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RATIFICATION PAGE

The complete report of experiment Genetic and Evolution which have title “Life Cycle of Drosophilla melanogaster” created by: Name Reg. No Group report is accepted. Makassar, November , 2010 : Anshar Mansabadi : 081404164 : VI

Have been checked and consulted by Assistant and Assistant Coordinator and this

Assistant Coordinator,

Assistant,

(Djumarirmanto S. Pd)

(Ariandi) Reg. No: 071404075

Known by Lecturer of Responsibility,

Hartati, S.Si, M.Si ID: 197404052000032004

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A. Background Genetic consist of much material. This sub material can see with development cycle of organism. To explain this theory, we can observe about organism which has complete metamorphosis. The example of this organism is Drosophila melanogaster which usually called as fruit fly. (Drosophila melanogaster) as object in observational genetics. Its option is correct once since, fly first this little so a big population gets to be petted deep laboratory. Both of, cycle meteoric life. Every two weeks can be resulted one mature generation a new one. Third, this fly so lush, one that female can result hundreds egg those are impregnated in life it what does its short. Population thus outgrows that resulting that makes easy statistic analisys and gets trusted. Still any chance fourthly which is marks sense chromosome in salivary gland of larva. Drosophila melanogaster will take the puberity phase after 8 hours. So, the female fly can laying egg tomorrow after fertilization. Female Drosophila melanogaster can produce egg about 100 until 500 egg in 10 days. The egg has milk white color, cycle form which length about 0,5 mm. The egg keep at female body, and sperm come to micropyle. Eggs will laid at blastula stage or higher if the condition is disturbed. After 24hours the eggs become larva. And the 4 times to change t he skin and will be pupa. And after 8 until 11 days, pupa will be fly. B. Purpose
1. To know the live cycle of Drosophila melanogaster

2. To different of female and male Drosophila melanogaster character.

C.

Benefit
1. The practicer can know more about the development character of

Drosophila melanogaster.
2. The practicer can know more about the character of each step of Drosophila

melanogaster cycle.
3. The practicer can know more about the character of male and female

Drosophila melanogaster.

CHAPTER II PRIVIEW OF LITERATURE
Drosophila meanogaster will fertile after 8 hurs, so female fly cab laying egg at tomorrow after fertilization. A female Drosophila can produce egg about 50-75 egg in a days, about 100-500 eggs in 10 days. This egg has milk white color, oval form with length about 0, 5 mm. AT the top of anterior, there are a hole which called micropyle and limited by two or four bud which like spoon. The laid egg, generally already in blastula phase, or higher in disturb condition for laying egg. The egg ready to develop during 24 hours and will be larva. Then, there are 4 times of skin change, although narrow to observe before larva be pupa. The pupa will layed afte 8 until 11 days, depend on species and temperature for keep this (Hartati, 2010). XO or XY chromosome segregation was interpreted as a means of tipping the balance between maleness and femaleness, whereas more deep-seated processes were involved in the actual process of sex determination. Bridges experimentally produced variation combination of X chromosome and autosomes in Drosophila and deduced from comparisons that one X chromosome (X) and two sets of autosomes (A) produced a normal male. Normal male had a ratio of X chromosome to sets of autsomes of 0,5. Nore that one sets of autosomes consists of three chromosome, one each of chromosome II, III, and IV. (The X chromosome of Drosophila is chromosome I.) This combination of one X nd two A’s resulte in a normal, diploid male; the combination of two X chromosomes and two sets of autosomes (2X+2A, ratio of 2:2=1) produced a normal diploid female (Gardner, 1984). The behavior of the chromosome in meiosis is the basic for Mendel’s laws. Mendel’s law of segregation is due to the separations of homologous chromosome during the reduction divisions. Mendel’s law of independent spindle and their subsequent independent segregation. A we shall see, independent assortment occurs

only if the gene pairs are on different they tend to remain together in cross, and are said to linked. If a chiasma is formed to recombination between the linked genes. Linkage and crossing over were discovered in the early twentieth century, primarily as the result of the research of Thomas Hubt Morgan and his colleagues, and marked the next major advance in our understanding of heredity. We shall consider these topics later in more detail in chapter 8 (Norton, 1975). The gene is the smallest biological unit in inheritance, and I is carried on a chromosome. Hundreds and possibly thousands of genes are carried on each chromosome, each in a fixed or special position called a locus. The existence of particular gene can be determined genetically only because it exist in at least two forms having different effects that can be observed readily in the organism. These forms are called allelomorphs, and they usually fact a trait in contrasting manners (John, 1963) . In higher animals, spermatogenesis occurs in the germinal epithelium of the testis. Diploid spermatogonia cells proliferate mitotically and some of the spermatogonia enlarge to form primary spermatocytes. The first meiotic division then results in the haploid spermatids is produced. The spermatids undergo a form a metamorphosis to become mature functional spermatozoa (Northon 1975). Many times at biology history, important discovery has taken by luck people which n fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, an insects which not dangerous and generally eat fungi at fruit. Fruit fly is an insect which develop easily. From one fertilization can produce hundred egg, and new generation can develop in a week. This character make fruit fly suitable for genetic observation. In a short time, Morgan laboratory known as Fly Room (Campbell, 2004). Not all organism which develop or reproduction with sexually has determination sex system like human. For example D. melanogaster, fruit fly, has a mechanism of determination sex which balanced. A balance between autosome and

