Militarism is Bad for the Environment by Simon Doolittle March 2003 Militaries are notorious polluters.
military presence is virtually the single most reliable predictor of environmental damage.´ Since the end of the Cold War, many plans to convert military bases to civilian use have been cancelled because the sites are contaminated beyond any hope of restoration. And military pollution isn¶t limited to bases, it does significant damage to the environment at large. Kills Gorillas, Monkeys Christine Dell'Amore
National Geographic News
January 11, 2009
Pollution causes global warming, global warming destroys natural habitat. Mountain gorillas are in a particularly serious bind. They have little access to fresh fruit in their high-altitude habitats, and they're "sitting on top of mountains with nowhere else to go."
the enormous military power that accounts for half of the world¶s military expenditures.
. the Gulf War. Okinawa and the Philippines. aerial bombing practice has caused severe environmental pollution.
it was recognized that these bases caused environmental pollution through such routine uses as oil spills. This essay will focus on the pollution of US bases in Asia in order to come to grips with
the environmental problems caused by military activity. everyday activities on base. the damage to nature that would accompany the construction of an alternative facility to Futenma Marine Corps Air Station in Okinawa will be accelerated and aircraft noise will damage the areas surrounding the bases. The US military failed to properly manage and dispose of toxic materials and did not remove this pollution when the bases were closed. the Vietnam War. and the preparation for war such as military training and maneuvers. we will examine the principal conclusions that can be draw from those examples. and the Iraq War. The US military has not done any pollution cleanup. Particularly in the case of the United States. in Japan.
The absolute devastation of the environment in combat has been proven by examples such as World War II. the destruction of the environment is appalling. However. and the disposal of wastes and ammunition. the dispersion of pesticide. military activity causes environmental destruction through the construction of facilities. They
have become such a problem that they have to be caught and sent to other facilities or face being euthanized.EXTENSIONS Monkey Overpopulation won·t happen
Monkey Overpopulation in Puerto Rico Wilson 08
The growth of patas monkey populations has reached the point where they have become a "nuisance" to Puerto Rico agriculture. After investigating the pollution of US bases in Yokota (Japan). even in peacetime.
Bases don·t cause Pollution
War is said to be the ultimate cause of environmental destruction. In the Korean community of Mehyangri. For example.
Monkeys aren·t in Japan
.Monkeys aren·t in Korea Monkeys have been presented in the past as gifts to the king of Gorea.
military source confirmed the existence of the Taliban monkey soldiers.
TERRORISM RISKS EXTINCTION ² THE INITIAL ATTACK WOULD COST THOUSANDS OF LIVES AND US RETALIATION CAUSES UNCHECKED WAR SID-AHMED ¶4 A nuclear attack by terrorists will be much more critical than Hiroshima and Nagazaki. Central Intelligence Agency. Monkeys can now operate the Kalashnikov. Bren light machine gun. and have the ability to identify and attack U. at the time the technology is a secret for nobody we are at a stage where they can be detonated
. A senior U.IMPACTS TERRORISM (Afghanistan Only) TALIBAN TRAINING MONKEY TERRORISTS Analysis by Viegas Discovery.S. 2010 12:10 PM ET
Monkeys have been trained by the Taliban in Afghanistan to use machine guns and trench mortars against U. which it claims used peanuts and bananas to train "monkey soldiers" in Vietnam. soldiers based on the appearance of their uniforms.S. military forces. Japan. Wed Jul 14.S. the Taliban was inspired by none other than the U. monkeys wielding grenades when India and Pakistan were at war.S. even if the weapons used are less harmful than those used then. military experts call armed monkeys 'monkey terrorists¶.
The first impulse will be to launch a nuclear strike on Mecca. the president. yet every president is by nature a politician. The perpetrators will have been incinerated by the explosion that
destroyed New York City. the Islamic world more than 1 billion human beings in countless different nations would feel attacked. Atomic Iran. the military. Expert in Politically-Motivated Violence. Unlike 9-11. [CONTINUES} Or the president might decide simply to launch a limited nuclear strike on Muslims around the world would still see the retaliation as an attack on Islam. especially when the United States had no positive proof that the destruction of New York City had been triggered by radical Islamic extremists with assistance from Iran. Yet what would we gain? The moment Mecca and Medina were wiped off the map . Medina could possibly be added to the target list just to make the point with crystal clarity. The American people would feel a price had to be paid while the country was still capable of exacting revenge.
the loss of New York. For this there would be no effective answer. There will be no such phone calls when the attack will not have been anticipated until the instant the terrorists detonate their improvised nuclear device inside the truck parked on a curb at the Empire State Building. So weakened by That the president might think politically at this instant seems almost petty. Nothing would emerge intact after a war between the United States and Islam. members of Congress.
