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Eurocode 5 Design of fire resistance of timber structures

Alar Just

Tallinn, 13.09.2005

Eurocode programme
• Started in 1975 on initiative of the Comission of European Community • End of 1980s first set of Eurocodes • 1990s published as European pre-standards ENV • April 2004 - first EN standard • Next step is the 2nd generation of EN standards

1.Eurocode 5 – Design of timber structures TODAY WE USE IN ESTONIA: Estonian Design Rules EPN 5.1. Timber bridges (based on pre-standard ENV 1995-2:1997 ) . General rules and rules for builings (based on pre-standard prENV 1995-1-1:1992). EVS 1995-1-2:2003 Fire safety (based on pre-standard ENV 1995-1-2:1994) Estonian National Standard EVS 1995-2:2003.

2: General Structural fire design Part 2: Bridges EN 1995-1-2:2004 EN 1995-2:2004 NB! Officially exist in English as EVS-EN 1995-… Missing National Annexes .Eurocode 5 – Design of timber structures EN 1995-1-1:2004 Part 1.1: General Common rules and rules for buildings Part 1.

2: Fire safety Osa 2: Bridges EVS-EN 1995-1-2:2006 ? EVS-EN 1995-2:2006 ? .Eurocode 5 – Design of timber structures (in Estonian) EVS-EN 1995-1-1:2005 Part 1.1: General rules and rules for buildings Part 1.

EN 1995-1-2:2004 • Gives differences compare to normal temperature design. Fire loads – EN 1995-1-1 . • Shall be used together with standards: – EN 1990 Basis of design – EN 1991 Loads • EN 1991-1-2.

EN 1995-1-2:2004 vs ENV 1995-1-2:1997 • More different cases of charring taken into account • Design rules for wall and floor assemblies are given • Design rules for connections are more detailed • Properties for Finite Element analysis • Some rules for parametric fire curves .

Structural fire design General rule Ed.fi = ηEd η – reduction factor for loads in fire situation .t.fi Ed.fi ^ Rd.

fi = kmod.fi S20 / γM.fi = kmod.fi f20 / γM.fi design strength in case of fire kmod.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Strength and stiffness Design strength fd.fi Design stiffness Sd.fi partial safety factor for material in case of fire γM.fi=1 .fi fd.fi modification factor f20 20% fractile of strength property at normal temperature γM.

1 . G – shear modulus) fk S05 Values of kfi Sawn timber glulam LVL(Kerto) 1. depends on variation coefficient of material characteristic strength 5% fractile of stifness (E – modulus of elasticity.25 1.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Strength and stiffness f20 = kfi fk S20 = kfi S05 kfi reduction factor.15 1.

n = βn t .EN 1995-1-2:2004 Charring depth Charring at one side dchar.o = β0 t t time βo. βn charring rate Charring at many sides Notional charring depth dchar.

55 0.65 0.65 0.“ – over 450 kg/m3 LVL 0.7 .7 0.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Charring rates βo.65 βn mm/min 0.65 0.5 0. mm/min Softwood Glulam Sawn timber Hardwood characteristic density 290 kg/m3 .7 0.8 0.

0 ≥ 13 mm dchar.0 bmin .15dchar.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Charring rates Charring rate βo may be used if minimal dimension of cross-section is greater than 2dchar.n if dchar.n + 80 bmin = 8.0 < 13 mm if dchar.

n [mm] aeg t tch charring starts tf protective layer failes ta charring depth 25 mm 1 2a 2b 2c unprotected surface protection remains on place protection has fallen off charring rate reduces to the rate of unprotected timber .0 or dchar.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Protected surfaces dchar.

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Protected surfaces Start of charring tch • Wood and wood-based panels tch = hp/β0 • Gypsum tch = 2.8hp.5 • There is no rules for fire protective painting and other liquides • Missing rules for some types of gypsum plasterboards • Design is too optimistic for rockwool plates .07(hins-20) (ρins)0.14 • Rock fibre batts tch = 0.

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Reduced cross-section method Efective charring depth def = dchar.n + k0d0 d0 = 7 mm k0 1 2 3 Unprotected surface Protected surface initial surface of member border of residual crosssection border of efective crosssection kmod.fi = 1 .

fi= 1.0 or dchar.0-(1/200)(p/Ar) compression kmod.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Reduced properties method • Cross-section is reduced only by charring depth dchar.0-(1/125)(p/Ar) tensile strength kmod.fi= 1.n • Modification factor kmod.fi bending strength kmod.fi= 1.0-(1/330)(p/Ar) modulus of elasticity p – perimeter of the residual cross-section Ar – area of residual cross-section .

Simplifying • Where bracing failes during relevant fire exposure. the effect of bracing can´t be taken into account • Compression perpendicular to the grain may be disregarded • Shear could be disregarded in rectangular and circular cross-sections •Deformations must be analysed only if relevant product descriptions require it .

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Walls and floors • Walls and floors filled with insulation – Rules given in annex C • Walls and floors with void cavities – Rules given in annex D • Analysis of separating criteria – Rules given in annex E .

min nails screws bolts dowels 15 15 15 20 provisions d≥2.fi .EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections • Unprotected “wood-to-wood” connections. designed by EN 1995-1-1 td.8 mm d≥3.5 mm t1 ≥45 mm t1 ≥45 mm t1 – thickness of the side member .

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections To achieve greater fire resistance: • Increase required distances by afi • Decrease loads by factor η • To use both .

fi ) βn kflux charring rate coefficient taking into account increased heat flux through the fastener required standard fire resistance period treq .fi until 30 min – Increase of distances by afi afi = βn kflux (treq – td.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections • Fire resistance td.

fi / γM kfi) k Period of validity of coefficient k in unprotected conn.fi td.085 . screws Bolts. 20 30 30 40 30 Nails. steel-to-wood Dowels.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections • Reduced load method FV.Rk.08 0.fi = -1/k ln (ηfi γM. steel-to-wood 0. wood-to-wood Bolts. wood-to-wood Dowels.fi = η FV.04 0.Rk Shear load-carrying capacity is reduced by factor Design fire resistance of connection η=e-kt d.065 0.085 0.

fi • Glued-in stripes td.fi Protected connections • Wood or gypsum plasterboard (type A.5 td.EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections tch ≥ treq.H) • Gypsum plasterboard (type F) tch ≥ treq.2 td.1.0.fi – fire resistance time of unprotected connection (15-20 min) .

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Connections Inner steel plates Unprotected Protected by gaps Protected by glued-in stripes Protected by plates Fire resistance R30 R60 bst ≥200 mm ≥280 mm .

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Parametric fire curves • Formulas for calculating charring rates and strength modification factors for parametric fire are given in Annex A .

EN 1995-1-2:2004 Advanced calculation methods May be applied for determination of •charring depth •Increase and distribution of the temperature •Evaluation of the structural behaviour Curves for properties of wood influenced by temperature change is given on annex B .

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Tänan! Thank You! .