich themselves with prey. 1227-12?7 2 27 commander and of a fleet over the waters with his strong legions his elephants. fire. fire For hunting with pit and nets arose first before fencing the grove with and scaring the beasts with dogs.Book V) the 11. n and relentor an Again. or because waging a forest-war with one another men had carried fire among the foe to rouse panic. either . when the whole earth rocks beneath men's feet. heaven's light- y caused. does he not seek with vows the peace of the gods. may be. to guide all things ? For the rest. and fearfully crave in all in prayer a calm from wind and favouring breezes . and it is seen to tread down for itself of the glorious rods and make sport less axes. when . " owe er ning was hurled upon it. since often when caught all in the headstrong hurricane he is borne for his prayers to the shallow waters of death? its So greatly does some secret force grind beneath heel the greatness of men. and make the countryside into pasture. or else because allured by the richness of the land they desired to clear the fat fields.

and would run into the form and figure of anything. Bronze was used first. gold has risen to the height of honourj. first of all. of iron was found. charmed by their smooth bright the . since strength of stout copper was vanquished and yielded. and stones.228 tne ground su gg e . and when found blossoms into fame. in what manner the nature iron and bronze were then discovered easy for wondrous honour among men. the working of metals they picked them up.! despised. and indeed might be hammered out and shaped into points weapons and instru- and tips. And. nails. Book V. they forth to do this no less with silver and gold than with resistless all in vain. and teeth. and is The use: of is Now. the their Gold was then de- like spised and copper valu. rolling So reversed. and it is found in greater stores. II 12^-1289 ground. and saw that they were shaped with outline like that of the several prints of the hollows.ness. and flame and fires. yea.sons of things^ What was of in turn of no worth . . however sharp and fine. and and punch and drill holes. And when they saw them afterwards hardened and shining on the ground with brilliant hue. for its useless- Now copper is . so a e : was of more value. Memmius. it to learn of yourself. Then it came home and the forging of to them that these metals might be melted by heat. and gold was despised soon blunted with its dull edge. beauty. when once they were known. and be able to cut down forests ments. iron and bronze was discovered. Thereafter the strength of And the use of bronze more was learnt before that of iron. value. Their you of arms of old were hands. . . so that they might fashion weapons for themselves. with fire. nor could they power For copper the others endure the cruel strain. and likewise branches torn from the forests. to bore set and hew timber and plane beams smooth. and then another thing rises up and leaves its place of scorn. and is sought more and more each day. inasmuch as its nature is With tractable. becomes time changes the ser.

among the hosts elephants after to battle - So did gloomy discord beget one thing another. both sides alike. to send savage boars against the foe.of war. before they learnt to essay the dangers of war in a two-horsed chariot. tried too in masters. nor could the horsemen soothe the hearts of their horses. were made equal. grim beasts with snaky hands. * . ° / in doubt. too. manes upon turn their heads. t0 tnei1 own side. since in the heat of the mellay more h arm of slaughter they grew savage. to guide it with reins. . to bear thag ' ° it ' Car1 ' 112115 introduced the wounds of warfare. It was their way to climb armed on to the flanks of a horse. but all them in chains in vain. 1289-1320 soil of 229 bronze they would work the the earth. lions with armed trainers and cruel -ii and essayed other sent on amma s ' were wart . who might be all able to control them. or . and with iron they began to plough up and the contests . war before c ariots were invented. and made havoc of the . ° And some them mighty . now hovering the soil of earth and unarmed would readily give with arms. and then in to them equipped Then. launched their furious bodies in on every and made for the faces of those that came against them. t and hold "e did " '. and day by day gave increase to the terrors of war. to bring panic into the races of men in warfare. alarmed at the roaring.— and do doughty deeds with the right hand. //. and work havoc of Mars. and them with their bridles against the foe. in the service of war. the iron sword made n was made its way/and the form of the bronze sickle a thing of scorn. ° J hosts. the yoking of two horses came before yoking four. and deal wasting wounds For all things naked seize upon flocks and fields. little by little. n The with towered body. tossing everywhere the fearful Lions. ^"^ Horses " ere nu en in .Book Z 7 . They before tried bulls. . and climbing up armed into chariots set with scythes. a leap The lionesses side. And Then was the Poeni who taught the Lucanian kine. and with and bronze mingle in billowy warfare.

But scarce can I be brought to believe both sides alike. they saw them burst into fury. flying. . in the diverse worlds fashioned in diverse fashion. shouting. maddened by the wounds. since you would them tumble with tendons severed. and with their horns gashed the flanks and bellies of the horses underneath. all in vain. and ploughed up the ground with threatening purpose. And you could more readily maintain 11 that this that. and threw to the ground horsemen and footmen in one heap. If ever they thought they had been tamed enough at home before the fight. scatter abroad. than on any one determined x earth. nor could they rally any part of them . for all the diverse kinds of wild beasts would scatter hither and thither . and twining round them hurled them to the ground foredone with the wound. (If indeed they ever acted thus. or rear air and beat the see with their feet . and strew the ground in their heavy fall. panic. and confusion. they could not foresee and perceive in mind what would come to pass.230 Book V^ 11. when it came to conflict. even the as now often the Lucanian kine cruelly mangled by steel. before this dire disaster befell was done somewhere in the universe. boars. And tusks. and crooked claws. when they have dealt many deadly deeds to their own friends.) 1 But indeed they wished to do six it not so much in These lines were probably written by the poet as a later addition. The bulls tossed their own friends and trampled them with their feet. savagely splashing the boars gored their masters with their strong with their own blood the weapons broken in them. 1320-1347 tore them down in the rear when off their guard. For the horses would swerve aside to avoid the fierce onset of a tusk. fastening on them with their strong bite bulls.

nor in any other way can such smooth treadles be made. since they mistrusted their ' expedient. crops. that on hills and plains they might have L. since berries and & t> to ° o> sowing and acorns fallen from the trees in due time put forth swarms grafting. was first a pattern Nature tau g lu mcn sowing and the beginning of grafting. 1347-1379 231 It the hope of victory. and saw the earth tilling. and glad vineyards. of shoots beneath . And Men first nature constrained men to work wool before the race of oon^ but j women for all the much more cunning . and fence it by planting it all round with fruitful shrubs. fabric comes after iron. pools. for by iron the loom is After iron cani wcnen ^ fashioned. numbers and lacked arms. and themselves share in enduring hard work to harden limbs and hands. kin. race of . V: WOCLl! meadows.t W1 * very the grey belt of olives might run between with its clear ' ° sort of even cultivation. spreading over hillocks and hollows and plains ^. was only es era. as to give the foemen cause to moan. and was bn'g'. they learnt to insert and to plant young saplings in the ground over the fields.Book V) 11.e P resolved to r perish themselves. as now you see all the land clear marked with diverse beauties. men far excels in skill and is afterwards until the sturdy scorn of it. Then one after another they New . line. or spindles or shuttles and ringing rods. and to give up the land further up e beneath to tilth. from nature. and But nature for herself. grafts into branches. But imitating with the mouth the liquid notes of birds . a A Woven garment tied together came before woven raiment. streams. tame wild fruits with tender care and fond And tried and day by day they would constrain the woods more and*? more to retire up the mountains. in hard hands. .!s essayed ways of tilling their smiling plot. creatress of things. too. so that they were glad to leave husbandman made women an(j it to women's worked in toil. where men make it bright by planting it here and there with sweet fruit-trees.

theplcasuie. and merry laughter. Their S 5 for then all things win the heart. than the old. . there wont to be jests. . and to dance all out to wreathe head of step. and have learnt to keep to . stopped by the amid the pathless players' fingers. Modern improve- through many and follow the windings of a song. and to run over whence even now the watchthe reeds with curling lip men preserve these traditions. For then the rustic muse was at its best . And H°r h T^ after them open friendly groups on the soft grass near tym S some stream of water under the branches of a tall tree. Then were year painted the green grass with flowers. the pipe invented woods and forests and glades. tQ struce mo ther all earth match. Then little by little they learned the hemlock-stalks. trie rhythm of the song. th< ! nnitation through smooth songs and please the ° ling of the t j le 01 melody right And the whist- of the notes of birds and iu men zephyr through the hollows of reeds first taught £ t jie coun trvside to breathe into hollowed ' wind the reeds. which the pipe pours forth. ' whence arose smiles and with heavy foot and merry . These tunes would soothe their minds and please them when sated with food .232 Music arose Book V. for ness these things then were strong in fresh- and wonder. and the divine places of their rest. to guide their voices notes. II. all when the weather smiled and the season of the . so °f ten > at m meals in the air. 1380-1412 able to sing in ear. sweet lament. laughter. among the desolate haunts of shepherds. above „ nQ ° reat cost t h ev wou ld give pleasure to their bodies. came long before men were by . nor yet for all that do they gain For what is have not increased a w ^ z greater enjoyment from the woodland race of earthborn men of pleasure. and talk. then glad mirth would prompt with rough dances to and shoulders with garlands twined of flowers and foliage. moving their limbs heavily. And hence came to the wakeful a solace for lost sleep.

taught men Now fenced life. though after all it was torn to pieces among them. we may be sure. e despised. because. °° d ss we . and was s P°il£<L-~~- he who with was much blood. I think. en fc°°" t that the seasons of the year come round. far true pleasure can increase. for their acorns set in. as and for this.? It but )^j d now or then in those days. the better thing found later on destroys for the most part or changes our feeling for all the old things. the regu* nty ° and that the work goes on after a sure r plan and a sure the seasons. 1 412-1 442 233 we have learnt anything sweeter but before. has advanced life to its high plane.And so the men toils fruitlessly and in vain for ever. as they lay naked without skins be some . So hatred The old and the old couches strewn with were deserted. traversing with their From sun ™ round the great turning vault of the world. and has _ 01 stirred This brings clv 'l' zat on and warfare. unless V y 11. pleases us above all. in with strong towers they would live their Then came walled and the land was parcelled out and marked off then : . skins | d purple. and wastes its life in idle cares. little by little. light all But sun and moon. first wore it was waylaid and put to death. ' i up from the lowest depths the great seething of tide war. set with gold and massy figures. Likewise the . it has not learned what are the limits of possession. and could be turned to no profit. like watchmen. and now gold and purple that vex men's life with cares and weary them out with war . nor at all how And this. race of does us no hurt to go without our if only there common garment to protect us. but it purple robes. For Jjj^f* cold used to torture the earth-born. the greater fault lies with us. ° order.Book here at hand. and is thought to excel. grass and piled with of wild leaves garment I beasts' skin fell into contempt yet that suppose that of old it was so envied when found.

practice and therewith the experience of the eager mind taught them little by little. weapons. 11.42-1457 sails the sea was gay with the flying of ships : x now treaties and treaties. and faring. and ' > ° r ' deveope life. not mvLC }i before that were letters discovered. sea- Book V. . and they had auxiliaries and allies. when x yet poets first began to hand down men's deeds in songs . of great events. time brings out each several thing into view. and ^_ e polishing of quaintly-wrought statues. . So. fore our age cannot look back to see Therebefore. until 1 by their words arts at the they reached the topmost pinnacle. and reason raises it up into the coasts of light. Ships roads. For they saw one thing after another grow clear in their mind. all the prizes. poets told were d raw n up. what was done unless in any Gradually sciences fine arts and . walls. and the tilling of the land. way reason points out traces. and all things of this kind. songs and pictures. laws.234 towns. one and all. as they went forward step by step. 14. end of the line are corrupt : Two puppibus or navibus must have been the first. the luxuries of little by little. dress.

For when He saw he saw that mortals had by now attained wellnigh all and that.BOOK VI Intro' first spread mortals the fruits that bear corn. that by its disease all things were corrupted within. their life was established in safety. she. yea. things which their needs crave for subsistence. which it had taken he e And so with his discourse of truthful words purged the heart and set a limit to its desire and fear. of glorious name. first In time gone by Athens. and yet not one of them for all that had at home a heart less anguished. J that a in spite all ' { outward . thanks to his divine discoveries his glory. advanta S es were miserable. as far as they could. noised abroad of old. and enacted laws . in part because he saw that it . whatsoever came into it gathered from without. with in. men abounded in power through wealth and honours and renown. and feult lay in . and among struggling fashioned life afresh. is now lifted to the sky. yea even blessings the heart. when she gave with the great mind. towards which we and taught . but with torture of mind lived a fretful life without any respite. th £" a^ and set forth what is the highest good. and were haughty in the good name of their children. so that by no means could it ever be in part because he perceived that it tainted as filled . was leaking 11 and full of holes. even when his light P lcurus - was quenched. It is lh e glory of birth to the man to have gave sweet solace for life. and was constrained to rage with savage complaining. who once poured forth all produced gifted wisdom from his truthful lips . a foul savour all things within it. he then did understand and realized that it was the vessel itself which wrought the disease. too.

. nature. and must needs happen. .. and have unravelled wellnigh "'all that happens therein..2 it 3 6 Bonk VI. but by the outer view and the inner law of nature.. because nature had so brought gates it is 'tis it to pass: he showed from what each ill. mind must be dispelled ledue. be it by the chance or the force of 11 of life. For even children tremble and fear . strive. Wherefore I will hasten the more to weave the thread of my task in my discourse.. listen still to what remains . whereby along a narrow track we may strain on towards it in a straight course he showed what there is of ill in the affairs of all . belTeve and the tempests) of the winds arise. 11. and that the heaven is fashioned that I And now phenomena of a body that has birth. must needs be scattered not by the rays and the gleaming shafts of day. and all else which mortals see coming to pass on earth and in the sky. and all that once was raging is changed 2 to be the when its fury is appeased .y 2 the path highest good. this darkness of the mind. coming to being and flying abroad diverse forms.. when often they are in suspense with panic-stricken mind 1 — things which bring their hearts low through dread Two Read or more lines must here be lost. ' exsistant. forasmuch as once (I have made bold) to climb the glorious car (I will a §a ^ n » tell x how which men are appeased. 26. what children shudder at in the dark and imagine will come to pass. I must of the have shown that the quarters of the firmament are mortal. so we sometimes dread in the light things that are no whit more to be feared than . meet to sally out against and he proved that in vain for the most part that the race of men set tossing in their hearts the as gloomy The darkness of the billows of care. and the meeting the ills m mortals everywhere. and pointed out the path. This terror then. placentur et omnia rursum quae jurirent. everything in blinding darkness..

52-85 237 earth. yea. and adopt stern overlords. and 'g" ^"". For those who have learnt aright that the gods lead a life free from care. so that in wrath they peac ? J r J religious should yearn to seek sharp retribution. you may per- And from in order that truest reasoning us. and bow them down grovelling to because their ignorance of true causes constrains them to assign things to the ordinance of the gods. sky. we must sing of storms and flashing lightnings. and to admit their domination.Book VI^ of the gods. its stray. all this all the more they unless laws. And you Such ' belief spew out from your mind and banish far away thoughts unworthy of the gods and alien to their peace. not that the high majesty of your own in the gods n can be polluted by thee. degraded by thy thought. whom in their misery they believe have all power. this far what manner of life will follow. placid peace set tossing the great billows of wrath. may although much has already gone forth from me. And drive therefore ceive. deepset boundary-stone : wherefore borne on by a blind reasoning. nor have strength to drink in with tranquil peace of mind the images which are borne from their holy body to herald their divine form to the minds of men. through 01 and in what way each thing has its power limited. yet much remains to be adorned with polished we must grasp the outer view and inner law of the We must verse . s * g ra " ^ an Wl { the gods the holy powers of the gods. yet if from time to time they wonder by what means all things can be carried on. but because you yourself will imagine that those tranquil beings in their worship. nor with quiet breast will you approach the shrines of the gods. 11. above all among those things which are descried above our heads in the coasts of heaven. are borne back again into the old beliefs of religion. will often do thee harm . of out . knowing not what can be and what cannot.

or like smoke they chill could not hold together or keep within them (b) t snow when and showers t^Q } of hail. they give forth a sound over spreading firmament. : the causes of these workings they can a divine by no means final goal. too. or to it what quarter its it manner won departed hence. from there more often comes the roar and its loud rumbling.' the wreath with praise conspicuous. clash when the winds are fighting in combat. as speed towards the white line of the before me. nor yet so thin as are mists a texture body as are and flying neither 10r smoke. Calliope. to I mark out the track thou muse of knowledge. as often an awning a to stretched over a great theatre gives a crack. eve } s f trie Again. . as do stones. rages noise like wind in a napping awning or P a P er 5 madly. II. and how it after tyrant deeds brought itself forth again see. wherever the clouds are massed in denser host. ey scrape along one another's sides. Moreover. scudding aloft. Book Vl^ . rar^ - ky their For either they were bound to fall dragged down dead weight. who art rest men and First of pleasure to the gods. Celestial rnena°.238 the laws of storms and lightnings. a i on ° t }iat vou ma y not mzr ^ out t ie quarters of the » / / and ask in frenzied anxiety. and think that I power brings them about. rent by the boisterous breezes. sometimes. all the blue of the sky is shaken by thunder 1. whence came this winged sky. that with thee to guide may win A. 85-126 they act and by what cause they are severally carried p. and imitates the rencij n g noise of sheets of r * paper for that kind of sound ° — too you as may when the winds air a recognize in the thunder —or else a sound For buffet with their blows and beat through the hanging garment or flying papers. Do thou. as it tosses it and amon g trie p OS ts and beams . ' ] _ how flash. Thunder together 6 l^ e because the clouds in high heaven. For caused (a) soun d comes not from a clear quarter of the sky. the clouds cannot be of so dense a stoc ^ s anc* stones. in what way through walled places. but when together face to face .