Nor will there be any possibility of finding any clues. The problem will be that the president will not immediately know how to respond or against whom.TERRORISM CAUSES EXTINCTION ² THE US WOULD RETALIATE WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS CORSI ¶5
[Jerome. This might be the most rational option in the attempt to retaliate but still communicate restraint. and the public at large will suspect another attack by our known enemy ²Islamic terrorists. Still. to destroy the whole religion of Islam. PhD in Poli Sci from Harvard. which either were vaporized instantly or are now lying physically inaccessible under tons of radioactive rubble.
Tehran itself. The problem is that a strike on Tehran would add more nuclear devastation to the world calculation. there will have been no interval during the attack when those hijacked could make phone calls to loved ones telling them before they died that the hijackers were radical Islamic extremists. Americans would feel vulnerable in every city in the nation. The apocalypse would be upon us. Pg 176-8//JVOSS]
The combination of horror and outrage that will surge upon the nation will demand that the president retaliate for the incomprehensible damage done by the attack. "Who is going to be next?" would be the question on everyone's mind. But for the president not to retaliate might be unacceptable to the American people.
. The political party in power at the time of the attack would be destroyed unless the president retaliated with a nuclear strike against somebody.
described the situation as "like trying to swim against the current of a raging river.DISEASE AIDS traced to African monkeys CNN 03 An international group of scientists has traced the ancestry of the virus that caused AIDS back to strains found in African monkeys.000 years ago. Michael Osterholm. Ross MacPhee of the American Museum of Natural History argues the culprit was extremely virulent disease. a
sudden wave of mammal extinctions swept through the Americas. From 1980 to 1992. as well as an adjunct professor of science journalism at NYU's Science. Powell." The grimmest possibility would be the emergence of a strain that spreads so fast we are caught off guard or that resists all chemical means of control. The Black Plague killed one European in four during the 14th century. Intensive agriculture and land development is bringing humans closer to animal pathogens. but occasionally the balance gets out of whack.com/2000/oct/featworld
If Earth doesn't do us in. the AIDS epidemic has produced a similar death toll and is still going strong. Two different monkey virus strains combined in chimpanzees to create the HIV virus which was then passed on to humans. perhaps as a result of our stirring of the ecological pot. 2K ³20 Ways the World Could End´
http://discovermagazine. Germs and people have always coexisted.
AIDS leads to extinction Corey S. he is a science writer and a Senior Editor at Discover magazine. the scientists told the journal Science. mortality from infectious disease in the United States rose 58 percent. Earlier studies had shown that humans contracted the virus that attacks the immune system from chimps. which humans helped transport as they migrated into the New World
. reports the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 25 million people have been killed by the AIDS virus that kills white blood cells and causes the body to become defenceless against infections with an estimated 40 million people living with HIV. About 12. our fellow organisms might be up to the task. but were unable to determine where the chimps got the virus from. influenza took at least 20 million lives between 1918 and 1919. an infectious disease expert who recently left the Minnesota Department of Health. Old diseases such as cholera and measles have developed new resistance to antibiotics. International travel means diseases can spread faster than ever.
we believe it is a new species. Canada. conjunctivitis and inflammation of the liver in people. Chiu said. Her blood tested positive for antibodies to the virus three months after the epidemic." Chiu said.
Among the monkeys.
