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Calcium Chloride: CaCl2 + 2 H2O CaCl2·2H2O

Aided by the intense heat evolved during its dissolution, calcium chloride is also used as an ice-melting compound. Unlike the more-common sodium chloride (rock salt or halite), it is relatively harmless to plants and soil; however, recent observations in Washington state suggest it may be particularly harsh on roadside evergreen trees. It is also more effective at lower temperatures than sodium chloride. When distributed for this use, it usually takes the form of small white balls a few millimetres in diameter, called prills (see picture at top of page). Used for its hygroscopic property, it can be applied to keep a liquid layer on the surface of the roadway, which holds dust down. It is used in concrete mixes to help speed up the initial setting, but chloride ion leads to corrosion of steel rebar, so it should not be used in reinforced concrete. The anhydrous form of calcium chloride may also be used for this purpose and can provide a measure of the moisture in concrete. [1] Snow removal: In the European Union, ca 98 % (in 2000) of chemical treatment materials were Sodium chloride in various forms. It has an effect up to í5 °C, at the most í7 °C. When freeze is deep, Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is added to NaCl in some countries, but it is just about 6times more expensive. Other substances were used rarely and experimentally. Alternative substances (urea, alcohols, glycols) are often used at airports. [2] While salt was once a scarce commodity in history, industrialized production has now made salt plentiful. Approximately 51% of world output is now used by cold countries to de-ice roads in winter, both in grit bins and spread by winter service vehicles. Calcium chloride is preferred over sodium chloride, since CaCl2 releases energy upon forming a solution with water, heating any ice or snow it is in contact with. It also lowers the freezing point, depending on the concentration. NaCl does not release heat upon solution; however, it does lower the freezing point. Calcium chloride is thought to be more environmentally friendly than sodium chloride when used to de-ice roads, however a drawback is that it tends to promote corrosion (of vehicles) more so than sodium chloride. NaCl is also more readily available and does not have any special handling or storage requirements, unlike calcium chloride. The salinity (S) of water is measured as grams salt per kilogram (1000g) water, and the freezing temperatures are as follows. [3]

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium_chloride http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snow_removal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_chloride#In_weather Conversion: http://utprotectedagsolutions.tennessee.edu/glossary.htm

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