In this way. mighty through the cloud and breaks it For what the blast can do front attack. (y) tne w hen ram " in which it as it were make a . moving from diverse quarters. and. that the force of a bur cloud open . and even as. sometimes. when the force and fierce onslaught of the wind have weakened it. " nd For often we borne along. shut up there with its whirlon all ing eddy. Nor is that strange. we may be sure. waves just as comes to pass in deep tne clouds . too. ° ws h r u ^j1 the clouds. and slowly grazing body against body sound brushes upon the ears. where the wind tall trees moving through the heavy roar in breaking 00 gentler and yet it tears out and sucks up from their lowest roots. all things seem often to tremble with • (<0 when is i • heavy thunder. but rather pass along the flank. when cloud and gathered storm of mighty wind has twisted its way into the clouds. when the blasts rough-edged see clouds . 126-141 239 indeed it also comes to pass at times that the clouds cannot so much clash together face to face. There clouds. also (J) ' when whereby they may make a noise. tears («) when *'" comes to pass. it splits and makes a rending crash with a frightful cracking sound. when winds blow through gives forth a little noise. waves clouds. and is and then the dry long. the leaves It noise and the branches a rending crash. sides to hollow itself out with body thickening all around . branching in many ways. too. There are. too.Book VT y 11. and then. . until drawn out they have issued from their close quarters. another way. ' lke a _ of the north-west give out a blow through a dense forest. and the great walls of the containing caugh t n a world to be torn apart suddenly and leap asunder. wind rushing on asunder with there is a shown by is things clear to see here on earth. when is a little bladder full of air often likewise if suddenly burst. ' . constrains the cloud more and more all i wind at once a 11 r • 1 • 1 -L • j suddenly burstJ it .

it and burns with a vast noise : just as 'J a drier among the laurel-leafed mountains flame were to roam abroad beneath the eddying of the winds. from one cloud falling from cloud to cloud . break up. the flame in deep moisture. For when the wind packs them tight. born collision. when the tide breaks. yea. frozen close and mingled with hail. 2.240 break. ^ng ° f i ce ancj t h e f a iii n g G f hail makes a noise in the ° clouds crash. just as often iron white-hot from the fiery furnaces hisses. when we have plunged if it quickly into cold is if (A) burns ' water.-173 w pen and the great sea. mighty clouds on high. just as if stone should when on stone or on iron . if by chance the cloud has received into another. This na rr ens too w hen the fiery force of the thunderbolt falls pp ' rivers lightning. because things always move more slowly n to the ears than things which stir the eyes. manner. too. the mountains of storm-clouds. which is sent abroad at the same moment with the indeed from the same In this flash. Or again. when becaus'ed (a) ^ave struc k out many seeds of strike S the clouds at their clashing fire . 144. tnat vou see tn e stroke before the blow a giant tree resounds in your ear . too. . often the great the ice and hail in the crac . burning them up in its mighty onset nor is there any other thing which . „„ up . at once fired. the clouds colour places with leap- . Light- It lightens likewise. That you may learn from this too if you see some one . even so we see the lightning too before we hear the thunder. Kg) Book Vl^ II. is («) when as burnt up by the crackling flame with sound so terrible the Delphic laurel of Phoebus. it straightway slays it with a great noise . anc* scatters abroad bright sparks of pass that But it comes to we receive the thunder in our ears after our befbnTwe hear the because' eyes perceive the lightning. for then. a flash leaps out fire. cloud receives the flame. Again. light travels far off cutting down an sound k ) comes t0 P ass with double-edged axe. colhding strike fire. from a like cause.

and threaten like wild beasts in cages now from this side. 11. next the winds carry athwart the air clouds in the semlest high-piled masses of c ' ouds: blance of mountains. and to see their and when caverns built up. of flame fire. 546-15 n . and l5ieQ and seeking an outlet they move round and round. comes which are . with loud roar they chafe prisoned in the clouds. until they have rent asunder the cloud and flashed blazing out. in a long course. and into a mass and set the flame whirling many cloU ^ > within the hollow furnaces. of hanging rocks : them. made the hollow cloud grow thick. grows hot with its own swift movement . to to This ha PP en in f also piled up high one on . at rest in their appointed place. pass in thick clouds. now from filled . the other in wondrous slope you be deceived because we below see how broad they are rather than to what For do but look. 174-20$ 241 wm r0 . more slowly than things which come This. will yea. . and the storm lightens with quivering dart. when a height they stand piled up. even a ball of lead too. and through roll so drive ^ ie together the seeds of fire from out the clouds. ing light. Then you will be able to mark their mighty mass. it see all things become hot and catch fire through motion. struck out flashes all it scatters at once . When wind has come within a cloud. as I it (6) when * u \ in a cloud have shown before. and moving there has. even as you 6 \ whirls itself u ignites. as it were. as though and they make the pulsing thereafter follows the sound.Book VI. or a when you see them heaped along mighty mountain-range one above the other. pressing dov/n from above. we must know. the storm has risen and the winds have tne wind collects all^ g re . And so when this heated wind has torn through the black cloud. n one that they send forth their roaring through the clouds. whirling melt. reaches our ears the light of our eyes. when the winds on all sides are in their graves. which abroad seeds of by force.

For these are marks of fire. not of wind nor rain. shouts and cries. often too they set the roofs of dwellings on fire. though the vessels be untouched. the wind lightly draws them asunder as ° ' move. For the rest. For the strong thunderbolt can pass through the walls of houses. even as — most subtle of all subtle of tiny ' effects. [s are en dowed. and pour forth their the sun's light. so that with reason When then the fires. wind has pushed and packed and comone spot. as even within the houses. too. flaming catch many such from as it drives they are red. things of bronze. Moreover. lightens without hideous alarm.242 (c) Book VI\ II. jias This _ fire. can pass moment through rocks. also when the clouds of heaven grow naturally break: 03 " 5 " sheet lightning. ings of their heat and the brands which breathe out noisome 111. 204-232 this swift when 1 For this cause. and in a because. you must know.111 vapours of sulphur. its heat as it comes easily loosens . through of time can melt bronze and gold . it must needs be that they thoSe Seeds ' which mate the flash fal1 OUt unDidden ' ^ y 0T w hen - Then it without noise. it comes to pass that tlT d themselves is driven out as they collide. they have for the most part a bright For verily it must needs be that they colour. and breaks them up. because be that the clouds have in themselves very must needs many see d s of fire : for indeed when they are without ' i ' and any moisture. with what kind of nature the thunderbolts shown by the blows and the burned mark- and with no uproar. fires. likewise it causes wine in an instant to flee away. we may be sure. ' nature f asn ioned we may see swift-moving bodies a flame to which nothing at all can ^ e a barrier. them (d) or as they falls It lightens likewise. 3. and with swiftly-moving flame play the and formed tyrant of exceedingly subtle fire. they squeeze out and pour pelled them into forth the seeds which make the colours of flame to flash. Thunderbolts are of fiery nature. it golden tinge of liquid fire flies down to earth.

though it has such exceeding strength in its So much swifter and more masterful is this force of the thunderbolt. Thus then above our head must we suppose the 1 The last word of the line is uncertain. Yet this the heat of seen to be unable to bring about in a long age. pluck force they are able to set forth.are densely ' _ ness. with quick motion dissolves and scatters the first-beginnings the sun is of the wine. vault of the sky so terribly. over the sea. for none are ever hurled ° r r when clouds abroad from the clear sky or from clouds of slight thick. lay low the flocks on every side . like a stream of 1 pitch shot falls from the them soaie~ upon the waters. overthrow houses. ' ' as we see too. take the upset life from men. power and action. Moreover. the so that on all sides we might think darkness has left Acheron and filled the great . and and (destroy) x the monuments of men. on comes to pass throughout that all all at such times clouds air.Book VI^ 11. facts show that this pile d . and draws on a black storm big with thunderbolts and hurricanes. by what towers. We must suppose that thunderbolts are produced from They are created on v thick clouds. For without doubt clear-seen . when the storm begins to forge its thunderbolts. do the shapes of black fear hang over us on high. laden with darkness afar off. times over the sea. flashing blaze. 232-262 243 ail around and makes rarefied the porcelain of the vessel. piled up on high . do all other things of this sort. they are fashioned and made with can with their blow burst open such force that they x * Now in what manner We f* p . and finding its way right into the wine. I will nor keep thee longer waiting on my promise. itself more than all filled full with fires and winds in such wise that even on land men shudder and seek for 6helter. must am tneir up beams and joists. very often a black storm-cloud sky. Q 2 . when the noisome night of clouds has gathered together. grow into a mass high.

such heavy rain. it chances. and rumblings race over the high heaven . lightning. and rain. for of wind this cause all I and tire. all is full with clouds piled of winds and fires . from contact with the as it were. For indeed they would not shroud the earth in such thick gloom. For have shown ere now that the hollow clouds The wind fire with the forms many seeds of heat. fore. Such clouds are full up on verily Here. some one place. train follows a heavy crash. when the same wind. so that the quarters of thunder. then. fire. into seeds of heat. unless the ether were high. And from this shock follows rain. both when it grows hot with its own swift and this fire. and earth. the sky above seem to be burst asunder on a sudden and crush us. all abundant. then the thunderbolt. unless there were many clouds built up aloft on many others. which bursts the cloud and comes out as a thunderbolt. and many they must needs catch from the sun's Thererays and their blaze. full-forged. when the force of the wind has grown exceeding hot. Next. suddenly rends through the cloud.244 storm is Book VI^ 11. fields as to make the rivers overflow filled and the swim. and shot out In is bringing with it its borne on flooding all places with its blazing light. and the fierce onset of the fire has entered in. shutting out all nor when they come could sunlight they drown it in . For it is kindled in two ways. Then a trembling thrills violently through the storm. in a motion. around come crashings and lightnings. for then the storm is shaken into trembling and roarings move abroad. has squeezed out many and at the same time has mingled itself with round an eddy finds its way in there and whirls narrow space and sharpens the thunderbolt in the hot furnaces within. which drives them as possess very together. and thus falling headlong to summon earth back to . 262-292 raised high. an eddy. so that all the air heavy seems to be turned into rain.

when the thunderforth with its burning blow. At times. starting without ° and its long wandering. if by Nor must we is made fit and suitable for flame.3 20 2 4f so great a shower is shot forth with the rending of the cloud clap flies and the hurricane of wind. itself ignites in its as it loses in its journey. we may be sure. Sometimes . and rashly think that the force of the wind can be wholly -j'^ when it has been discharged with such force wholly cold utterly cold. bodies of stiff has taken in fire in the It to pass. 2 p 2. because. fire. certain course j large bodies. particles of heat can stream together out of the wind itself. other directions. wherever force has carried It comes to sometimes that the force of the wind. . that the force of the very blow rouses when the force of the wind. fire flies out. too. straightway there falls out that fiery eddy which we call by the name our fathers gave it. when dropping many air. ° of blazing heat rush together because the force of the iron is any more slowly at its blow. w ea n fire. is cold. . too. nor do the seeds ^"ue . and they mingling with like a flying make in their flight in no other way than often a ball of lead grows hot in cold it its course. too. the Sometimes burst b rushing force of wind falls from without upon the cloud hot with its new-forged thunderbolt . the thunderbolt. the it air itself it carries fire them along. like iron strike a stone with iron. starting cold without has struck its comes Or the °™ ° fire. and when it has rent the cloud. Thus then a thing for the 1156 bound it chance to be kindled by the thunderbolt too. pass. and at the same time from the thing which then receives the blow just as. when it has hit with violent blow. while it is approaching. an external The same its thing happens in it. cloud may ' stroke . yet catches fire on its course .Book Vl^ deluge : 11. which cannot like the others make their way and gathering other small bodies from through the air . when we . *! nd .

is up certain bodies even from the which kindle its swiftness helped particles by their blows. driving them all as they fly into the same course. The velocity of But the great speed of the thunderbolt and blow comes to aided of heavy pass. because seeds of the thunderbolt are one and all carried in a straight line. if 11. mented by a blow so that the more violently and quickly does it scatter with . and increases its strong might and strengthens its stroke. and therefore on falling with swift impulse. nor such a nature for it easy for anything to withstand in flies the hollow passages. For it brings it about that the again. 11 it is bound to gather speed ever more and more. and continues on its journey. a and gathers within the clouds. (d) because in its long course it Once overcomes internal vibration. fire. Again. and conceives . particles. shot starting and then. because their force unbolt is caused is first all set in motion (a) by the itself impulse with which it is in each case. And it by passes through things without harming them. and so flies with wondrous impulse even as the missiles which are borne on. which grows as it moves. when shot from engines of war. : too. aug- its blows all that impedes it it. to contain the growing strength of onset. when great effort for the cloud has not been able its from the cloud . the thunderbolts always run thethundertheir course with swift descent. that it is it is made of small and made of small smooth smooth particles . yea. but their swiftness is when a blow is given as well. $20-348 its it is not beforehand on arrives journey kindled with yet it warmed and mingled its with heat. It may chance too (e) perhaps that as it goes it picks because it air.24-6 on high . because all weights by nature gravitation is always press downwards. comes with long-lasting impulse. and goes . and so it is between and pierces through not clogged and delayed it flies by many (c) because obstacles. as it were towards one spot. its force is squeezed out. Book VI^ rather. (b) because it is Remember. doubled and the impulse grows stronger.

this cause these seasons must be called the narrow channels of the year. nor are clouds of so dense a body. flies and them whole. set at once loose in the knots and slacken is And most stars. them ? P l J ust because its force is fashioned delicately of tiny bodies where their and of smooth particles. And so the various elements needful tor their when the seasons of heaven stand all two. mostly in . make battle and turmoil. ° the diverse causes of midway between the the thunderbolt meet com- For the narrow channel 11 of the year of itself P osltlon / most mingles cold and heat of both of which the cloud has coincide. . bolts occur and again when the flowery season of spring spreads itself spring and utumn For in the cold fires are lacking. that is the spring season : wherefore must needs be that different ele- ments. need for the forging of thunderbolts so that there is — — a rages wrangling among things. ' _ . ' autumn the house of heaven. And again. since the very bodies of the thunderbolt have fallen on the bodies of things just where h£ > they are interlaced and held together. and with great uproar the air and tosses with fires and winds. keen winters do battle with is summers. all the earth.^7 gathered r °™ he &lr " [t n penetrate *1 dlssolve many things. be- cause the liquid pierces through fire through the pores. when the last heat rolls on mingled with the first cold name of autumn For —the season which called by the —then. becausethen winds fail. too. it because it m P in ges on easily melts bronze and in an instant makes gold to boil. and a turbulent tempest is gathered in the sky. Thunder- with shining shaken on all sides and . « . m* are and being there the bonds. mingled with one another. and in the heat » abroad. For the first part is of the heat the last of it the stiff cold. if at that time thunderbolts come most often. which easily force a all way within. since from either side is . then together. nor is it strange. Moreover. .Book VI\ right through 11 348-377 leaves 2. And it many things.