"there is very strong evidence to suggest a cross-species transmission event happened. "By looking at the 'sequence divergence'. to pneumonia. an assistant professor of laboratory medicine and medicine/infectious diseases at the University of California San Francisco. the virus was highly contagious and deadly: Of 55 monkeys housed at the center. or how different the genetic sequence of this adenovirus is relatively to other adenoviruses. or about 83% of those infected. Chiu said. Chiu said.nor is there even proof that the virus would be transmissible between humans. lab appears to have 'jumped' from the animals to sicken a human scientist. 23 (about 40%) became seriously ill with upper respiratory symptoms that progressed to pneumonia and an inflammation of the liver.S. died. Though she became seriously ill with pneumonia around the same time the monkeys were falling ill. Chiu said. however. had never before been identified." The scientist who fell ill had been in close contact with the monkeys. Causing Serious Illness Goodwin 10
A never-before detected strain of virus that killed more than one-third of a
monkey colony at a U.
Although it's an unusual move for that type of virus and does warrant further monitoring. It's more of a worry to public health officials monitoring these new viruses that have the potential for causing outbreaks. Researchers later determined the cause of the illness was an adenovirus. a broad class of viruses that can cause everything from relatively harmless respiratory illnesses such as the common cold." said lead investigator Dr. the researchers stress there is no cause for alarm at this time.who recovered from her illness -. suggesting that the pneumonia was caused by the virus and not a secondary bacterial infection.
. as well as gastroenteritis. Chiu said it's very likely the cause of her illness was the new adenovirus.
The scientist appears to have caught the virus while investigating an outbreak of illness among a colony of Titi monkeys at the California National Primate Research Center in Davis. Chiu said. she was not hospitalized and recovered after about four weeks."
Still. researchers report. The study was presented Friday at the Infectious Diseases Society of America annual meeting in Vancouver. Charles Chiu. There is no evidence the virus has spread beyond the single scientist -. "I don't think people should be worried about this right now.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics did not help the monkeys.New Virus 'Jumps' From Monkey to Scientist. The new strain. "This is almost certainly a new species of adenovirus. While not a definitive test.
which makes this somewhat unusual. but humans can get very sick from it. but we just don't know yet." Chiu said.Y." Chiu noted. in rhesus monkeys also housed at the facility and passed somehow to the Titis. a spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America and president and CEO of St. Chiu said. Researchers are also working to determine if the new adenovirus is a "recombinant. Chiu said. for example." Glatt said. "it's not something to be nervous about or worried about today. said Dr. while in humans the illness triggers severe pneumonia. Pigs may show no signs of having H1N1 ("Swine flu"). Glatt added. Researchers are also screening several thousand people to determine if anyone else has antibodies to the virus. "There is not a novel adenovirus associated with a deadly outbreak in humans. But as of now. it might help predict what viruses might jump over and when. which would indicate prior exposure and that the virus has already been in circulation in the general human population. adenoviruses tend to be species-specific. N. it would have the potential of developing into an outbreak. which includes bits of genetic information from monkey and human adenoviruses. Chiu and his colleagues are trying to determine the origin of the virus. "There is possibly some evidence it's transmissible."
. While this sort of event makes infectious disease experts sit up and take notice. there is no evidence of an outbreak of the virus outside that single monkey colony in Davis. other viruses do "jump" between species frequently. Chiu said. SARS coronavirus. "These findings might be an argument to do more broad surveillance of animals.
Influenza also jumps between species. but it's very interesting from a scientific point of view." or combined virus." While other viruses can infect more than one species. Another question is whether it's contagious among people. he said.Infectious disease and public health experts are always on the lookout for new viruses that pose a threat to people. colonizes bats and ferrets without causing disease. If we can better understand what kind of viruses circulate in animals. Since no new monkeys had been introduced to the colony in six years."
While adenoviruses usually stick to one species. including whether it started as a monkey virus or began in a human and was passed to the monkeys. and a virus that makes one species very ill may be relatively harmless in another. Aaron Glatt. "If
this virus has the potential for human-to-human transmission. undetected. Joseph Hospital in Bethpage. one possibility is that the virus was circulating. "When viruses jump they can cause much more severe disease or less severe disease.
For decades.Agriculture Monkeys wreak havoc in Florida Keys CNN July 10.
After years of lawsuits. nothing grows anymore. This is really a mess. the worlds biggest producer of lab animals. rhesus monkeys.000 each. a judge finally has ordered all freeroaming monkeys off the island within the next couple of years.800 square miles of bays. fringed with healthy trees. the company raised rhesus monkeys on the islands and allowed them to range free on Lois Key. It sells the monkeys raised on the keys to researchers studying AIDS. 1998
Floridas Lois Key looks like a mangroveladen island should lush and green. the shoreline where red mangroves grew remained state property. The reason is Monkeys specifically. reefs and islands that are supposed to be protected. both islands are inside the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.
