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First Author Name: Shahabuddin Mohmed Ishaq Modasiya,
PG Student, M.E. Cryogenics, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad-380015, Gujarat E-mail ID: (

Second Author Name: Prof. J. M. Patel,
APME, Mech. Engg. Deptt, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad-380015, Gujarat

In this experiment we will construct a vacuum chamber, in which vacuum will be create by pumping with help of vacuum pump like diffusion pump and we will calibrate vacuum gauge. Different material like aluminum, bronze, stainless steel has different property under the vacuum as compare to normal condition. Also this paper focuses on those properties of material which are important for selection of vacuum chamber.

KEYWORDS: Chamber Volume, Surface Area, Material
Property, Pressure, Vacuum Gauges.

INTRODUCTION A vacuum chamber is a rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump. The resulting low pressure, commonly referred to as a vacuum, allows researchers to conduct physical experiments or to test mechanical devices which must operate in outer space (for example). Chambers made of aluminum allow one to control the magnetic field inside from outside the vacuum. At the opposite chambers made of cu-metal prevent external fields from entering the vacuum. Chambers often have multiple ports, covered with vacuum flanges, to allow instruments or windows to be installed in the walls of the chamber. In low to medium-vacuum applications, these are sealed with rubber o-rings. In higher vacuum applications, the flanges have hardened steel knives welded onto them, which cut into a copper gasket when the flange is bolted on. THERMOCOUPLE VACUUM GAUGE The thermocouple (or T/C) gauge is one of the more common and cost effective gauges for vacuum

pressure measurement in the 1 Torr to 1 milliTorr range. The T/C is usually found in the forelines of high vacuum systems (i.e. between the roughing and diffusion pumps) as well as in single pump systems of the sort used to evacuate sign tubes. Like most vacuum gauges, the T/C gauge does not measure pressure directly as do, for example, manometers of the McLeod or Bourdon type. Instead, these vacuum gauges depend on changes of a physical characteristic of the residual gas within the gauge tube. In the case of the T/C gauge, and all other thermal conduction gauges, that characteristic is the thermal conductivity of the gas. A thermal conduction gauge may be thought of as a defective vacuum insulated thermos bottle (refer to Figure 1.) Each has a hot element (coffee for one, a filament in the case of the other) within a vacuum wall. There are two ways of removing heat: conduction (molecule to molecule) and radiation. For both coffee and warm filaments the primary path at atmospheric pressure is conduction. As it turns out, the thermal conductivity of air is nearly constant down to a fairly low pressure - about 1 Torr. Then it begins to change rather linearly with pressure down to a value of about 1 mTorr.