why do they not bring it about that those who have not guarded against some sin from which men hide their face.248 Book VI^ II. rjie This . . is .. as soon as the clouds have come up. a sharp lesson why rather is one conscious of no foul guilt all to mortals? wrapt and entangled. on the one side with flames. . in the flames. the . does he himself then come down into them. . are struck and reek of the flames of lightning. But if Jupiter ot ^ er g°ds shake the shining quarters of heaven theinnocent and leave with awe-inspiring crash and hurl the fire to whatever Ifso. and to perceive by what force it does each thing. with what purpose does he throw what charge has he against the waves. from heaven can do. innocent. so that from them he may direct the blow of his weapon from Why at close at hand? into the sea? Again. with their breast pierced through. and not by unrolling vainly the Tyrrhenian pron and phecies seeking out tokens of the hidden purpose of the gods. or to what quarter it departed hence. . why earth and pour forth his thunders when the heaven is does he himself endure sky? clear on all sides? Or. . 377-40? roused the turmoil of doubtful battle. to see into the true nature of the . marking whence came the winged flash. or what harm the stroke of .whydo the thunderbolt 11 anc* t ^ie c gui y point each may will. and how after tyrant deeds it brought itself forth again. in what manner it won its way through walled places. on the other with mingled wind and wet. no sign of divine wruth thunderbolt. the thunderbolt is way . caught Why oruk waste r< S up for in a moment t ^ le J r a ^ in the fiery whirlwind of heaven? why t*? a £a * n d° m at waste places and spend their strength naught? are they then practising their arms and strengthening their muscles? and why do they suffer the father's weapon to be blunted on the earth? why Why f not them clear it and not spare it for his foes? does Jupiter never hurl his thunderbolt to Again.

but very often has and must needs happen. to overwhelm us with the fire when off our guard. around which the surges boil. so that we can shun it? why does he gather darkness beforehand and rumblings and roarings ? hurls his bolts at once to And how can you believe that he How can e ur many sides ? or would you dare ' many bolts ' . 4o?-43? 249 mass of water and the floating fields? Moreover. little by little. Water- what way there come into the sea. This comes when wind to pass sometimes when the force of the • wind motion cannot burst the cloud presses r . c^ use(j n For let it a column down comes to pass sometimes that as it were descends from the sky into the sea. the sacred shrines of many thunderbolts are Lastly. as though something were me et the sea being thrust down and stretched out into the waves by . andlma g es? °r scar images with his furious he aim mostly at lofty spots. if he Does u " wishes us to beware of the thunderbolt's stroke. .. so that it is weighed down like a column down to from sky to sea.. what the Greeks from their nature have named fiery presters. 11. why does he smite asunder Why estroy the eods and his own ° glorious dwell. so wound? And why does e that we see most traces 01 mountain p ea ks? on mountain-tops? after this. why- does he thunder from that quarter.. it starts to set in cannot break through burst. » . why is he w ^ reluctant to let us be able to see its cast? but if he wishes beware .. that several at once ? Nay. to argue that this has strokes it never come to pass. . it is Next easy to learn from these things in 4. are harried and come into great danger.Book VI. violently stirred by breathing blasts. and all ships that are then caught in that turmoil. shot from on high. that as it rains and happened fall were made at one time? showers in many fashioned at one time. so ing-places with hostile bolt? fair-fashioned idols of the gods why does he destroy the their beauty temples from . his his fire and take away .his own regions. but a cloud but it: f° rces it down.

as it also that an eddy gathers clouds about seeds of wind by wraps cloud from the itself in clouds. yet grasp and cling to one another. and uniting they grow and are borne on by the winds. before the eyes can see them. and Clouds are formed 5. furious force of whirlwind and storm.2 jo a fist Book FIj 11. imitates the this it it and drops let to the earth. thence into the sea and brings to pass a wondrous seething For a whirling eddy descends and brings along with it down soon that cloud of pliant body . itself down vomits forth a this But because happens but rarely at all. There first when it comes to pass at last that. then these grip hold of one another and flock together. air gathering together were. conor eke an eddy straining of it to seethe. though they be but — the air in masses gradually intertwined with slight links. and as as it has forced it down pregnant on to the levels of ocean. the force of the wind bursts forth in the waters. it is seen more often on a wide prospect of sea. the clouds form. in an open stretch of sky. gathered now in a greater . the more do they smoke continually with the thick darkness of because. until at last a furious tempest has gathered together. such as can. too. growing larger . prester down from to earth the sky. and the pushing of an arm above and when it has rent this cloud asunder. whither they are driven by wind . and mountains must needs bar it on land. the closer they at that height a round mountain tops. When eddy has let and broken up. It especially comes to pass. still thin. and stirs up all the sea with a great roar. 434-46? . the winds carry them and drive them together to the topmost peaks of the mountain. (a) as particles gather in Clouds gather up. itself It comes to pass and. These first of all cause little clouds to form . murky cloud. that mountain-tops. are to the sky. the eddy on a sudden plunges its whole self into the water. when many bodies as they fly in this upper expanse of heaven have all at once come together bodies of rougher kind.

It happens. when we high stretch above. weaves a web of storm-cloud beneath with their darkness. what manner the rainy moisture gathers 6. For the vapour of the up as it starry ether above presses down on them too.. . the clouds on high. and curtain the heaven little by little. that nature lifts up many such is (b) as par- bodies all over the sea shown by . and. . and. inasmuch as on all sides all the pores of the ether. they can be seen.. through Come now. when they take in a clinging moisture.. none can they are wont to traverse through space that So it is not strange if often in a short time storm and darkness cover up sea and land with such great 1 storm-clouds. like a breath. as they meet. brooding above.. that there . Rain is SC and how the shower falls shot ^\ because First of all it will the clouds the earth. and I have set forth with what speed the bodies fly. tides fly innumerable. rise from the sea rise to swell the clouds from the salt tossing ocean all for in or from their nature these see we two moistures are akin. clouds and vapour rising from all rivers. down upon 1 in together in the high clouds. mountains.Book VI) seem to climb rise into 11. Translating Lachmann's nimbis for montis. and the sum of the deep measureless. and how in a moment tell. as it were. . through the breathing-holes of the great world all around there is furnished for the particles exit and entrance. clothes hung out on mo Where• j sture the shore. wise from the very earth which. . and at once they the mountain. 465-498 2JI throng and thickened. too. come into our (0 1 as P ar * . more seen that many it too can bodies the it is all . proclaim that windy regions Moreover.. and build the blue. fore . the open sky from the very summit of For clear fact and our sense. and like- even j am is . make clouds and n from sky those bodies from without which °" tsuie For I have shown that their number is flying storms. I will unfold. are forced out hence and carried upwards. were by thickening. Moreover.

. breathes out its moisture. on when there is much moisture. presses makes the showers stream out. all streams is raised to the and is then squeeze out by the clouds. they often take in also mo i s ture from the sea. Moreover. too. are thinned ' by the winds or broken up. even as wax over a hot fire melts and . they send out the rainy mo sture ancj drip.2f2 contain Book VI^ 11. on it * e" t e clouds are thin. among the black ciouds stand out the hues of the rainbow. . when many seeds of water force. increased from all quarters. . and which gather together in the clouds. ^e packed clouds are eager to shoot out the moisture for r ° a double cause . then . and clouds stay. . and likewise sweat and all the moisture too that rises into muc In }1 Besides. £ the impulse of the wind. just like hanging fleeces of within the limbs. Rain eavy is is flows in a thick stream. an . when and the like manner moisture from the winds carry the clouds over the great sea. and the rains are wont to hold on long and make a ° great ° are gathered. just as our body grows along with (b) because 1 its is blood. and weighs it down from above. and throng. be granted me that already many seeds of water rise up with the clouds themselves from out of all things. smitten by the sun's heat above. AU other things which grow above and are brought to being above. . or again. by the clouds. pj} ec when the clouds their own mass and are violently pressed The bow rainis U pon clouds and streaming storms above them are borne on from every quarter. . J r sun s leat.iiii . . 497-528 mu fk moisture. violent. Similarly logical the sun amid the dark tempest has shone out with its ra y S f u ^ against the spray of the storm-clouds. Yea. i i • 1 • . and when the whole earth smoking. f . when the . And when many seeds of waters in many ways have duly come together there. When at such time [ caused by the sun shining on the rain. for the force of the wind pushes it on wind and ancj mass f c i ou j s driven together in greater J the mass of force of the ^ ' ^ the clouds . and ° ' that both alike grow in this manner. both clouds and all water that is in the clouds. en But a violent w downpour comes by either tQ -pass. the sea wool.

but this seems to be the ier. circles of the wheels on either side. "^ th _ windy caverns and you 1. Moreover. winds. with unsteady wave. that by an avalanche falling into the earth too tosses and sways beneath the wave of water . j us t as houses * rocked by passing n on the iron to pass too. whenever a stone in the road jolts . since whole houses by the roadside tremble when shaken by a wagon of no great weight. when the wind gathering throughout the cavernous places of the earth blows strong from one point. and to see in the it is right easy to find these out. yea all of them. that rocks. And . n waves and submerged stones. when beneath time has caused huge caverns to fall in nay. liquid within has ceased to toss water rocking in Ilke a vessel. chill hoar-frosts. or the land the earth. shaken by great falling masses. indeed. the curb which everywhere reins in the eager streams. 1 (&) An earthquake The text is uncertain. that great hardener of waters. and ° ° ' rock none the less. then are placed and linked together beneath it. Come now and learn what is the law of earthquakes. loosened by age from rolls down into huge wide pools of water.Book VI. and at the great sudden shock tremblings creep abroad thence far and wide. Earthmust think it bears in its bosom many lakes and many ^he earth and that many rivers underneath and sheer rocks pools and cliffs " back of the earth roll on amain their ai breams hidden beneath the full just as above. yet in mind what manner they all come to be and in what way they are brought to being. ( a) when cavern so ™e earthquake ls caused » with good reason. .se. . For clear fact demands and When these things it should be in all parts like itself. hail. and the great force of ice. Pheno And first of all let yourself suppose that the earth is below. the earth above trembles. when you have duly learned the powers that are vouchsafed to the elements. snow. unless the a i^e. 1 It comes wagons. 11. even as a vessel sometimes cannot stand still. on all sides of . szS-ssS 25-3 phenomena "plained. whole mountains fall. all. B. when a vast mass of soil.

tottering towards And men yet will not believe in the ultimate destruction of the the same quarter. Some- There is this cause. of that same great shaking. times the imprisoned air bursts forth. no force could put a curb on things or 3 ul ^ tliem ^ ac ^ * rom destruction as P they fell. the middle more than the bottom. the earth leans over to where the swooping force of the wind presses it. way. the top more than the middle. making a great great force of gathering either from without or within the earth itself. as it windwhich restores were. have hurled themselves into the hollow places of air. even a mass of earth bowing to its fall. ^ In are driven back and give ground.2^4 may be Book VI. more they are bend over in suspense. too. the whole building rocks. more pass for it than brings it to leans over and then sways back again. Then the houses that are built and with blowing violently in one direction. up upon the earth. and its ft e n threatens a after falling this forward recovers position to a steady poise. and the timbers driven forward hang out ready to fall. chasm : carried on in a whirl and when after- wards the moving force driven forth bursts out and at the same time cleaves the earth and causes a huge chasm. when suddenly wind and some exceeding the earth. avaii to when they see so great Why. the severally raised towards the sky. in Peloponnese. ssS-s8? caused by a great subter- ranean wind weight presses on the lofty caves with mighty strength. Even as it came to pass at Sidon in Syria. fall for this reason eart ]1 . and rise. As it is. And yet men fear to believe that a time of destruction and ruin awaits the nature of the great world. then. yea. cities and as was the this case at Aegium overthrown by . and there turmoil. first rage among the great caves in . they rally and charge again and then equi i num. unless the winds ^ ft is only the altera- breathed in again. because turn by turn they breathe in and then grow violent > because. the bottom but (c) a very little. all its 11.

causes the throughout the riddling passages of the earth. and. Add. yet compared to the sum of the sea all 1 Either this paragraph is a disconnected fragment. tumbled all together. snatched away sud- and denly from beneath their feet be carried into the abyss. yea. inhabitants and all. and there be a tumbling wreck of the whole world. all if 2. . when it comes deep induce a trembling : into our strains members. 1 First of all they wonder that nature does not make the sea bigger.Book VI^ issue of air II s8 6-61$ which 2f? arose. and the quaking of the earth And besides many walled towns have fallen through or ' down great movements on land. follow on. shakes them against their will and conthem to tremble and to move. Let them then believe as they will It is a that heaven and earth will be indestructible. and lest torn asunder she should open wide her maw. introducing a new section of the paradoxes of nature on earth. they fear the houses above. even as cold. Why does * ea downpour the streams from every quarter. lest the earth. desire to fill it with her own some falling ruins. So men quiver with anxious terror throughout the cities. left utterly without foundation. deep not burst forth. the sum of things. add too its own springs . or more probably something has been lost before it. like a fit of shivering. . it comes into so great a not the you will. lest the nature of the earth should break them open all at once. and thereby Judder. they dread the hollow places beneath. and yet from time to time world may the very present force of danger applies on some side or d "j ed other this goad of fear. and many cities have sunk And even if it does into the sea. since there of water. which bespatter and drench all seas and lands . yet the very impulse of the air and the fierce force of the imp rison g d wind are spread. the shifting showers and the scudding storms. entrusted to ^"^oie everlasting protection .

1 rop the ocean m r . when it rains on the earth and the winds carry lift up much or (e) oozes on the clouds. Therefore. P or °U.body. since very often we see roads they sweep dried by the wind in a single night. and scatter it broadcast over all the circle of lands. yet in so great a space draw largely from the waves.2y<5 (a) Book FI y IL 613-64$ adL&toit is Because these things will scarce be equal to the increase of a single ^°V ' t ^iere ^ore n 1S t ^ie ^ ess strange that the great sea but a does not increase. and muc water t we see manv oceans spread wide beneath earth's level. moisture of water passes into the sea from the lands. and the soft mud again. streams together and thence comes back over the lands with freshened current. is since the earth is formed of mt th * continuous. just as the likewise filters levels . I have shown that the cou s » moisture taken in from the great level of ocean. surrounding on all sides the shores of the sea. t ' his heat. The ™ Now what is the reason that through the jaws of Mount Etna flames sometimes breathe forth in so great a hurricane. Then as lift a great part of moisture the level seas. the sun draws off a great For verily we see the sun with its ' blazing rays dry clothes wringing with moisture . Moreover. although from each single place the sun sucks (b) because up but by wind. For indeed the flaming storm gathered with no moderate force of destruction and ruled tyrant through the fields of the Sicilians and turned to itself the gaze of neighbouring nations. it through into the land from the salt sea for the brine is strained through. the winds too can and by harden into clouds too crusts. and Lastly. / J r is drawn off by sun. brought down the waters in their liquid march. Moreover. it must needs be that. I will unfold. where the channel once cleft has 3. and the suball stance of moisture oozes back and at the fountain-head of rivers. 'fElti' when they saw all the . a small part of it moisture from the level sea will .

because. if many things. The and the quarters ' erup- but the stormy blaze of this fire is exceeding gigantic' So. and see small. of For that too comes to heaven blaze. and breasts with shuddering anxiety for what new change a nature might be planning. the n holy fire breaks out and creeping about in the body burns . from which the force of measureless disease might So then we must suppose that avail to spread abroad. 644-674 25-7 filled their quarters of the heavens smoke and sparkle. Herein you must look far and deep and take wide Remember view to every quarter. that you may remember that the how is ^^ te5 sum of things is unfathomable. pass. has caught in his limbs a fever gathering with burn° and ing heat. look clearly at And it if you have see this duly before you and wonder a man it clearly. you would cease to For does any of us wonder. there are seeds of many and so the and this earth and heaven has enough disease malady. too. and crawls through the we may be sure. and there are rainstorms gathering in heavier mass. often a sharp pain seizes on the teeth or makes its way right into the eyes . as things. it has seized. how universe. out of the infinite all things are supplied to the whole supp y j n _ | heaven and earth in number enough that on a sudden numerable ° the earth might be shaken and moved. is the river which is the greatest seen 646-15 '°° < ^t™ but so B .Book VI j 11. Nay. the fire of Etna well heaven forth. when by chance the seeds of the waters have so arranged themselves. and a tearing m^]* d to hurricane course over sea and land.7 Just as nian y diseases any part which limbs. infinitely small a part of the heaven — not at whole sum is one single so large a part. as a single man of the whole earth. or any other painful disease in his members? may come t0 the bod y> For a foot will swell suddenly. be sure. and the heaven be aflame.