They ate the trees. But on the other side of a fence that divides the key. and the monkey droppings wash out into the public waters. While Charles River owned the islands. Charles River has also agreed to remove all caged animals from the keys by early next century and turn the
land over to the state of Florida. Alzheimers disease and other afflictions.
. Lois Key and nearby
Racoon Key are owned by Charles River Laboratories. Theyre going to give us a bunch of dead islands after doing decades worth of damage to public resources that they never owned.
Charles River Laboratories is a subsidiary of the optical giant Bausch and Lomb. Davidson said. Indeed. 2. Thats no kind of a deal. they ate the coastal mangroves and actually killed the trees.
But Davidson and other critics of the companys operations take little consolation in that donation. the mangrove trees are sick or dead. The animals cost up to 4. The shoreline eroded. And in some places. said Ed Davidson of the Florida Audubon Society.
but if a monkey overpopulation were to occur. deeming them lower than legitimate US citizens. is able to destroy the fringe mangroves that none of the rest of us that own them can touch. This causes extinction through a food crisis.
. What happened in the Florida Keys is that they ate EVERYTHING that wasn¶t fenced off. are protected by law. Already. we eventually don¶t care about life In general. crops getting destroyed severely limits our food supply. The primary indicator of a psychopath is animal cruelty.
I own the land that I live on here. and yet I am not allowed to cut or trim the mangroves. which stabilize shorelines and provide homes for dozens of species. Environmental destruction by monkeys dehumanizes us. for all of our food sources are dependant upon crops.
Some area homeowners dont understand why the company has been allowed to let the trees be destroyed. Thats public land out there. But in the past. causes dehumanization. for the sake of making money. Restricting rights dehumanizes. African slaves were not allowed to vote until they gained rights. they would consume extremely large quantities of farm and agriculture. They would gobble up our crops and as a result our meats would die off too. anything not directly protected by military forces would be eaten by monkeys. It also causes the direct impact of starvation. The current US law system restricts the rights of the psychopathic and serial killers. and a private corporation.And red mangrove trees. Slaves were considered lower than livestock. and they say theyve taken
Company officials declined CNNs request for an interview. steps to repair it. This would result in mass starvation on a grand scale. Ever since the beginnings of human technology. 5 million people die every year from lack of food. we have become increasingly separated from our roots. When we don¶t care about natural animal life. death of the environment will cause the human race to have a psychopathic nature.
ANYLTICAL The destruction of the environment disconnects us from nature. said island resident Michael Vaughn. from nature.
they have acknowledged the environmental damage done by the monkeys.
Six species of primate were reported to raid field crops: chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). vervets. red-tailed guenons. Cercopithecus ascanius. certain species of primates are very successful crop raiders. 1999. With their extensive repertoire of cooperative behaviors. 1998. 19
Much has been written about insect damage to standing crops.. and black-and-white colobus (Colobus guereza). occasionally. revision August 24. These results have important implications for future primate conservation policy. and primatological literature is that of primates and the potential damage they can cause to farmers¶ fields. to replant crop stands badly damaged by monkeys. confirms that many of them consider wildlife. Hill1
Received October 15. makes them very successful and potentially troublesome when living close to humans
Monkeys Raid Crops Hill 99
Previous work with farmers living around the southern edge of the Budongo Forest Reserve. mitis). and nonspecialized and omnivorous dietary tendencies. accepted October 1. to be a major threat to their livelihood. 1986).
Crop raiding is not a new phenomenon. and C. vervets (Boulton et al. monkeys can cause extensive damage to field crops. there are indirect costs of monkey crop raiding such as increased labor demands to protect crops from them and.