chromosome X, determinate sexual fenotipe of fruit fly. For example, XY fruit and XO is male, XX and XXY female, with assumption diploid at autosome. Chromosome Y also essential, because there are chromosome which determinate fertilization at male fly. XO fly ( o represent absent sex chromosome) is male, but sterile (C.Pai, 1985). Not all organism which develop or reproduction with sexually has determination sex system like human. For example D. melanogaster, fruit fly, has a mechanism of determination sex which balanced. A balance between autosome and chromosome X, determinate sexual fenotipe of fruit fly. For example, XY fruit and XO is male, XX and XXY female, with assumption diploid at autosome. Chromosome Y also essential, because there are chromosome which determinate fertilization at male fly. XO fly ( o represent absent sex chromosome) is male, but sterile (C.Pai, 1985). Drosophila melanogaster was among the first organisms used for genetic analysis, and today it is one of the most widely used and genetically best-known of all eukaryotic organisms. All organisms use common genetic systems; therefore, comprehending processes such astranscription and replication in fruit flies helps in understanding these processes in other eukaryotes, including humans (Anonymous b, 2010). Classification of fruit fly is: Domain: Eukarya Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Diptera Family: Drosophilidae Genus: Drosophila ("dew lover") Species: melanogaster ("dark gut") (Anonymous c, 2010).

The time from egg to adult is temperature- dependent. The above cycle is for a temperature range of 21-23 degrees C. The higher the temperature, the faster the generation time, whereas a lower (to 18 degrees C) temperature causes a longer generation time. Females can lay up to 100 eggs/day. Virgin females are able to lay eggs; however they will be sterile and few in number (Anonymous a, 2010).

CHAPTER IV OBSERVATION RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Observation Result No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Day/Date Saturday, 29/10/10 Sunday, 30/20/2010 Monday, 31/10/2010 Tuesday, 1/11/2010 Tuesday, 1/11/2010 Tuesday, 1/11/2010 Wednesday, 2/11/2010 Saturday, 5/11/2010 Time 12.00 WITA 20.00 WITA 08.00 WITA 04.00 WITA 16.00 WITA 23.00 WITA 06.00 WITA 06.00 WITA Notes Enter flies Egg Instar Larva I Instar Larva II Instar Larva III PregPupa Pupa Imago

Picture

Notes: 1. Egg 2. Larva 3. Pupa 4. Imago

B. Discussion Base on the theory, Drosophila melanogaster need 8 until 11 days for develop. But we only observe the flies along 5 days. So, we don’t get the complete develop of this flies. According to the theory the cycle of Drosophila melanogaster are :
1.

Fertilized egg, it is diploid. It hatches within less than 24 hours after is

is laid, the exact time depending on how long it is retained in the reproductive tract of the female fertilization. For fertilization it’s need right condition , like for temperature, nutrition and the medium. One male can make a pair to more than one female fly.
2.

Larva, it hatches from the egg burrows into the food medium and feed

actively, typically on yeast. The larva period is a time of active growth and the larva molts twice, with each successive larva stage or instar being larger than the one before. The larva crawl from the moist food to a drier the one before. The larva is formed after + 24 hours after fertilization.
3.

Pupa, is formed from the larva skin of the third larva instar as it

becomes thick, hard and dark. Within this pupa the wormlike larva instar metamorphoses into an adult fly. Differentiation and growth throughout the period of development are made possible by mitotic cell division.The pupa is formed after + 72 hours after larva stage. 4. And the last stage is imago which develop to adult flies.

On our experiment we don’t get the four complete stages of flies development, because the flies is died, so we must get new flies and the time not enough for their development. Beside that, the concentration of nipagin not suitable with the yeast, so there are fungi in medium. This is the mistake when make medium. The different between male flies and female flies is male have

black button at back part and the body is bigger. The female don’t have black button on the back part and the body is smaller than male.

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A.

Conclusion
1. The life cycle of Drosohila melanogaster are fertilized egg, larva, pupa and

adult imago. 2. The character of male fly are have bud in the posterior body and the body is bigger than female. The character of female fly are have white line at abdomen and the body is smaller than male fiy. B. Suggestion 1. 2. 3. For assistant, should give explanation more about this practical For laboratory, should give good condition specially for temperature. For practicer, should doing practical more seriously

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Anonyma.2010. An Introduction to Drosophila Melanogaster. An introduction to Drosophila melanogaster.html. Acessed at November 4th 2010.

Anonymb. 2010. Drosphila melanogaster. http://commons.wikimedia.org /wik i/ Drosphila_melanogaster. Acessed at November 4th 2010.

Anonymc. 2010. Drosophila melanogaster. http://www.ummz.isa.umich. edu/. Acessed at November 4th 2010.

Campbell, Reece, Mitchel. 2001. Biologi Jilid I Edisi V. Jakarta: Erlangga. C.Pai, Anna, Muhidin Apandi. 1985. Dasar-Dasar Genetika Edisi II. Jakarta: Erlangga. Gardner, Simmons, Snustad. 1984. Principles of Genetics. Canada: John Willey and Sons Inc.

Hartati. 2010. Penuntut Praktikum Genetika. Makasar: Universitas Negeri Makasar. John, F. Lasley. 1963. Genetics of Livestock Improvement. New Jersey: Depertement of Animal Husband University of Missoury.

Norton. 1975. An Introduction to Genetics. New York: The University of Minnesota. Suryo. 2008. Genetica Strata 1. Yogyakarta: Gadjah mada University Press.