when n has it is set in motion and heats itself and all around it. as clouds of dust. force of air. the greatest that each man has seen. in all the caves there is wind and air. it rises up and so drives itself forth on carries its heat far. From this sea caves by which blasts of wind enter in. First of all the nature of the whole mounI will unfold. is For air becomes wind. we must admit that (water) passes in. and all the while for you must not . and yet all of them together.andthe this fact mingled with it) and pierces deep in from the open sea. are nothing to the whole sum The tion of the universal sum. yea. Moreover. and has struck out from them a fire hot with swift flames. smoke with thick murky darkness. erupis caused because in what ways that flame is suddenly excited and breathes abroad from out the vast furnaces of Etna. and so lifts . mouths. and as it rages has rocks and the earth around wherever it heated all the touches them. When it grown hot. But now wind gathers in subter- tain ranean caverns. and then breathes is path that wind compels us (to believe 1 rocks and raises up the flame and casts up For on the topmost peak are craters. of which the words in brackets give the probable sense. resting everywhere on caverns of basalt. And so it high straight through and afar it scatters the ash and rolls on There are also passages hurls out rocks of marvellous weight from the neighbouring sea. aroused. By stretch underneath right to the deep jaws of the mountain. in doubt that this is the stormy its waves break and sucks in its the sea makes a great part tide at the roots of that mountain. . and then bursts out. he always imagines gigantic. 674-702 : by a thing of a tree or a its man. Moreover. hollow beneath. thing. with heaven and earth and sea besides. and in every kind so of kind which we have seen. » A line is lost. who has never before seen any greater man may seem gigantic. the inhabitants name them what we call jaws or out.25-8 always does the greatest Book FI y II. the mountain's jaws.

and driving the For fill the channel and make it stop. n be v/aters Egypt often amid the hot season. we can say the same in many cases. or by disease or perchance by poison. / o would p ' causes. the given case " Likewise. those quarters. It may be too that a great heaping up of sand may choke up the mouths as a bar against the opposing waves. the river of all in summer the north its winds.1 • downward flow. rise Egypt. one be right that you should name all causes of death. and the waves . which are started from the opposing us stream > blowing against chill constellations of the pole are driven full against the stream. when the sea.0^ winds its to be the etesian winds. are dead against mouths . The river comes from the south out of the is quarter where heat of born. .1 excessive interior at that season. more at its source of the north It may . and in this manner it comes to pass that the river has less free issue. either because caused The Nile. perhaps that rains occur (0 by . but we know that it was something of this sort which was his fate. sand within . just as if you yourself were it tion several Ml to see the lifeless body ' of a man lying before j you. is which yet the actual cause . 703-733 25-9 to For some things there are. likewise a less easy . we must give more. troubled by the winds. The It rises. waters upwards without doubt these blasts. as summer comes. in order that the one cause of that man's death might be told. because the etesian blasts rain in the all winds then drive the clouds together into of mid-day. And. too. too. we may suppose. not a few. be.Book Vl^ Some tell 11. of which *''" b true ? 111 For you could not prove that he had perished by the sword or of cold. one of ^""f^*. stream they check it. and overflows the plains. for which one cause is not enough . when they have come together driven towards the region R 2 .. alone in the world 4. ^j n _ the stieam . drives the by a cj. which at that time are said . rising among the black races men of sunburnt colour far inland in the region of (&) mid-day.

traversing all with his melting mountains. but the nature of the spot of and a place its own force accom- m Syria. by chance the nature of the spots so vernus. There is too a spot within wa U s OI Athens. Yet all these things their power are brought about by a natural law.z6o (d) by the g o Book Vl^ 11. as . n as the poets of the Greeks have sung. where. 5. and violently pressed. the life-giver. not even when the altars smoke with offerings. when they have come and if _ right over those spots in their flight. that they are called by the name Avernian. -^gj-e mountains smoke. likewise a spot to be seen. fall the oarage of their wings. ' ' in that. choked with biting sulphur and or into the water. thrust together snow on the mountains. it is said that there is plishes the task. on the very summit of the citadel. too. because they are harmful to all birds. forces the white snows to run down into the plains. the temple of Pallas Tritonis. whither by tne croaking crows never steer their bodies on the wing. In Syria. as soon as even fourfooted beasts have set foot. they headlong. _ in they are fatal to birds. a spot if by chance the lake of Avernus spreads beneath them. because of their vigil. forgetting slack their sails. are massed • rays. 733-761 upon the high there at last the clouds. and it is clearly seen them to fall heavily. its natural force constrains though they were on a sudden All owe slaughtered to the gods of the dead. Avernian Come now. where the sun. 11 that is given them from the fact. enj owe(j a }] I will unfold to you with what nature are lakes. drooping with languid neck to earth. spots . So surely do they fly. determines Such as lake it. Perchance swells from deep among the high mountains of the fe e> r Ethiopians. Parthenon enriched with hot springs. socalled as Avernian places and r First of all. not in truth from the fierce wrath of Pallas. That spot is by Cumae.

which is wont to kill a man with the noisome scent of its lain one has flower. I have shown before. which can induce purpose of diseases and hasten death. see how many things are for man of Many such ex a atlons keenly harmful. this We may 1 way from the * be sure that these things all grow in earth. . that often they cause an aching of the head.ltainst1 ' I will try to tell of First of all I say. Next we may a sensation first. Reading tractu with Polle. many which are good for food. a tree on the great mountains of Helicon. rees ' if noxious. and many all things. too. because their nature and texture and the shapes of their first-beginnings are unlike. stretched upon the grass. Earth co. t em manv harmful pass through the ears. nor are there a few which should be avoided by each ' of tlle senses. Many things which are And among. And that od . . for different animals different things are suited for the life. and are nauseous and noxious .S° and bad. . below from of this spot to the shores of Acheron . the touch. now learn the true fact. yea. the one to the other. is from true reason. And how for now as well. are ' J poison- certain trees are endowed with a shade so exceeding ous to man. There is. what I have often said before that in the earth there are shapes of things of every kind . helpful to life. or else are bitter to the taste. because the earth contains in Reading forte his for poteis with Munro. many which are dangerous 2 and rough to draw in find their way even through the noxious to {^ nostrils. and thereafter we should by chance believe that the gods of the dead lead the souls are no t gates of hell.Book VI^ 11 761-790 2d 1 to natural ' from what causes to begin with they come to be . and shunned by the sight. even as stags winged from their far feet are often lairs thought by their scent to drag removed this the races of crawling serpents. beneath them. lest 1 by chance the gateway of Orcus should be thought to be in these regions.

if you dally in the hot bath when you are too full. whom the strong force of necesAll these effluences then Heinrichsen's suggestion sity imprisons in such work? The reading is extremely uncertain membra domans percepit fervida febris may : be right. sulphur produced in the very earth and pitch harden into crusts of a noisome scent? and again. at once puts to sleep a man who is wont through disease to fall down and foam at the mouth. Castor to a many seeds of many things. when it meets the nostrils ° ° \ with its pungent smell. and make the soul members throughout the totter within its abode. 1 a slaughtering burning fever has seized then the smell of wine is like the Mines to those blow. j 10W eas \\y [ t come s to pass often that you fall down.2d2 itself Book FI y 11. them forth singled out. a light but newly extinguished at night. Do you not see. probing with the pick deep r into the hidden parts of earth. Once hot bath again. an(j su t. Again. if she has smelt it at the time when she has her monthly discharge. And how finds its easily the noxious force and smell of charcoal way into the brain. sit on the stool in the middle of the boiling water. how Have you not seen or heard they change their colour how they are wont to die in a short time and how the breathes out underground? may exhale ! how ! powers of life fail those. when men are following up who in work them. too.dued the limbs. mingled in many ways. And many other things too slacken the drooping frame. as A you Charcoal. unless we have taken water Wine to the beforehand. atterameal. 789-816 An extin- guished candle to an epileptic. a ° r r ° \d aiK} silver. and her gay-coloured work slips from her delicate hands. And a woman will fall back asleep with the and t gives ' woman. neavy scent of castor. . And when feverish. what stenches Scaptensula" t ] le ve ] ns f And what poison gold mines strange they make men's faces.

so that there here an almost empty space. may happen. and by the secret poison. when they have they must life as well. where the effluence has its course. And when they fall. rst birds. poisons the expanse of heaven in a certain quarter . when they cannot support themselves or rest upon their wings. 816-840 them out 2. so that it tumbles straight down on ^ ' ° J r them when the spot. into So these Avernian spots too must needs send up some fume deadly to the the air. it en kll 's has fallen into it. effluence 50 between the birds and the ground. needs vomit forth their store of poison It all because there is great around them. and breathes the open and the clear spaces of heaven. 1 A considerable passage is which the poet passed to a quite new subject. and at the very moment when the bird is carried thither on its wings. Wells are moreover. too. earth sends steaming forth.61. the water in wells becomes colder in summer. vacuum crippled and either side. . of course nature constrains them to sink by their weight to the ground. it is checked there. there the same force of the effluence life takes verily away the remnant of first : out of all its limbs. and the effort of their wings fails on And then. birds. which rises from the earth into Similarly t ese sp ° t£ . seized so that it exhalation. sometimes that all this force is and • It may that thc effluence of Avernus dispels r the air that situate is b %. v ™ . their flight left dispels the i And when is the birds n ^'j^j. and lying in death in what is now almost empty void. they scatter abroad their soul through • all the pores of their body ••••• lost. fall have come straight over this place. For of all it causes a kind of dizzy seething in the it birds afterwards fallen right into the sources of the poison. there comes to pass that. in 1 6.Book VI^ 11. on a lifting force of their pinions all in a sudden the useless.

and warm vin er.2<*4 cold in Book VI. which make warm the touch and vapour of the water. because the ground is rarer and warmer around the fountain than the rest of the earth. There is said to be near the shrine of Ammon D a fountain. when all the earth is j iar( j p ressecJ with cold. how could it beneath the earth with its body so dense boil the water and fill it with warm heat? and that when its it can scarcely with its blazing rays make hot effluence pierce through the walls of houses. . when the sun. conr geals. it that. of course it comes to pass that. though its light in the upper air enjoys heat so great. straightway the earth grows cold deep within and contracts. when night covers the earth with the shadows that bring the dew. it hidden in the earth. and contracts and. could not make it warm on the upper side. By this means of fire it comes to pass it the hand. many seeds of fire near the body Therefore. and if by chance it has any seeds of heat of its own. What then is the reason? We may be sure. reasoning. as it contracts. as though it were pressed by squeezes out into the fountain all the seeds has. ^ The . y darkness. it sends them abroad into the of its air. The more then earth is exhausted is into .° founin ° squeezes out into the wells any heat it bears in itself. as it were. cold in the daylight J ° f Ammon grows cold tnte ay and warm at night tor exact and warm in the night time. . ° j At this fountain men marvel overmuch. touching the uncovered body of the water. 841-869 because' earth gives • because the earth grows porous with the heat. 11. when night But this is has shrouded earth in dreadful similar exceeding far removed from true ° reasons. because it sends its at In Moreover. and think that it s mac e to boil in haste by the fierceness of the sun beneath ' } the earth.V the • heat. For verily. the colder too ' becomes the moisture which air. and there are of the water.. Then when the rising sun has parted .

we may be sure. There it is also a cold spring. like them suddenly singly. affords a salt it welcome help to thirsty sailors. asunder the ground with his rays. s heat and through the throbbing heat . and has made it rarer. sun . over which if tow be held. . and when they gather together or cling of the torch. it is re > its owes * eeds Because. The cold often straightway catches fire and casts out a flame. and all the heat fire For this cause the fountain becomes cold in the light of day. also becau se the the moisture of the water is buffeted by the sun's rays.Book VI^ 11 869-898 26s pass of the water retires into the earth. ' ' . it floats. Moreover. So then those seeds are able to burst out through that spring. as ' catcn . the first-beginnings of back again into their old abode. there are in the it water very power nre. - waters. as his warm heat grows stronger. yet not so many of them tnrough that the the water in spring can be ° 1 made hot. and must needs be that from the to °f . up with fresh water and parts the salt waters asunder all around it and in many other spots too the level sea . a force constrains flame on torch. and at the same time are breathed forth P °' r _ and issue into the air. just as often it gives out the frost that tne heat in them « it contains in itself. and 1 over ^V ?' torches a torch in like manner is kindled and shines over the driven bv the breezes. wherever. readily they blaze out all . and to bubble out into the to the tow body . and unite Moreover. Even as there is a spring within the sea at Aradus" which bubbles ° r *P nn g s of fresh water in the sea. to burst forth through the water scattered the It is and then to enter into union up above. and melts the ice and loosens its in the light grows rarer bindings. breaks up the waters therefore it comes to pass that it loses all the seeds of r and releases fire that it has . many ' seeds of heat. which very earth at the bottom bodies of fire rise up through shoot up se aratel y the whole spring. because amid the vomits forth fresh water.

indeed. then we must suppose comes to pass in that spring too. moisture of . At this stone men marvel . from the sun.266 Observe Book VI y 11. and you must approach by a circuit exceeding long : therefore all the more (a) all I ask for attentive ears all and mind. and touches the flame. Much must be premised. heat sea. I will essay to tell by what law of nature first it magnet. For what follows. and how holds its which the Greeks comes to pass that iron can be attracted by the stone call the magnet. In things of this kind much must be made certain before you can give account of the thing itself. from the name of its chain of rings sus- pended. spray from the waves of the gnaws away the walls by the seashore. native place. a torch in like manner? And many other things as well are touched 7. bodies such as to strike the eyes and awake our vision. And from certain things scents stream off arouse our senses. because the of hidden fire in themselves. which diverse Nor do Again. things bodies are must needs be that there stream shot out and always streaming off. when you move that it is catches before it a wick just extinguished near a night-lamp. kindled before it has touched the flame. which scattered abroad. even as cold streams from rivers. the land of the Magnetes. unceasingly . and swaying in the light breezes. Sp8-p28 at once. because it has its origin within the boundaries of its native country. we can see. when one hangs on to the other. how wick the tow and torches too have many seeds Do you not see too. and each from the next comes to feel the bindhanging to in a itself. From it First of from all things. The it by the mere heat and blaze out at a before the fire soaks them close at hand. clinging to it beneath. sounds cease to ooze through the air. whatsoever off. it often makes a chain of rings all For sometimes you may see five or hanging chain. more ing force of the stone its : in such penetrating fashion does force prevail. This distance.

mingled with void. and we are suffered always and smell all things. the human ** limbs and body. smell penetrates Again voices fly through stone partitions and cold and the heat of fire. and to hear them sound. since nor is any delay or respite granted in this flux.g. we feel it likewise pass through gold and through silver. as reading caeli lorica is probably quite right. when we hold full cups in our hands. and a line Giussani suggests. So surely from all things each several thing is carried off and is sent abroad to every quarter on all sides. and with them the force of disease. walls. it members. a salt savour often 11. over again of is how rarefied a body all (P) The th ngs j things are which For clearly shown in the beginning of my all too. gathering 1 world. 11 verily. in houses. and the tiny nails. was probably the sense. of which lost. and tempests. The MS. learn this for many although it is of great matter to things. when it finds its way in from without . when we behold wood being diluted and mixed. First of all it e. wont to pierce too through the strength of iron. to descry perceive unceasingly. where the breastplate of the sky ln closes in the Again. about which I am essaying to discourse. rocks. to make it sure that there is nothing perceptible except body comes to pass that in caves the upper rocks sweat with moisture and drip with Likewise sweat oozes out from all our trickling drops. a bitter taste touches it. world all around {the bodies of clouds and the seeds of which is even tne fer ence tlle of storms enter in). 928-916 267 comes into our mouth. very thing. is . yea. we Now poem I will tell . it is above all necessary for this are porous . this. and on the other hand. increases and nourishes even the extreme parts of the metals. We feel cold likewise pass through bronze and warm heat. the beard grows and hairs over all our food is spread abroad into all the veins. when we walk wormby the sea. in a stream. body.Book VI.

it. (d) The pores and passages in things differ. but in the heat. Since many pores are assigned to diverse things. each of which in its own way takes in its own object within itself. but skins and flesh it shrivels and draws all together. {c) These There thrown same : is this besides. the fire. nor suited in endowed with the the same way to all ground and parches things differently things. moisture of water hardens iron fresh from the skins Moreover. This too remains. they must needs be endowed and with their a let different things pass own nature differing from one another. But on the other hand. which I start to it is clear should be said. so that they wallow all over in it and never have enough. for to bristling marjoram. diverse senses in living creatures. First of all the sun bakes the ice it e. and fears every kind of ointment pigs it is . though delights the bearded she-goats. when hardened The olive wild is The wild olive it good to goats. Fire likewise makes bronze liquid and fuses gold. hasten naturally to remote parts of heaven and earth . this very thing is seen to be pleasant to pigs. and we loathe deadly poison. seems almost to give new life. more bitter than this for food. and have each nature and passages. sunlight may melt or harden. there Pigs hate joram. that not all bodies. which are effluences affect off severally from things. thaws and causes the snows piled high on the high mountains to melt beneath its rays. though to us mud is the foulest filth. as breathed out a flavour steeped in ambrosia and as . Again. For we see that . is no leafy plant the pig shuns marAgain. though to us it sometimes mud. wax but becomes liquid when placed in the sun's heat.g. much real nectar and yet for a man loathsome to us. are different effect of sense. For verily there are through them.26% Book VI^ II q?6-()87 from earth and heaven. since there is nothing but has a rare texture of body. before speak of the thing itself. and flesh it softens.