. opportunistic life-style. This is likely to become an increasingly important issue for people. and macaques (Pirta et al. olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Hill 99
Perhaps not surprisingly. conservation. primates such as baboons (ForthmanQuick. blue monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. along with their ability to learn very rapidly and change their behavior accordingly. in addition to the direct costs associated with crop losses attributed to baboon foraging activity. 1996). but an area that has received little attention within agricultural development. Their highly adaptable nature. and baboons in particular. 1997) are highly adaptable and take readily to living alongside humans in rural or sometimes urban and semi-urban settings. such as maize and cassava. Uganda.Crop Raiding in Uganda Catherine M..
in large and sometimes very large groups. even when you kill them. Thus. For example. and visit farms throughout most of the year. and they form the basis of most households¶ meals (Hill. µµAfter feeding. and particularly men. Baboons have the potential to cause large amounts of damage locally. We recorded 70 instances of crop damage by wildlife to the 37 farms being monitored during the study period. monkeys leave the crop. µµBaboons come in large numbers and are not scared of people. In addition. and well organized in the way they raid fields. for household consumption or for sale at local markets. they prefer crops. This is likely to be a conservative estimate of overall crop-raiding frequency. baboons destroy the rest of the crop. cause proportionately greater amounts of damage than all other animals combined. they are of great importance to household food security.¶¶ In addition. they run away for good. 1997). which are like those of humans²they check for the owner from the tops of trees. they run and hide and then come back. with approximately 70% of people reporting agriculture as their sole. thereby removing the plants from further agricultural production. They are organized like the army. They uproot or snap off the stems to feed on pith and sap.Crop raiding causes economic damage and starvation Hill 99
People from local villages are able to farm here providing they plant only annual crops and agree to plant and tend tree seedings provided by The National Forestry College. thus monkeys are better than baboons. as reflected in some of the comments made by local farmers. µµThey [baboons] just break and sit on any food they don¶t eat. When you chase other animals. situated locally at Nyabyeya. µThey destroy much and cause a lot of damage and they are many.¶¶ Locally. and respondents often made comments such as. There is a high degree of dependence on agriculture for subsistence within this community. µµBaboons are not scared of people. Successful guarding required that people be in the fields for long periods of the day throughout the seasons when there were vulnerable crops in
. 1987). They keep on coming. and of people carrying weapons versus ones who are unarmed (Strum. Farmers are unable to offset some of the costs of crop damage by replanting because damage occurs too late in the growing season. When you chase them. They raid farms more frequently than other species of wildlife do. and then return and take the crops. Baboons crop raid more often than any other species and are responsible for 70% of all crop damage events. µµBaboons are a problem because of their skills. were most feared by baboons (Hill. baboons are perceived as intelligent animals. many people regard baboons as being vindictive. damaging crops for the sake of it rather than for food alone. and added.¶¶ Another farmer said. an elderly man commented. unpublished). Fifty-four percent of the participants in this farm study of crop raiding are entirely dependent on agriculture for their subsistence.¶¶ Another comment was. 1997). Although it was recognized locally that adults. source of livelihood. the most frequently cultivated field crops within this community (Hill.¶¶ His neighbor was keen to stress this point further.¶¶ A number of studies have reported that baboons and other primates are more fearful of adult men than of women and children. 1994. and can be very persistent. two-thirds of all crop guarding was carried out by women and children. King and Lee. and when chased they just hide. they visit farms frequently. When there are no fruits. or main.
including attending school. household chores.the ground²i. farming households are not necessarily able to do this and may well already be facing labor bottlenecks without investing extra time and labor guarding fields. taking crops to the grinding mill. as farmers and wildlife continue to compete for resources. and employment by local industries.e.
. but some farmers locally employ laborers to guard vulnerable fields against baboon raiding. this was not always possible given that people had other tasks to complete. particularly where adult male members of the household are employed away from the farm either part-time or full-time.. making crop raiding both energetically much more expensive and riskier for them (Strum. in order to provide effective protection for standing crops. Baboons that adopt crop raiding as part of their foraging strategy are able to reduce their overall investment in foraging time because of the high nutritional value of their preferred field crops. Under present circumstances. most of the year. which are primarily nocturnal in their raiding habits. 1994). Crop raiding by wildlife is an issue that is likely to become an even more pressing concern for conservationists and conservation programs in the future. Obviously. Consequently. Crop protection can incur actual monetary costs to households. farmers must harry primates extensively. Guards are usually employed to protect field crops against wild pigs. trading in the local markets.
And Economic damage leads to extinction