Shahabuddin Modasiya


has acceptable outgassing rates. 321 are used when low magnetic permeability is required. Stainless steel is relatively economical. pressure. imposed on it by the vacuum processes. that depends on what we are trying to do. MATERIAL USED FOR VACUUM CHAMBER Selection Criteria The selection of materials for use in vacuum systems is a very important part of the design and should be considered in consultation with the user. Chamber Volume The volume of the chamber is usually only a major factor in cases where pump down time is critical from atmospheric to some pressure no lower than a few millitorr. Alloys with copper content also present welding problems. since it fulfills all of the requirements above. They have the disadvantage of low strength at high temperatures and high distortion when welding. 1 Principle of Thermal conductivity VACUUM CHAMBER VOLUME OR SURFACE AREA When assessing the vacuum performance of existing vacuum chamber. This is the amount of gas trapped within the chamber prior to the pump down cycle. it’s important to consider them in light of the process and pump down requirements. So. Not only must the material be capable of being fabricated into the required components but it must stand up to the environmental conditions of temperature. and 304 are chosen most frequently for satisfactory argon-arc welding. Commonly Used Material Austenitic Stainless Steel is the most commonly used metal for high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Fig. and/or fluid properties over the expected temperature range. So. such as an Oil-sealed mechanical pump.S. (2) It must have adequate strength at maximum and minimum temperatures to be encountered. 321. Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys are very cheap. Unless a chamber is being designed to utilize an existing pump. plastic. Since each parameter represents different kinds of gas load. easy to machine. the chamber volume is not all that important a consideration. U. each spoon cycle removes less water and the level drops slower. in which each spoonful is equal in volume until the level in the bucket drops low enough that you can no longer get a spoon to fill by dipping it in to the water. and have a low outgassing rate as long as the alloy does not have a high zinc content. Pumping volume gas a fairly simple concept that can be compared to emptying a water bucket with a spoon. that exhibits a lowering in pumping speed as the pressure NCEVT’10 Shahabuddin Modasiya 2 . In general. and can be fabricated easily. In these cases. PROPERTY OF VACUUM CHAMBER MATERIAL Mechanical Properties (1) The material must be capable of being machined and fabricated. it is always important to reduce gas loads as much as possible. 347. 347 will not accept a high polish. The same can be said for the design stage of a new system in that it is all to easy to focus on either parameter to the possible detriment of the other. the gas being pumped is usually called volume gas. and must retain it's elastic. without limiting the attainable pressure that is required. assuming that a proper pump can be supplied. In other words.drops can be mentally substituted for the spoon.S. The main disadvantage is that components may require 'truing up' due to distortion caused by welding operations. These are chamber volume and internal surface area. A vacuum pump. U. and chemical attack etc. the mental eye has a tendency to focus on either of two possible parameters that are both are both crucial to performance. which of these two is most important? As usual. the chamber volume is one item in formula to calculate the required pumping speed to reach the given pressure in the specified time.

MESUREMENT OF PUMPING SPEED (1) To measure the speed of the pump (defined as the volume of the gas removed per second). 1998. EPAC'96. dp and dt are the corresponding change in pressure and time.Thermal Properties (1) The material's vapor pressure must remain low at the highest temperature.J. CONCLUSION We can construct a vacuum chamber in which we will create vacuum by pumping. NCEVT’10 Shahabuddin Modasiya 3 . Canil G. (4) Measure the dimension of the chamber to estimate its volume and thus get a numerical value for the pumping speed. Better high vacuum can be achieved by means of diffusion pump or turbomolecular pump and we can find out the property of the material like outgassing rate of stainless steel under vacuum at different baking temperature. no. Journal of Vacuum Science Technology A (Vacuum. Collin P. bearing in mind how rapidly reading changing.(1998) Nonevaporable Getter Films for Ultrahigh Vacuum Applications. and Films) (USA). especially at joints. J.148-54.1. (1998) Cleaning for Vacuum Service. (1999) proposed Surface cleaning efficiency for UHV applications. L-Aminot-Y. Cicoira-F. Jan. t is the time and Vo is the volume of the chamber. (2) Materials must be free of cracks and crevices which can trap cleaning solvents and become a source of virtual leaks later on. Does the Pumping Speed Depend on the Pressure? From PV= nRT we can say that K dt = -V0 dp/p where k is the pumping speed. vol. In construction of vacuum chamber it is important to know the property of the vacuum chamber material. Gas Loading (1) Materials must not be porous. Benvenuti-C. .Feb.. Hipper B. Vacuum Technology. then turn off the pump. REFRENCES Benvenuti C.. Huttel E. Work out the average pumping speed (volume removed per second) during each time interval. (1998) Materials for Accelerator Vacuum Systems. and records the pressure reading on the diaphragm gauge at regular intervals for a total time about 7 minutes. P is the average pressure during the measurement.M. (3) At the end of the measurement period. Sidges. Vacuum Technology. (3) Surface and bulk desorption rates must be acceptable at extremes of temperature and radiation. open the air leak. Marquard M.. (2) Start the timing using the stopwatch supplied during the open tap to the pump. The pumping speed will be change with time. (1996) the Delta Vacuum System. ReidR. p. Surfaces. Chiggiato P.. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: I am very thankful to my guide Prof. connect the large gas volume (full of air) to the system with the diaphragm gauge. Chiggiato-P. Choose the length of interval between two readings for best result.Patel sir who helps me in this project. CERN Accelerator School.16. (2) Thermal expansion of adjacent materials must be taken into account.