Book

VI\

11.

9$ 6-1017

269

sounds pass into one place and the taste from savours into another, and to another the scent of smells. Moreover,

one thing is seen to pierce through rocks, another through wood, and another to pass through gold, and yet another For through to make its way out from silver and glass.
the one vision
travel,
is

and one thing

seen to stream, though the other heat to is seen to force its way along the

same path quicker than others.
it

We may

know

that the

nature of the passages causes this to
varies in

many

ways, as

come to pass, since we have shown a little before
and texture of things.

on account
lished

of the unlike nature
all

Wherefore, when

these things have been surely estab-

and

settled for us, laid

for use, for

what remains,

We can down in advance and ready f ow turn t0 the magnet. from them we shall easily give
will
all it

account, and the whole cause
attracts the force of iron.

First of

be laid bare, which must needs be n that

It

sends off
eS

there stream off this stone very

many seeds or an effluence,

which, with

aside the blows, parts asunder all the air which between the stone and the iron. When this ^'make* its place middle becomes a vacuum ; space is emptied and much room in the void, straightway first-beginnings of the iron start forward
its

^^ has

b eat
1

["^toms
'

and

fall

into the void,

all

to pass that the ring o r

itself

joined together ; it comes of the iron ™ sh and follows and advances in this
because

way, with
as

its

whole body.

Nor
its

is

anything so closely they are

interlaced in

its first

linked together, particles, all clinging

J"^f
together,

y

the nature of strong iron and fore it is the less strange, since ° '
that
it is

cold roughness. Thereled on
_

it is

by '
_

its

e v draw particles, r the whole

^

-

impossible for

many

from the
itself

iron, to pass into the void,
;

bodies, springing together ring with but that the ring tnem *

follows

and

this it does,

and follows on,

until
it

it

has

now

reached the very stone and clung to

with

hidden fastenings.

This same thing takes place in every

270
This

Book Vl^
1

II.

1017-104?

may

happen in any
direction.

direction; on whichever side room becomes void, whether athwart or above, the neighbouring bodies are carried at

once into the void.

Further, the
air

For indeed they are set in motion blows from the other side, nor can they themselves of by their own accord rise upwards into the air. To this there
that
it

behind
is

added, the ring this further thing as an aid, yea, the pushes it towards the because, as soon as the air in front of the
there

may

the more be able to

come
is
is

to pass,

motion
ring

helped,

vacuum, where is no
back.

made rarer,

air to beat
it

and the place becomes more empty and void, it straightway comes to pass that all the air which has its place
behind, drives,
as it
is

For the
things
;

air

which
it

were, and pushes the ring forward. set all around is for ever buffeting
like this it

but

comes to pass that at times

pushes the iron forward, because on one side there is empty space, which receives the ring into itself. This
air,

of

which

I

am

telling you, finds its

way

in subtly

through the countless pores of the iron right to its tiny parts, and thrusts and drives it on, as wind drives ship
The
air

inside the

iron also

Again, all things must have air in their body that they are of rare body, and the air is placed seeing
sails.

and

pushes in the same
direction.

round and which
is

set close against all things.

This

air

then,

hidden away deep within the iron, is ever tossed about with restless motion, and therefore without doubt
it

buffets the ring

and

stirs it

within

;

the ring,

we may
it

be sure, is carried towards the same side to which once moved headlong, struggling hard towards the
spot.

has

empty

When
is

brass

It

comes to

inter-

pass, too, that the

nature of iron retreats
to flee and follow

posed, the

from

this stone at times,

and

is

wont

magnet
repels iron,

because the

turn by turn. Further, I have seen Samothracian iron rings even leap up, and at the same time iron filings move
1

Place

;

after paries

and

,

after superne.

Book VI,

11.

104^-1073

271

in a frenzy inside brass bowls, when this Magnesian stone effluence rom e } was placed beneath r^so eagerly is the iron seen to desire
,

to flee from the stone.
so great a disturbance

When the
is

brass

is

placed between,

already
e
,

brought about because, we may

up

be sure, when the effluence of the brass has seized before-

in

the iron,

hand and occupied the open passages in the iron, afterwards comes the effluence of the stone, and finds all full in the iron, nor has it a path by which it may stream
through
against
it

as

before.

And
its

so

it

is

constrained to dash

and beat with

and

in this

way

it

repels it

wave upon the iron texture ; from itself, and through the

away that which without it it often sucks in. Herein refrain from wondering that the effluence from The magnet caimot this stone has not the power to drive other things in the 1 move other same way. For in part they stand still by the force of things bebrass drives
,

their

own

weight,

as for instance,

gold

;

and

cause partly, be-

* he

y

cause they are of such rare body, that the effluence flies through untouched, they cannot be driven anywhere ;

n-

are either

t0 o heavy or t0 ° rare

among

this

kind

is

seen to be the substance of wood.
its

The
it

nature of iron then has

place between the two, and

when

it

has taken in certain tiny bodies of brass, then
it

comes to pass that the Magnesian stones drive
their stream.

on with

And yet these powers are not so alien to other things There are other cases that I have only a scanty store of things of this kind, of or ' »
which
for
I

can

tell

—things

fitted just for
'

each other and
i_

things

with a

naught besides.

First

vou

:u iar see that stones are stuck P« !

the bindings of the glue will loosen their hold. The m0 rtar, wc, od and iuice born of the grape is willing to mingle with streams *
ot water,

Wood is united only by bulls binding together only by mortar. ower so that the veins of boards more often gape than P due, stones and
'•

affinity

and

1

.

1

|i

rpi

though heavy pitch and

,.

.. g' ue > wine , light olive-oil refuse. an( j wate r,

272
dye and

Book

FI

y

11.

1074-noy

w

'

And the purple tint of the shellfish is united only with the body of wool, yet so that it cannot be separated at all, no, not if you were to be at pains to restore it with
Neptune's wave, no, nor if the whole sea should strive to wash it out with all its waves. Again, is not there one
thing only that binds gold to gold? is it not true that How many brass is joined to brass only by white lead?
otrier cases

brass

and

white lead.

might we
of long

find

!

What then ?

You have no

need at

Whenever
shapes
fit

rambling roads, nor is it fitting that I should spend so much pains on this, but 'tis best shortly Those things, in a few words to include many cases.
all

w h ose
hollows

textures
_

fall

mutually,
a strong
fit
j

so aptly L '

one upon the other that [

solids,
#

joining
results.

k est

i

J

om

ng b

each in the one and the other, make the Sometimes, too, they mav be held linked
1
.

with one another, as it were, fastened by rings and hooks ; as is seen to be more the case with this stone and the
iron.
8.

Plague
disease.

Now
on

what

is

and

a sucj^ en trie f orce

the law of plagues, and from what cause { disease can arise and gather

When

the

deadly destruction for the race of men and the herds of First I have shown before that there cattle, I will unfold.
ar seec} s
f

seeds of

manv

harmful
things

thinjrs
.

which are helpful to our

life, '

and

gather the sky,

m
it.

they
pollute
i

must needs be that many fly about wrl ich cause disease and death. And when by chance have happened to gather and distemper the sky, then they
on the other hand
it

t }le

ajr

b ecome s

full of disease.

And

all

that force of

come from disease and pestilence either comes from without the outside the world through the sky above, as do clouds and mists,
from the
earth.

hey may

...

or else often
itself,

it

when,

full of

gathers and rises up from the earth moisture, it has contracted foulness,

So

travellers

are afiected

smitten by unseasonable rains or suns. Do you not see, tQo ^ triose wri0 j 0U rney far from their home and

^^

Book VI)
country are assailed

11.

1103-1134

273

by the strangeness of the climate by a strange c imatei and the water, just because things are far different? For what a difference may we suppose there is between the
climate the Britons

know and
world

where the

axis of the

slants crippled

that which is in Egypt, n what differ;

ence between the climate in Pontus and at Gades, and so
right

on to the black

races of

men with

their sunburnt
differ-

colour?

And

as

we

see these four climates at the four and

winds and quarters of the sky thus diverse one from the
other, so the colour
greatly, ' '

ences °
differ-

and face

of the

men

are seen to vary cause

and

diseases too to attack the diverse races

each
_

ences °

appearance

the elephant disease, which in races, anc P roduce arises along the streams of the Nile in mid Egypt, and in no other place. In Attica the feet are assailed, and the diseases,
after their kind.

There

is

eyes in the

ful to different parts

Achaean country. And so each place is harmand limbs the varying air is the
:

cause.

Wherefore, when an atmosphere, which chances to be noxious to us, sets itself in motion, and harmful air

if then a n0X10US

begins to creep forward, just as cloud and mist crawls on moves and
little

atmosphere

and distempers all, wherever it advances, comes to us, and brings about change, it comes to pass also, that when at last it comes to our sky, it corrupts it and makes it like
by
little
itself,

and noxious to us. And so this strange destruction and pestilence suddenly falls upon the waters or settles even on the crops or on other food of men or fodder of r
the flocks

pestilence rebU lS or

man and
beast.

itself,

or else this force remains poised in the air when we draw in these mingled airs as we and,
;

breathe,

it

must needs be that we suck
In
like

in these plr.gues

with them into our body.
tilence falls too often

on the

cattle,

manner the pesand sickness also
it

on the

lazy bleating sheep.
hostile

Nor
to us
e

does

matter whether

we

pass into spots

and change the ves-

546.15

274

B°°k fly

M-

1134-1162

ture of the sky, or whether nature attacking us brings x a corrupt sky upon us, or something which we are not

accustomed to
coming.
Such was
the plague
j

feel,

which can

assail

us

by

its

first

Such
n

^

a cause of plague, 11
f

countr y

Cecrops

filled

such a deadly influence, once the fields with dead and
the city of
its citizens.

which came

m

Symptoms
and causes
disease.

emptied the
it

streets, draining

For

arose deep within the country of Egypt,

traversing
last

much

sky and floating fields,

and came, and brooded at

over

^^

the people of Pandion. Then troop by troop ] wefe gj ven over to dj sease anc death. First of all
all

red they felt the head burning with heat, and both eyes with a glare shot over them. The throat, too, blackened voice inside, would sweat with blood, and the path of the

was blocked and choked with

ulcers, and the tongue, the mind's spokesman, would ooze with gore, weakened with when pain, heavy in movement, rough to touch. Then,

through the throat the force of disease had filled the breast and had streamed on right into the pained heart of the sick, then indeed all the fastnesses of life were loosened.
Their breath rolled out
like

a

noisome smell from the mouth,

the stench of rotting carcasses thrown out of doors. And straightway all the strength of the mind and the whole body grew faint, as though now on the very thres-

hold of death.
train
of

their

And aching anguish went ever in the unbearable suffering, and lamentation,

ever mingled with sobbing. And a constant retching, would constrain them conand again, by night and day, and limbs, and would utterly tinually to spasms in sinews
1

The MS.
:

text involves
possibly, as

an impossible

be the sense wrong.

Housman

false quantity, but this must of the words is suggests, the order

Book VI,
break

11.

1162-119$
out, full

275weary before.

them down, wearing them

see the topmost skin on the yet in none could you surface of the body burning with exceeding heat, but

And

rather the

and at
limbs.

body offered a lukewarm touch to the hands same time all was red as though with the scar the
is

of ulcers, as it

when the holy

fire

spreads through the

But the inward parts of the men were burning to the bones, a flame was burning within the stomach as in There was nothing light or thin that you a furnace. could apply to the limbs of any to do him good, but ever
only wind and cold.

Some would

cast their limbs,

burn- Attempted

their ing with disease, into the icy streams, hurling

naked

body

into the waters.

Many

leapt headlong deep into

the waters of wells, reaching the water with their very mouth agape a parching thirst, that knew no slaking,
:

soaking their bodies,
a

made a great draught no better than Nor was there any respite from suffering The healers' art muttheir bodies lay there foredone. tered low in silent fear, when indeed again and again they would turn on them their eyes burning with disease and
few drops.
;

reft

of

sleep.
:

And many more
the

signs

of

death were Accom-

mind disunderstanding fy^"^ with pain and panic, the gloomy brow, the fierce of the traught min frenzied face, and the ears too plagued and beset with
afforded then
of the
»

noises, the breath quickened or drawn rarely and very over the neck, deep, and the wet sweat glistening dank

the spittle thin and tiny, tainted with a tinge of yellow and salt, scarcely brought up through the throat with
a hoarse

cough.

Then in

the hands the sinews ceased not

and the limbs to tremble, and cold to come up little by little from the feet. Likewise, even till the last moment, the nostrils were pinched, and the tip of
to contract
s

2

276

Book

VI

y

11.

1193-1224

the nose sharp and thin, the eyes hollowed, the temple3 sunk, the skin cold and hard, a grin on the set face, And not long afterthe forehead tense and swollen.
Length of

wards the limbs would
beneath

lie

stretched

stiff

in death.

And
life.

usually on the eighth day
his

of the shining sunlight, or else

ninth torch, they would yield up their

Subsequent
h
escaped.

And if any of them even so had avoided the doom of death,
y et a ft erwai"ds wasting and death would await him with noisome ulcers, and a black flux from the bowels, or else
often with aching head a flow of tainted blood would pour from his choked nostrils into this would stream all the
:

strength and the body of the man.

Or

again,

when

a

escaped yet the disease would

man had

this fierce

outpouring of corrupt blood,
its

make

way

into his sinews

and

limbs, and even into the very organs of his body. some in heavy fear of the threshold of death
live on, bereft of these parts

And
would
a

by the

knife,

and not

few

lingered in
eyes.

life

without hands or feet and some

lost their

So firmly had the sharp fear of death got hold on

them.
so
Unburied
bodies

On

some, too, forgetfulness of

all

things seized,

avoided

that they could not even know themselves. And though bodies piled on bodies lay in numbers unburied on ^g p rounc ve t the race of birds and wild beasts
l

.

by and

bird
beast.

would fall drooping in quickindeed in those days hardly would any bird appear at all, nor would the gloomy race of wild beasts issue from the woods. Full many would droop in
^

would range OT wrien they had
either

far

away, to escape the bitter stench,

tasted,

coming death.

And

disease

and

die.

More than
for the

all

the faithful strength of
their lives, strewn

dogs, fighting

hard, would
;

lay

down

about every street

power

of disease

would wrest

Book
the
life

VI-)

//.

1224-123-2

277
sure Lack of
re ">edies.

from

their limbs.

Funerals deserted, unattended,
rivalry.
all alike
;

were hurried on almost in
kind of remedy afforded for
giving breezes of

Nor was any
for that
his

which had
life-

granted to one strength to breathe in
air,

mouth the

and to gaze upon the quarters of the sky, was destruction to others, and made death ready for them. And herein was one thing pitiful and exceeding full of anguish, that as each man saw himself caught in the toils of the plague, so that he was condemned to
death, losing courage he would lie with grieving heart ; looking for death to come he would breathe out his spirit
straightway. For indeed, at no time would the contagion of the greedy plague cease to lay hold on one after the other, as though they were woolly flocks or horned
herds.
all

Despair,

And this above all heaped death on death. For who shunned to visit their own sick, over-greedy of ° '
'

Fate of
se
,


,

avoided the

were punished a while after- sick, wards by slaughtering neglect with a death hard and shameful, abandoned and reft of help. But those who and of
life

and

fearful of death,

had stayed near at hand would die by contagion and the toil, which shame would then constrain them to undergo,
and the appealing voice of the weary, mingled with the
voice of complaining.
suffered this

*e

°

them,

And

so all the nobler

among them
l
Burials.

manner

of death

and one upon others, as they vied in burying the crowd of their dead worn out with weeping and wailing they
:

would return
bed from
this

;

grief.

and the greater part would take to their Nor could one man be found, whom at

awful season neither disease touched nor death nor

mourning.
Moreover, by now the shepherd and every herdsman,
1

Some

lines of

connexion seem to be

lost here.

only skin on bones. for the panic. by the drooping crowd of country.. . wellnigh buried already in noisome ulcers and dirt. children The flock breathing out their life mto™ m no sma11 degree that affliction streamed from the fields into the city. „. filthy with stench and covered with rags. their limbs drooping on their half-dead body.278 would country. for these places the everywhere cumbered with carcasses guardians had filled with guests. and their bodies would lie thrust together into the recess of a hut. dying through and temples. death ^ad filled all bodies. fal1 Book Fly II. On lifeless children you might often have seen the lifeless bodies of parents. all houses . For indeed by now the religion of the gods for Horrors of and their godhead was not counted it all. thirst and rolled forward and public places. given over to death by poverty and disease. And the town and increase the disease. Many bodies. and again. packed in Dead in stifling heat. laid low by lay life death piled them up in heaps. 1253-1282 The plague and likewise the sturdy steersman of the curving plough. And to many things the sudden . brought upon mothers and fathers. men comm g would fill . with aforetime this people had ever been wont to be . the foulness of their body. and so all the more. strewn at the fountains of water. throu §h the streets. . and all the sacred shrines of the gods with lifeless the temples of the heavenly ones remained . laid out best he could. them by the exand many in full view throughout the public places and the streets you might have seen. and every man sorrowing buried as whole people was disordered and in his dead. drooping. together diseased from every quarter. They all places. the breath of shut off from ceeding delight of the water. much : the grief of the moment overwhelmed Nor did the which buried old rites of burial continue in the city. Again. .

calamity and 11. often wrangling with much bloodshed. 1282-1286 279 For with filthy poverty prompted men. would place their own kin on the great clamouring they high-piled pyres of others. and set the torches to them. .Book VI. rather than aban- don the bodies.

pp. C.. such an invocation is to be accepted as a poetical tradition. though to some extent. 10 ff. 1042). (See Martha. in our country's time of trouble. 61 ff.NOTES BOOK I I ff. 646) that the gods live a blessed and have no concern with the government of the affairs of men.C. the fiery walls of the world. a man of Greece : of course Epicurus. after Lucretius's death in 55 B. world or the power of nature. Mcmmius's noble son. g. He had taken some part in public life. Lucretius conceived of our . Lucretius's reverence for which may fairly be regarded as his true religion. but Lucretius is more probably thinking of the gathering storm 42. The poem was published and its unfinished state shows that he must have been working at it in the immediately preceding period. Memmius. no doubt. whom Lucretius only once mentions by pp. But. II. During that time Caesar was fighting in Gaul. of civil war. Venus is to him the creative life apart. whom Lucretius wished to arouse to a more real faith and a better understanding of Epicurus's doctrines. Le poeme de Lucrece. but was better known as a prominent and somewhat dissolute He was probably figure in society. and seen foreign service. a professed Epicurean. was an aristocratic contemporary of Lucretius. The introductory invocation to Venus has caused great trouble to the commentators. See Introduction. as it appears to be inconsistent with Lucretius's belief (e. the life-giving force. 66. to whom the poem is addressed. and a patron of letters. it is much more truly explained as having for Lucretius an esoteric meaning. 73. name (III.) 41.

are never uncaused additions to matter. the Virgin of the Cross-roads.C. see Euripides' play. The second As matter never principle is complementary to the first. 216.Book 7. at Aulis. Artemis. .). be taken quite 84. This first is principle shows that the ultimate basis of the universe matter. //. Iphigeneia was brought to Anlis on the understanding that she was to be married to Achilles. and even translated Even as phrases in this passage. literally. 1-216 281 world as a sphere. He believed in Pythagoras's theory of metempsychosis. Lucretius. our Roman reader of the ceremonials of own Ennius. therefore. the sea. we may be sure that things are never created without a ' seed '. and laid the foundation of nearly all the later branches of Roman poetry. &c. Notice that his proof als9 establishes the law of cause and effect. from which Lucretius has borrowed several details. Ennius (died 169 B. i. As this does not occur. nothing is ever begotten of nothing. seized by men's hands. nor does she destroy ought into nothing. 457-70). 117. who introduced the hexameter. the first great genius in Latin poetry. : for the story of the sacrifice of Iphigeneia at Aulis in order to procure favourable winds for the fleet starting against Troy. and thought that he himself was possessed by the soul of Homer. proof against has been ' much ' criticized on the ground that he argues ' spontaneous to his creation. whose appearance to him in a vision he described in one of his Saturae. " ' a store of Lucretius's to which no addition is ever made. which was his strongest weapon of attack on religion. the effect man from would be that they would appear to spring from alien sources. C. &c. 15c. &c. things But came into being without a creation by a denial of sporadic mind they were really the same if : ' seed ' or cause. e. i. of which the outer coat was a circling stream The expression here is then to of fiery ether (V. e. here carefully selects phrases which would remind a marriage. 95.

. disputing. To Epicurus's argument that without it motion is impossible. I. . but that motion was due to the mutual interchange of a view not unlike that which is now held places between things in conjunction with the conception of ether. is quicker than that of creation. 459. When Lucretius alludes to opponents vaguely. just as much as their colour or scent or sound. The argument here 391. and even went that it is so far as to call it a body '. which condenses. and then expands again when they separate. The Stoics. argument is difficult. 330. e. interval between the comes to be is the filling up of the two bodies with air. Lucretius replies only a sensation that we get from things. against whom as usual. To it he objects that such condensation and expansion itself is rather obscure ' ' : this implies an admixture of empty space : a thing can only expand because there is more vacuum in it. Lucretius replies — that such interchange of place necessarily implies empty space. or wealth or poverty. Once more the Lucretius is. Even so time exists not by itself .) the process of destruction void in things. an 'accident' of things. 1053). without mentioning their names. so it never suffers any loss the two together constitute the modern notion of the permanence of matter. Note if nature could destroy anything. held that time was an existence ' in itself. 465. But if by chance any one thinks. i. he adds two others derived from the nature of 370. some vainly imagine. Lucretius imagines a view of air as a kind of elastic fluid. the Stoics. They held that void did not exist.282 receives Notes : any addition. or contract because there is less. there of is Having established the existence matter in the form of particles. the whole again the proof universe would perish. he nearly always has in view his natural rivals.g. and show its existence in the form of particles. he proceeds to show that there must also be empty space. which compound things. . because (as he explains more clearly in : lines 556 ff. the Stoics (e. as the bodies meet.

all is the persons. Lucretius's reply is twofold he says first. we can " " say that it is an accident of the place. the Lucretian the end of the twentieth year. born. there are 'atoms' (a-Tofim f indivisible things). and dissolve again into the particles. they said. e. But if there is no limit to destruction. toben men say. or if you object that that too has changed.' if 551.) 599. . if its they had not existed.g. as it is. and come to maturity. and illustration come . of that part of space. in a rather frivolous spirit Well. If at : horse. 330-rpp . 283 had apparently Then again.. (This explanation from Giussani's edition of Lucretius. is that the rate of destruction twice as quick as that of creation. nature requires to make another atom would. and into a horse so on. ten years for a horse to be conceived. he ' : : ' replies seriously : of course it " was an " accident of the persons. creation never keeping pace with destruction. lain having dormant for five years. much less could we be of their accidents '.. Another difficult proof of the complete solidity (and therefore indestructibility) Lucretius is arguing. in other words. of something of which we are conscious now. and it will now require not ten but twenty years to put the particles together and the next generation would require forty. be there ready. 11. an argument which is Let us suppose it looks at first sight. Again. The Stoics raised a special difficulty with regard to Epicurus's theory of ' ' accidents in the case of events in the past : the Trojan War. starting from particles the size it will then require five for him to of the Lucretian atom grow old and die. and that it takes. . . and we are not conscious of them. since there are extreme points . for. so to speak. But. as Epicurus had taught of the atom.' Secondly. more obscure than nature had ordained . we see that there are fixed periods in which things can be created and come to maturity: there must then be a limit to destruction. neither could the Trojan War and events. during those five years the process of destruction will have been going on at an equal : rate. are ' ' long since dead. but whom you say it was an accident '.Book Iy 464.

it. of a few minute which can only exist as parts of the atom. if you select one element as the basis. then. the notion of rarefaction one element. The needle composed of a countless number is of In the same parts. Lucretius's argument holds well enough for any such theory .). from the analogy of perceptible things. those who held that the elements retained their nature in combination (770 ff. separable parts 638. or downwards to the moisture which lay at the other end of the ' path '. way then the atom composed such tiny points. Notes to do. see a point so small that. earth. : which gave rise to other things by a perpetual flux . c. all eternal and indestructible. air. everything was either streaming upwards to form fuel for the fire.) is selected as the type of the philosophers who held that the world was . then other things do not. he himself believed composed of more than one element that it was made of all four. g. 716. if it or if it changes into other things. Empedoclcs of Agrigentum (about 440 b. and introduces ideas which were not actually in Heraclitus's theory: and condensation really comes from Anaximenes. but capable by combination and separation of forming the perceptible world. but not in other words. Heraclitus of Ephesus (about 510 b. they are the minimum of material existence. fire. Lucretius again embraces in his criticism two schools of thought. The atom then has extension. it ceases to continues to exist.g. exist as itself . to fix our attention on the extreme point of a needle. is perfectly solid. Lucretius takes early philosophers who him as typical of the class of believed that the world was made of e. and water.) held that the primary substance of which the world was created was fire. If we try. c. and can have no existence apart from the atom which they compose. who believed air to be the primary material.284 him e. and those who held that they ' ' changed into other . and could not be separated from it . it the we tried to see half of would pass out itself is of the range of vision altogether. minimum for sight : if we can it is though it is perceptible itself.

It is used in much the same form by Locke. the earlier philosophers. but Lucretius has not understood held. But. that things were composed for '. as Lucretius points out. and was an approach to the modern idea of gravitation. the bomoeomeria of Anaxagoras of Clazomenae (about 440 b. in the first place. as will be seen. that island. small particles like in substance to the whole. always heterogeneous. for the four elements are not sufficient to account for the infinite variety of phenomena. scarce born of human stock. by his he destroys the fundaon the other. but i. that these ' portions were not merely extremely minute. this will not account for the phenomena of change. Empedocles too four. 13. Empedocles. whom Lucretius criticizes. 1052. Anaxagoras's chief aim to explain. 6$8-1052 : 28 f But his general criticism is just is on the one hand. who held a theory which was an advance on that of tised magic. that all things tend to the centre of the world. who pracseems to have laid claim to divine powers. very near the truth. 830. which it was. . elements . 11. &c. 733. This theory. mental unity of the world a pluralist. but explained there. experiment of the infinity of the universe is a famous one. For this purpose he said indeed that 4 there is a portion of everything in everything ' ' '. Sicily. only perceptible by reason '. adopt of the of it. thingswas always downwards 184 ff.). suppose now. in is He fact. as it was a direct contradiction fundamental Epicurean theory that the natural motion (II. near to the modern conception of Lucretius of chemical change. &c. he is not enough of much of a pluralist. and really paved the way him. but never could see them. line 875 and the crude criticism therefore beside the from onwards mark. in fact. Lucretius could not. Essay 11. e. I. of course.Book things (763 fT. we know that they are came. came.e.). held again by the Stoics. Herein shrink far from believing. Moreover. of ' He seeds atomism. for 717. This proof by imaginary 968. c). i.

until it collides with another atom. Indeed. and we must imagine the atoms forming tiny molecules. For since they wander through the void. (3) the movement due to the collisions originally brought about by this swerve. of internal vibration Here the idea and consequent retardation comes out . e. This internal vibration in directions will of course retard the motion of the whole. with ever lessening motion. until. 127. &c. of and Pompey. as they collide atoms are always moving even in compound bodies. c. on which military reviews were held. Caesar had his army there for three months before starting for Gaul. such jostlings hint. Munro notes that in 58 b. is implied in these few 153. they accomplish All in the direction tiny trajectories. when the in the bodies are large enough for us to perceive. A ft. the Campus Martius. All this. very important passage for Lucretius's theory of motion. and all started new direction.) . downwards due (2) his account of (2) owing to its special 124. rather illogically. importance. and this occasion may well be in Lucretius's mind. as he is reserving to their weight . the motion is also sufficiently retarded to be visible to us. at the full atomic speed (142 inside which. he seems to be thinking of the rivalry of Caesar 83. traces of a concept. &c.). i.2 8 6 Notes BOOK II 40. with one another. such as the motes sunbeam. See note on line 744. lines. he only mentions (1) and (3). Lucretius really conceives of three causes of their movement (1) the natural : fall the occasional slight swerve sideways (216 ff. in lines 12 and 13. &c. above. Nor again do the several particles. Here. though not clearly stated. each moving which the is last blow gave in a it. The account the movement of the free atoms in the void is a little con- fused in this and the following passages. and then slightly larger bodies. and sometimes an army would be encamped. just outside the walls of Rome. the spaces of the Campus.

Sec. push a little from swerve of the atoms and of The notion of the slight tremendous result in the free will man is philosophy. For suppose the first bodies. just like sight or smell. the result of Even among the atoms it can only happen as collisions. one atom is squeezed between their path.%7 is so impeded. as well as by through which it passes. an equal number of things of the same kind. be found in plenty in is. it will other parts of the world or the universe there whole. For this idea of the 485. its two others and thus shot up. &c : The relation between the swerve atoms and man's free-will is. in Lucretius's is caused.). 40-5-32 T. the harsh shuddering sound. g. See Introduction. If on. &c. of the former course.). which Epicurus regarded as a more dangerous enemy to morality than even religion. no bodily thing can of its own force. 219. which Lucretius nowhere states. . but 532. of the notion. But if tains one of Lucretius's in a vacuum perchance any one believes.Book very clearly . p. This paragraph conmost acute pieces of reasoning. 17. 523 ff. ' inseparable least parts in the atom see I. 269. and it is the swerving of these atoms which gives rise to an act of will. or even in our world altogether. of the ' equal is distribution ' Qcrovofila) of a certain class rare in some parts : of the world. on the Compare 569 ff. che opposition of the : external force. and penetrating the ear (IV. an important point upward motion is always the result of even the sun's light air. Sound. that all things fall at the same pace. 161 ff. 599 ff. often acts things. &c. &c. This is again 185. for a supremely important point in the Epicurean it combats Democritus's belief in complete determinism. so that you see a start of movement. given ' For because you see. If) 11. when e. by a body of particles off by the object. for a similar idea. 225. 410. to Lucretius's mind not a mere analogy is the cause of the latter. Here we meet a curious principle of Epicurus. The mind is composed of a subtle texture of fine atoms (III.

The mind had ready in itself general notions or of Epicurus. . A reference to a rather obscure ideain the psychology of Epicurus. Then comes an armed band. Compare lines 1047 and 1080 of this book. Modern investigation seems to show that the Phrygian worship was actually derived from the Cretan. or sometimes. rr^ biavoias).'anticipations'). to which it could refer. by the analogy of the blind. . to ' visualize '. g. the Great Notes Mother of the gods. The mind being an aggregation of soul-atoms. &c. selection. and supports it with rather different arguments in V. we know. suggesting that we must think of the atoms as something which could be touched but not seen. e. 701. observation.. antiquity in some confusion between the worship of Cybele in Phrygia and that of the Mother in Crete. Here Lucretius imagines his reader as doubting whether it was possible for the mind by such an act of 'pro' jection to grasp the idea. i. when it so combines more than one image in its grasp. But the mind has a power of spontaneously projecting itself upon' ' the images (eVi|3o\. because we have the general idea of 'horse' to which to refer (for this reason Epicurus gave the this is a horse concepts the rather curious nameof 7rpo\r^eiff. This was the title of the earth-goddess. &c. Cybele.288 598. 878 740. colourless atoms. Lucretius returns to this idea of the impossibility of the formation of monsters with parts derived from different races of animals. e. that the ff. Another technical notion 744. &c. which results in attention. concepts of classes of things. There was always 629. in the creation of a new conception.). 722 ff. Lucretius in the next para- graph explains the ceremonial of the cult allegorically. when He replies any new instance that ' of the class occurred '. for you would see monsters. mind cannot project itself into these bodies. its thoughts are caused when these atoms are stirred by images coming from things outside or from its own stores (IV. which was heightened by the fact that in each place the scene of the worship was on Mount Ida. whose worship had been brought to Rome from Phrygia in 204 b. may become a clear concept. thus. c.

we get the clear concept of a colourless atom. &c. (1) the sensation of a complete sentient being. they are soft. (b) they could not by coming together produce one sentient being. 908. it ' But firstly. V. they must be like in substance to such sensible things as we know. If then the atoms. which is the very reverse of and therefore not mortal. once more to our experience. in which Lucretius is is going to prove that the soul mortal. must needs IV. 902. Easier cases of the application of the idea of concepts will ' be found in 865.Book II. veins. Next. what Lucretius's imaginary opponents would wish to prove. &c. If so. apart from the whole commust be : pound. sinews. he probably conceived of their being formed by a combination So here. 546. 182. still doubtless they must either have. 1047. &c. would have no sensation. is of course of immense importance for the next Book. of existing concepts by a projection of the mind '. 476. But in the case of imperceptible things. and would not feel if it were taken out. 124. 124. (2) the sensation of a part of ' ' ' such a being. such as the atoms. in the case ' objects. Again the He appeals argument is put very briefly and obscurely. a difficult and very tersely expressed argument. by the storing up in the mind of a series of single impressions. &c. This proof. Secondly. have themselves sensation. are yet created of atoms that have not. In this case the individual atoms. S9S-908 289 of perceptible These general concepts were formed. ' by combining the concept ' of an atom with that ' ' of touch with- out sight. If there are sensible atoms. that things which themselves have sensation. 11. be. We only know two kinds of sensation. but then (a) like other sentient beings they must be mortal (see note on 902). they may be each of them complete sentient beings . have sensation as parts of a sentient whole my tooth only feels as a part of me. parts only of one of these two kinds. It II. as when I feel well or happy '. as when my tooth aches '. which formed a sort of composite photograph '.15 T . those who think. which compose sentient beings.

Compare III. A reference to the in Homer. what we see floating on the surface of things is the 4 secondary qualities '. as he has explained at great length : what we see at times coming to birth and is This paragraph a summing up of all he has said from line 730 onwards. A slightly different position to that just dealt with. But by chance any one shall say. 776. &c. famous passage was no golden rope.!. . : 740. whereof the race of men has its peculiar increment. unless (c) in uniting they lose their own sense and combine to form the new sense of the to compound being ? . 54. but the individual atoms always remain insentient. and especially colour. . which. For it interpreted the passage allegorically as referring to the creation of life on earth. but they replies Lucretius . effort. 918. and especially I. e. 8. become sentient in the compound. is clearly a case free 1077. the unfettered projection of our mind . in this case why attribute sense them as individuals if 931. by its own puts concepts together to form a new conclusion. in the universe there is nothing single: for this argu- ment 1 1 see note on line 532. 367. man his has in addition to the non-sensible atoms which compose body. 975. by their union they form a sentient body. 1011. may be admitted that the atoms are not sentient when No. where Zeus challenges the other gods to attach a golden rope to him and pull him The Stoics had apparently down from heaven to earth. che sensible atoms. . passing away is similarly sensation. Iliad. : This argument is of course not to be Lucretius is fond of finishing a series taken quite seriously of serious proofs with a reductio ad absurdum. It Sec. 19. separate.290 Notes but only a jumble of independent sentient beings. This where the mind. see note on line 1047. according to the theory Lucretius is opposing.

This nature then of the soul. with the motions of first-beginnings. or else of that the soul was made of blood was that of Empedocles. has often been claimed as a prac241. wind. as Lucretius does. which the Greeks call a harmony. 127 and 262. First I say that the ' ' or vital principle (anima). 323 291 BOOK III winds shake. which has passed on into English in Tennyson's Morte theory of d''Arthur. The 43. a pupil a great theoretical musician. Od. All through this book we must distinguish carefully. which is an aggregate of pure soul-atoms situated in the breast. This idea of the mysterious fourth nature. and is the seat of thought and volition. who was particularly of Aristoxenus.Book II y I.. I. but scattered throughout the body and mixed with the atoms.. admission by Lucretius of something supra-material or But of course he conceives it as purely spiritual in the mind. when he is making statements which in an inclusive apply to both. however. Lucretius is thinking of Aristotle. between the mind {animus). wind that of Critias. and is the cause of sensation in the body. See II. &c. the note on that passage . P31-JII. which is infinitely subtle. the soul in return T 2 . he uses one or other of the terms sense. tical corporeal. so that while the body lends the body sensation protects the soul. intimate union of soul and body. This notion of the very 323. the idea of the internal vibrations of the atoms there illustrated is what Lucretius has in his mind here. 42 fit. which neither the to a famous passage in Homer. Sec. 100. Again an allusion 19.. VI. that the soul's nature is of blood. and is the ultimate cause of sensation and thought. mind . just like any of the other component elements. 94. and applied his musical theory to the explanation of the human soul. and the soul of body Sometimes. which is made similar atoms. some fourth nature.

whose peculiar sensation. expounded in And since the Book mind IV. though . and cure. Another example of the ad absurdum as the conclusion of a serious argument. which are not well classified or arranged by Lucretius. is one part of man. death. &c. (2) close parallelism proofs from death. with Leucippus. by images of smoke and cloud. is here treated as practically another organ of sense. is aroused. The mind.292 Is Notes not very clearly expressed. the heart has had a shock. the earliest exponent of the atomic theory. Be it yours. use 'the heart'. 367. but we can distinguish three main lines of argument (1) proofs from the previously described structure of soul and : body . He is always regarded with great respect by Lucretius. 621). . I think. of course. ' ' images '. reference to the theory 430. c). these 597. who carefully notes this point. and to : translate them we must. a warning that in this section he 421. &c. 12. There follows a rather bewildering series of twenty-eight proofs. by touch. (3) arguments from the absurdity of the conception of the soul existing alone apart from body. as the cause of vision and thought is A which 548. p. to prove that the soul is mortal. but is of course of great importance for the subsequent discussion . neither soul nor body can continue to exist without the presence and help of the other. reductio if our eyes are as doors. was. This is. just like all other sensations. See Introduction. or idols '. the minds and the light souls main purpose of the book. . applicable to the other. of of the is mind and the soul. disease. thought. 4. on which Epicurus differed from him (compare V. : means to speak comprehensively and that what is said of the one See note on line 94. showing the between soul and body . and that therefore there is no reason to fear its punishment after the . or the heart has failed are meant to be phrases of quite common parlance. Democritus of Abdera (about 430B.17. 371.

perhaps a little obscure. none of which the soul fulfils. that everything in nature has its fixed place. to whom it was the only mode of thought. An interesting argument in support of heredity as against the notion of the transmigration of souls. to prove is naught of to us. ever things Lucretius repeats the argument in that our world is not immortal. &c.' of the really the climax poem. as it must be for the Epicurean. Moreover. &c. From here to the end book follows a kind triumph-song over the mortality it of the soul. If an already formed soul enters our body at the moment of birth. &c. &c. Again. fcr after It is there is no part of us surviving to feel anything. Moreover. Sec. perishes. We need not fear death. new line of 784. Death. a tree cannot exist in the sky. 772. grant. and that of the soul is in the body. 351 ff. as we if it is 698) its dispersed it among the limbs. and the soul in a different soul to that which existed before.BOOk Illy 11. Another general principle. Again 806. abide for everlasting. : ' notice that the test of truth is the possibility of visualization '. the change is not so far wrong. if when our body. $67-876 29 3 Lucretius uses his ordinary words for 'mind' and 'soul'. why does fiery passion. Again. In this and the next para- graph we notice again the reductio ad absurdutn towards the it has already obtruded itself in lines 725 ff. closely linked (b) (line independent existence. Or why does it desire. it could never and connected with our body. be does not. &c. The argument of this paragraph is not so clear as it might be it is really a dilemma. (a) if it keeps its become so see it is . Seeing that he placed the mind in the breast. Nor in any other way can we picture to ourselves. 128 ff. that there are certain fixed conditions for immortality. : 876. it does not maintain the body is existence. 679. argument. of the ' Book V. &c. conclusion . 830. then. 741. . Lucretius applies the same argument again in almost the if A same words in V. . I trow. 627. &c.

Of course legendary fourth king of Rome. Ancus Martius. above all. to which he specially refers in lines 1008 ff. which would have a very prosy the text. which gave the owner the most complete title to it. the Lucretius takes this line who once . to and mode of burial. as though heaped in a vessel full of boles. be himself. BOOK 1. or ' usufruct '. . the Romans often left the corpse lying on 891. It seems best to accept effect. from the Annals of Ennius. since on the surface of things. the mere right of possession by custom. thinking of the legend of the Danaids. or on the bier on which it was brought. to none for freehold. as it is itself a translation of Epicurus's word eldw\ov. as he half-consciously assumes that some part of him will survive to feel what happens to his body. 971. or the other. Xerxes. from I. usus. Ancus the good. 1029. &c. &c. idols : simulacra in this way. it seems best to translate Lucretius's word 34. rather than to introduce their exact equivalents. a rock slab in the vault. : Lucretius is here using two technical terms of Roman law mancipium was a full legal process of acquiring a possession.294 Such his Notes a man professes to grant that his soul does not survive death on the grounds which Lucretius has just been But he does not in practice admit either the one discussing. The famous theory of vision is clearly explained here by Lucretius himself. 921 ff. a passage 67. . These verses are repeated with a few slight changes. grow stiff with cold: this is not an alternative but goes closely with what has just preceded. 1025. Lucretius is 936. with more meaning than is at first apparent. to all on lease. into parallel expressions in English. After embalming. When in the : . IV I traverse the distant haunts.

The films are sent on their way by the blows of other single atoms inside the compound. first. because is a We greater than that of any compound of atoms. so to speak. For when ' it is given off. hitting us in 246. &c. and the able to impart great speed to them. which they are going to see. Lucretius seems to be combining two points that he wished to state : (1) that these images are constantly But because we can all parts of our body. it is these very 193. it is their tiny trajectories (see note obvious that those in the inner part are well hemmed in. how can they know at what moment the 'draught' from any particular object. Not a very satisfactory our eyes measure the length of draught from objects which passes through them . A very confused see them only . and it can therefore impart greater speed to any object which it hits. saw (see note on esoteric piece of Epicurean physics. 891-IV. which produce vision. even if they could.Book III. abstruse piece of theory. and so are much more liable to break away from the object . when particles of things. start. wherever we turn our eyes. 527). An important . &c. This it is a tiny cause. begins ? 256. through which they have to make their way. ' tiny cause ' is therefore &c. but we can only see them with our eyes . 256 29 ? in the atoms are moving at great speed II.. 127) that the speed of the unimpeded atom was much then that form the films. II. (2) as the images are constantly streaming off bodies on all sides. For the same as the latter is checked by internal vibration. Herein by no means must we deem. this (b) ' For (a) how can &c. Moreover. we see them. But those which start from the surface. on I. compound body all I. 241. But those on the surface have none outside to beat them back. however small. and therefore attain a statement. account. Another rather 199. Particles coming from deep within things are obstructed and jostled by the atoms. much greater rate of motion. without this initial handicap. reason the impact of the unimpeded atom is greatest. and therefore have their speed diminished..

a very ingenious but not 315. the square tower. as Giussani suggests. was one of the traditional difficulties of the Epicurean school. &c. Again. inasmuch as nature. and the result would be that the image would be given a twist and turned round so that 322. very clear explanation. and it is doubtful whether it was ' Epicurus's own. And when we see from afar off. however. the concept of the true and the false. which is the real cause of all the last four phe- nomena. The concept. as we say is in modern scientific language. '. Sec. flank-curved mirrors'. as we have seen (see note on II. must be produced by a series of individual experiences. Here they give a general principle. in which list we journey. 476. after line 307. which seems round at a distance. The idea is that with a flat mirror the whole surface of the image meets the mirror at once and is returned as it is. scepticism and vindication of the veracity of the senses is the keystone of the whole Epicurean philosophy : every other part of it really depends on this. This protest against 469. 311.29 6 point. : '. equal to the These two lines ought possibly to be placed. but constant us a 'cinematographic' impression of the whole object. 387. &c. their Notes We do not see the individual succession gives ' idols ' of things. it reached us again ' right-handed Sec. if any one thinks. 744). This ' explanation. tends to destroy our trust in the idols as true evidence of things. If a man has never perceived any- . or else because the image. but with the curved mirror one corner of the image would touch it before the rest. Sec. where they would be more immediately in place. but in the inferences made by the mind. The ship. There follows an which Lucretius interesting of ' optical illusions lies in all of holds that the mistake not in the sense-perception. The problem of 353. probably a special name for : concave horizontal mirrors. the angle of reflection angle of incidence.

because there are at all in these matters. Compare the argument in lines 199 ff. First of all. for by Pliny and Plutarch. Sec. Come now. This curious fact is 710. I will tell. Sec. let Come now. not necessary to assume the intervention of emissions. p. ravening lions. is Introduction. Sec. 694. and the note there. An argument against . because coming from deep within. thought must be produced just like sight or hearing. sprung from false sensation. if we bear in mind always ' the Lucretian conception of thought as visualization '.. much more must reason be it cannot act as a criterion of the truth of sense-perceptions. is The same idea found in a famous passage of Democritus. me tell you. thing true with the senses. Nor do the tongue it The case of taste is easy. Nay. &c. The mind can think of whatever it will. Herein you must eagerly. Sec. based on the senses. &c. Sec. The mind being an aggregation of corporeal atoms. truth ? 11. indeed. quoted in the 13. Sec. &c. bulk. every kind of sound. and palate. Sound is in 524. 493. by the stirring of the atoms of the 777. Another obscurely expressed passage. and 673. And times present to it idols of every sort. all that goes along with colour form in its various aspects of surface-outline. size. mind by ' idols '. just like eye or ear. 740). vouched 722. In the case of smell Lucretius has again to assume the effluence or emission to act as a link between the nose and the object. : If then the senses are false. 311-82$ 297 the concept of how can he have is Reason 483. because it is can be accounted for directly by touch. ' ' ' ' 823. Sec. for its function is to distinguish and correlate the impressions given by the senses. and it can turn it3 attention to any one of these it likes by a projection (see note on II. The main idea is simple. 615. Will reason.Book IV. much like the idols ' of vision. ' Lucretius's idea a corporeal emission. which strikes upon the ear. Firstly.

material explanation. it is best to flee those images. The sails should correspond to the act of will in the body. 1128 883. passage should be read and its origin in the ff. For ff. First of all sleep comes to pass. as the distinction would not be important enough. who thought it destructive to a man's peace of mind to be too dependent on others. It must be then that the soul-atoms in sleep are either scattered about in the body. see. &c. like a ship. but we cannot help remembering all through this passage the story that Lucretius himself was maddened by a love-philtre. two things are the entering air and the parts of the body which it reaches. which Lucretius of course dislikes because it might seem to support the theological idea that the gods made the world with a purpose. Notice again the purely 9 1 6. that the body. verily I have shown. This is almost certainly the sense of this corrupt line. The attack on love was part of the traditional philosophy of Epicurus. The see. the will. . says Lucretius. but does not seem likely to be what Lucrethat the tius ' meant. 216 897. the wind to the external force. But the sails are of no use without the wind.298 Notes the teleological view of nature. slight swerving of the atoms in II. in Then comes : this connexion with the theory of free-will. but the parallel does not work out very well. but because has been created we do 860. was not made in order that it we might &c. or driven out of retreat far within below the surface. it. or Even more strictly this physical is the account in the next paragraph of how comes to be. It is possible. as ' has been suggested. which is due to the soul. and ultimately driven to commit suicide. &c. 1063. Compare especially II. the air entering the pores. is borne on by sails and wind. eye. This would make the parallel more satisfactory. Sleep is the absence of sensation.

Book IV. But even if I knew not. &c. and their place being taken by fresh particles from behind. First of all. It has been thought. with a discussion whole picture of the nature and life of the gods. 117. &c. the concept of man. 744). after the long 235. He does indeed return to the question of the origin of religion in this book (lines 1 161 ff. that the rather subtle world had a birth and will be destroyed. ' This is a very good instance of ' the technical idea of the If the gods had from previous sense-perceptions. 860-V. 281 299 BOOK V Lucretius deals at such special length with 22. to the point which he left at line no. but that passage cannot be what he refers to here. 281. on earth. notion : A that what appears to us as a continuous stream of light from the sun. Enceladus being shut beneath Etna. the foremost ever perishing. I. and were punished by imprisonment beneath the earth. &c. . the poet now returns. I. how could they have set about to make a man ? One is tempted to reply after their ' anticipation (see note on II. digression about the gods and the theory of the divine creation : of the world. &c. ' not in their minds a concept of man. the giants. Lucretius's rather crude contribution to the problem of the existence of evil. to 155. Likewise that bounteous source. with Lucretius's intention was probability. '. is really a constant succession of small particles of light. that to close the whole poem. after the much and description of the plague of Athens.). resulting ' own image 195. of Hercules Hercules because he was adopted as their particular hero by : the Stoics. 182. or even from torches. clinching the argument of the poem with the proof that they could take no part in the government of the world. who attempted to assail heaven by piling Pelion on Ossa. all which I will hereafter prove you : but he never does.

if ever things abide. 443. traditional among the Greek physical philosophers. &c. &c. and the note on that passage. such as previous thinkers had assumed. 5 ff. The ideas of Lucretius's astronomy are often curious and complicated. Moreover. Horace. 806 ff. in the centre of the interior of which is suspended . in its main outlines. This idea of an original chaos. as it is Stoic doctrine. g. Moisture likezvise. but Epicurus explained how it might be brought about without the gratuitous assumption of an unaccountable whirl or an arbitrary 1 necessity '. This an adaptation by Lucretius of passage verses in which the tragic poet Pacuvius had expressed the interesting. Fig. i. but we must always bear in mind that he conceives the world as a sphere. if the ' ' great globe of the sky turns round. Odes i. 351. From this mass. was. The story the flood of Deucalion and Pyrrha was of course familiar in antiquity. 510. Compare of III. &c. &c. . 2. 411. Compare e. out of which a world was formed by the union of the like and the separation of the unlike.3oo 320. as some is tell : Notes of course the Stoics as usual.

ar i ii. : the press -re :: air at each of the paid P a current either £:~irr a"t. i as a whole aura it: round :s we mast then ' -:-. as in a rs r/sd.-:::•---. I apposite firection.Bc:k J\ the earth: 11. : :.- :ve :_trr_ a ::r~:r . the wodd c:-:tl-ei :: .i = "-: a": renne .. flowing beneath it. &c that c I ^nations..:aT_:z.are he first considers the it : the --_:'. 5 « t is natural ::.:eam which i "- Pie then rther ideas a : mav be advanced — : ve ::. i: aught : :: . rotate by the j in the fired die hca - fie* are seen to as a move. •--. S-'-~P~ —TV. I rid does ' He puts si deration on Epicurus's pr.-.: d as a -. :. i do give us e moon are :.:: the walla - :o~ ir.:::::. In t. ii : or below :. - r..~ t trs vre r : our senses k not -• Of Greet inform arc in.-:cin size: - it. on the suppo.-.-if. not - .::: of the w. ar. if and then caused j.. nor so long : In I I r on is deal .:: e. in r :r: ' :s ::•-. : ::. .: . p e f:: 1 a: nice-.: e- the ether. :o be C S . moved at 1 the . cs attress by which i: n aup- end does no: : | • Not .v. so t and t.- paragraph -sea - lndii --::£.is as. ii . l J t it with tl '.e ti. :f a that.- - fee Avery a: bat the earth on I and so forms a 1 a Eh i we gradually beneath it. e it as held fir— a: a: .

but as alternative explanations of the whole. &c. Notes For is : ' it may be that the idea is that from this spot. but Lucretius has unfortunately represented them not as concurrent explanations of a complex phenomenon. An obscure section. The apparent path of the sun in the heavens has two notable Fig. Suppose that in a given time the stars have actually . (1) he appears to make a complete circuit of the heavens in the year. the first (621-36) would explain the former phenomenon. because Lucretius is guilty of confusion. Of the two explanations given by Lucretius. or breach in the walls of the world '. Nor is there any single account of the sun. from west to east. 2). 2. through which myriads of particles of light from outside the world stream into it. of the relative orbits of sun. the second (637-45) (2) this circuit is it : the latter. &c. the sun 614. and the planets in longer periods than the sun . just as the moon does in a month. features: fore not in the same plane as the equator whereseems that the sun goes up and down as well as round. (1) Democritus's theory and planets may be explained by the accompanying diagram (Fig.302 596. an opening. moon.

and a new sun lit in the morning. But this orbit being set in a different plane to that of Can. if he completes a circle under the earth. &c. 3. which seem fixed. : this theory. brought about by roll i. was that of Heraclitus : the other is the when after his long journey. moved on II. This. b\ the sun from y to (2) c l . Fig. or until turning-point of Capricorn. theories of the dawn correspond exactly to the two immediately preceding theories of the sun's light . as they are nearer the earth and thus less ' influenced by the whirl of the heavens. the planets. the effect is of the sun passing down towards the south in the autumn until in winter he reaches the tropic. it is sug- in gested ' athwart (637-49). was his course '. that the sun was extinguished each night. e. either through . will in the same time ' 1 have moved from b to b\ the sun from c to c and the moon. the equator. winds blowing 643. . 1 . normal idea of ancient astronomy. from d to d slower still. . &c.Book V. if . those stars which 651. the planets seem to have moved from /3 to . But with reference to the stars. and northwards in the spring summer he reaches the tropic of Cancer. and the moon from 8 to d1 . Likewise at a fixed time. $97-656 303 the outer rim of the world from a to a: the planets moving more slowly. dawn is the advance light of his return . The two following 656.

&c. though its general meaning is comparatively clear. deity of the dawn. dawn is caused by the light gathering to form the sun. so that night : l. at the equinoxes or 'nodes'. so that day is longer (3) . especially with are regard to the precise meaning of the 'turning-points' they a point in the annual orbit or in the daily revolution ? : I take the whole passage to depend on what Lucretius has the already said about the annual orbit in lines 614-49 blast of the north wind and of the south refers to the theory that the sun was blown out of his natural course to the tropics: ' : ' the ' ' turning-points are. Summer Osy Day Day A/toW /V/'gWr Fig.Wirater 2Lquma>y 3. the points at which the sun's orbit cuts the equator (Fig. The passage means then. either because the in the divides the circle of the daily revolution unequally winter he is for the greater part below the horizon. just as they were in line 617. so that day and night are equal (2). 5). that mid-way in the sun's course from north to south and south to north the sun holds . This occurs twice in the year. in the summer he is for the greater part above the horizon. 4 (1) . Another difficult section. 4. but at the equinoxes he divides his circle exactly into semi-circles. The exact interpretation of lines 689-93 has been very much disputed. is longer Fig. the tropics. with which Lucretius has already dealt (614-49). and also a daily revolution.304 a Notes is new sun created each day. same sun. At most times of the year he Matuta was an ancient Roman 682. The sun performs apparently both an annual orbit round the heavens.

his daily revolution is exactly along the line of Fig. as may be seen from the figure. Equinoxes the equator. (compare 705. EQWR-the or Nodes. ' : this second explanation ' still rests on the assumption of the same sun performing a daily journey under the earth. (A the J. 682-70$ . whereas the third (line 701) depends on the Heraclitean notion of a new sun being kindled every day ff.t Similarly in this paragraph .). because. 540. . PoIps the . £lCrL Eliptic Q r=thc Horizon. exactly half above and half below the horizon. D. is The effect of this. % T = the Earth.Book V. PP = the = Equator. to which I am much indebted. 307 i. Or else. Lucretius implies is but does not that day sun is on the equator he then exactly equal to night. turning-points at equal distances apart e. &c.) ' 696. &c.15 lines 651 ff. he is on the equator. state. NESW = the . Duff's edition of Book v. for when the in rises due east and sets due west — other words. ' fuller description and explanation of Lucretius's idea of heavenly globe may be found in the introduction to Mr. his ' ' 11. and is therefore performed. and 660 The moon may shine.

first theory of the eclipse of the moon (762-4). 6. and indeed ' it is not at all that that picture ' passage. of course. 6). quite inconsistent with the Epicurean theory that the sun and moon are the size we see them. way and Venus. i. the correct explanation : the earth. obstructing Fig. of course. and the eclipses of the moon would be of much more frequent occurrence and .3otf the Notes first three explanations regard the moon as passing below the earth and re-appearing. e. if they do not contradict phenomena. &c. 727. Sec. the rays of the sun. especially the theory of Berosus. was actually founded on this Mars and Venus almost certainly was on None of these explanations present any difficulty with the exception of the This is. it is eclipsed (Fig. 737. the fourth (line 731 fr. But it is. Lines 729-730 are a very emphatic expression of the principle that we must accept all explanations equally. which was based on Lucretius's description in Book I. and when the moon passes into it. forms a shadow in the shape of a cone. Spring goes on her is tion think of Botticelli's unlikely ' Primavera '. the Babylonian teaching of the Chaldaeans. or on a picture. Likewise also the eclipses of the sun. as his a passage of Politian in the Giostra. 751. for in that case the shadow thrown will not take the form of a cone at all.) assumes the creation of a new moon every day. This descripprobably based on some pantomimic representation Modern readers naturally of the Seasons. both very greatly smaller than the earth. 31-40.

Book V. II. 7. by which Lucretius tries to account for the transition from vegetable to animal of its improbability. carefully much of it from the without considering how far it could be reconciled with Epicurean principles. which become more prominent in the next paragraph. And many monsters too earth. 727-837 307 longer duration than they are (Fig. It is one of U 2 . there grew up wombs : a curiously naive device. This is the most important of several indications that Lucretius did not really Fig. early experiments of nature we get a glimmering of the modern notions of Evolution and Natural Selection. 7). and took astronomical hand-books. &c. In this idea of the 837. 808. ordinary understand his astronomy. life. He seems is to be a little conscious and careful just afterwards (813) to supply an analogy for this apparently gratuitous act of kindness on the part of the earth.

See note on 69. become known to men by a constant which streamed '. The Roman always veiled his head (as opposed to the Greek). a matter of great difficulty to decide exactly how Epicurus and Lucretius conceived the immortal nature of the gods. and the is very insufficient. the glorious rods and relentless axes. 744. 1028. pre- serving the and. of modern The scientific 878. the concept of their use. Lucretius. &c. II. the insignia of the Roman magistrates. consistently with the attitude taken up all through this 1047. &c. Sec. 1 1 Lucretius 98. He his right hand. decides for the latter view. has been dealt with of the formation of monsters of this sort. But the diverse sounds of the tongue. ' form unchanged is approached with the image of the god on in this position made his prayer. and is all the more remarkable when one remembers the strong prevathe race of But lence in antiquity of the notion of a Golden Age. But it is certain that they sup' posed them to dwell in the interspaces between the worlds evidence ' (inter mundia). &c. succession of idols off their bodies. and there stirred the soul-atoms. not to hurt or be harmed. being too subtle to be perceived by the senses. II. 1 1 book. Here we have the germs of the theory of the Social Compact as the origin of Society. with veiled head turning towards a stone. here carefully recalling the ceremonial of Roman worship. passed through the pores of the body into the mind. Lucretius's belief. has always been admired for its insight. 700 ff. man. Lucretius's study of primitive man. It is For indeed already the races of mortals. 1234.3 o8 Notes most remarkable anticipations there Centaurs. and then turned towards the image and prostrated himself on the ground. 1020. and ' to '. again. But neither were impossibility of parts belonging to different races of animals. . There was always a controversy in antiquity as to whether language was made by convention (deaei) or grew up naturally (rf>vaei). combined already in 925. &c.

elephants. 1344. use for purposes of magic. &c. it probably did somewhere ff. That there is the element of chance the atoms . and so deriving the greatest benefit from their worship. in the universe. A particularly interesting relation of passage for the Epicurean conception of the man and the gods. kine. 18. 878-FI. Epicurus himself and his immediate followers scrupulously attended the ceremonies of religious worship. p. For this if this practice did not obtain on our earth. as we are told.e. &c. not that the high majesty of the gods. 31. i. One of the few places where Lucretius in so many words implies that nature does act by chance. 165. &c.Book Z7. from approaching the gods with the proper tranquillity of spirit. Lucanian which were said first have been so called because they were Romans in Lucania in the army of Pyrrhus. 1003 ff. when. compare what Lucretius says in 526 about the motions of the stars. they may have done so without inconsistency. be it by the chance or the force of nature. The superstitious beliefs of the old religion are an offence against the majesty of the gods. as well as by law. 71. ably thinking of 1302. I. seen by the And you curious argument that could more readily maintain. were to men a perfect of the ideal . 71 Lucretius is 309 prob- 1294. the form of the bronze sickle. The passage shows example clearly that the gods life. living their placid life untroubled by the world. is probably due to the original swerving of see Introduction. the to its /. : another . &c. Yet they will not lead to direct punishment at the hands of the gods. and that their worship should be one of contemplation it also explains how. &c. because things ahvays move more slowly. : for this description of the human mind compare the explanation of the legend of the Danaids in III. for that is But they will prevent those who hold them impossible. BOOK VI 20. in part because he saw that it was leaking.

3io Note* notable piece of Epicurean observation. So here. 364. the Tyrrhenian prophecies: autumn it join the cold of was generally supposed that the Romans obtained their system of auguries and omens from the Etruscans. But there is always a tendency that the sideways and upward movement of the atoms resulting from blows should in tions time yield to their own natural tendency to fall owing to weight. comes back to his main purpose i. and though the whole body is moving in one direction the atoms which compose it will be moving in all direc- and colliding with one another. of so rare a texture as the thunderbolt. Lucretius. are based on the fundamental Epicurean notions of the movement of bodies 340. 381. presters. not obvious at first sight why this should be so. application .g. this must be its meaning.) In any compound body. spring and winter with the warmth of summer. internal vibration. 542. it comes with long-lasting impulse. and the accompanying explanation. there of course. the narrow channel is not to be thought of as sometends continually to increase. but considering the passage in the light of the general theory of motion. e. the Straits of the Bosphorus). that light travels more quickly than sound. of the curious principle of and rather arbitrary. clear fact demands. (see note on II. and that therefore the speed of the whole body Lucretius has not expressed very clearly. It may be that here we have another. This conception of the thunderbolt gathering speed as it goes. 424. In the case of a falling body this means that more and more atoms are always coming to move in the direction of the whole. even is. this thing which separates lands. because &c. in concluding this long 387. but rather as something which connects seas and mixes their waters (e. &c. But if Jupiter. of attacking the traditional religion and its superstitious beliefs. 127. and so retarding it. Once again. fiery whirlwinds It is {irifJinpqiJii). &c. section on the phenomena of thunder and lightning.

though kindred. Georg. the Latin name for the famous mines of 810. V. erysipelas compare Virgil. 11. 95 ff. at Aradus : an island off the coast of Phoenicia. 740. and acquire others. This is not such a ' puerile comment as it looks at first sight. substances. opened the chest containing the infant Metam. would lose some of its own characteristic atoms. then. The point of the comparison is of course simply that the seeds of fire well up through the water. by being set in motion '. 492 earth. the holy fire was the name given in antiquity to . against the orders of Pallas. &c. means ' Birdless '. &c. whose fresh-water spring was famous. in things '. For ' air becomes wind. the name Avernian. 566. 754. iii. Scaptensula told Pallas. the shrine of Ammon : of course of Jupiter Ammon in the Libyan desert. (Compare the account of the composition of the soul. As Giussani remarks. 165-957 II. 848. of I.) The air. Avernus in its Greek form "Aopvoi The story (told by Ovid. in Compare But more probably he is thinking 532 and the note of his description of the formation of the irregular surface of the upper the and argues on grounds of general probability that same sort of process had taken place on the lower side. because II. but she. but also poem too: he is thinking primarily. just as the fresh water does through the salt at Aradus. which would ' ' convert it into wind. 311 there. in furious anger at : 2Ka7rTq "YXrj in Thrace. in the beginning of my no doubt. where he showed that there is void of II. 231 ff. for to Lucretius air ' and wind were two distinct. III. banished him for ever from the Acropolis. when. Erichthonius. where he explained in what ' manner this occurred. the possession of a thermometer in antiquity would have made considerable difference to these observations. . 542-565) was that the daughters of Cecrops.Book VI. 660. of their vigil. equilibrium (loovouia). 329. flew off and what had been done. ff. 890. who was on the watch. 937.. The crow. 685.

Leucippus. follows the account given and very 47-54. but Giussani's view seems much the most probable. The idea is characteristic of the atomic school. py 4-1 138 This 954. Lucretius here describes the famous plague of Athens in 430 B..C. closely by Thucydides ii. where the axis of world slants crippled. Georgic I. &c). which batter against them and are in part the cause of their holding together. OXFORD BY JOHN JOHNSON. 240. to move towards that part. rising towards Scythia and sinking towards Egypt. the poet takes the world itself : though it is surrounded with a breastplate (compare the walls of the world'. and pestilence. where the breastplate of the sky. found in Leucippus {Att. Again. 1002.. lines 483 ff. 12. PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS. The effluence streaming off from the magnet knocks away these particles and creates a void between itself and the iron ring. where there is now do opposition. The atoms on that side by the internal air and vibraand battering particles on the other sides. First of all but it all follows quite directly from his main principles. &c. in this paragraph is not quite so orderly or lucid as usual. 1. but because the atoms of the ring are therefore impelled tion. cannot disentangle them- but of necessity drag the whole ring along with them the towards the magnet. and the external air of iron are so closely interlaced. they selves. &c. PRINTER TO THE UNIVERSITY . yet even through this there penetrate. and 1 is 138. it must needs Lucretius's exposition be. &c. Ordinarily things are surrounded on all sides by countless moving atoms. passage has been much discussed and very variously corrected and explained. Such a cause of plague. As a crowning instance of the porosity of things. The ancients conceived that the axis of the earth (and consequently also of the world) was on a slant. 73. 27). This they proceed to do. tempest. 1 107. I. Book VI\ 11. Just the same idea is found in Virgil.312 Notes. as he has described in ' storms. Diels.

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Titus On the nature of things 1921 cop.PA b4W 33 Lucretius Carus. 2 PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .