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UNIVERSITY OF SAN CARLOS

Department of Political Science


POSC 185
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW OUTLINE
Main Reference: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW, by ISAGANI CRUZ

I. Concept of CONSTITUTION
a. Definition: constitution, constitutional law
b. Kinds of constitution
c. Requisites of a Good Written Constitution

II. PHILIPPNE CONSTITUTION in general


a. February 1986 Revolution and the Proclamation of the Provisional Constitution
i. Cases:
1. Lawyers League v. Aquino (GR No. 73748, 73972, 73990, May 22,
1986)
2. Estrada v. Arroyo ( G.R. No. 146738. March 2, 2001)

b. Adoption and Effectivity of the 1987 Constitution


i. Article XVIII, Section 27, 1987 Philippine Constitution
ii. Case: De Leon V. Esquerra

III. INTERPRETATION and CONSTRUCTION OF THE CONSTITUTION


i. Cases:
1. Francisco v. House of Representative, GR No. 160261, November 10,
2003
2. Manila Prince Hotel v. GSIS, GR No. 122156, February 3, 1997
3. Pamatong v. Comelec, GR. No. 161872, April 13, 2004

IV. AMENDMENT OR REVISION OF THE CONSTITUTION


a. Article XVII, Sections 1,2 & 3
b. Amendment versus Revision
c. Proposal
i. By Congress
ii. By Constitutional Convention
iii. By the People thru Initiative
d. Cases:
i. Raul Lambino, et al. v. Commission on Elections, et al, G.R. No. 174153
ii. Mar-Len Abigail Binay, et al. v. Commission on Elections, et al.).
iii. Defensor Santiago v. Comelec, GR No. 127325, March 19, 1997
iv. Lozano v. Nograles, GR. 187883, June 16, 2009
e. Ratification - Article XVII, Section 4, Paragraphs 1 & 2

V. JUDICIAL REVIEW
a. Theory and Justification of Judicial Review
i. Francisco v. House of Rep., G.R. No. 160261, Nov.10, 2003

b. Requisites of Judicial Review - Article VIII, Section 5(2)


i. Actual Case or Controversy
1. Prematurity:
a. PACU vs Secretary of Education, 97 Phil. 806 (1955)
b. Cutaran v. DENR, G.R. No. 134958, January 31, 2001
c. Montesclaros v. Comelec, G.R. No. 152295. July 9, 2002
2. Mootness:

1
a. Enrile v. Senate Electoral Tribunal and Pimentel, GR No. 132986
b. Lacson v. Perez, GR No. 147780, May 10, 2001
c. Atlas Fertilizer v. Sec, DAR, G.R. No. 93100, June 19, 1997
d. Gonzales v. Narvasa, G.R. No. 140835. August 14, 2000
3. Exceptions to Mootness:
a. Sanlakas v. Executive Secretary, G.R. 159085, February 3, 2004
b. Salonga v. Cruz Pano
c. Acop v. Guingona, G.R. No. 134855, July 2, 2002
d. Pimentel v. Ermita, G.R. 164978, October 13, 2005

ii. Proper Party


1. Agan v. PIATCO, G.R. No. 155001, May 5, 2003
2. Citizen Standing:
a. Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. 133250, July 9, 2002
3. Associational Standing:
b. John Hay PAC. v. Lim, G.R. No. 119775, Oct. 24, 2003
c. Executive Secretary v. CA, 429 SCRA 781, May 25, 2004
4. Taxpayer’s Standing:
d. ITF v. Comelec, G.R. No. 159139. Jan. 13, 2004
e. Jumamil v. Café, G.R. 144570, September 21, 2005
5. Voter’s Standing:
f. Tolentino v. Comelec, 420 SCRA 438, January 21, 2004
6. Legislative Standing:
g. Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141 (1998)
7. Governmental Standing
a. People v. Vera, GR 45685, 16 November 1937
8. Facial Challenge:
h. Estrada v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 148560, Nov. 19, 2001
iii. Earliest Opportunity
iv. Necessity of Deciding Constitutional Questions
1. Arceta v. Mangrobang, G.R. No. 152895. June 15, 2004

c. Functions of Judicial Review


i. Checking
ii. Legitimating
iii. Symbolic - Salonga vs Cruz-Pano, GR No. 59524, 18 February 1985

d. The Exercise of Judicial Review


i. Ynot vs. IAC, 148 SCRA 659 (1987), G.R. No. 74457 March 20, 1987

e. Effect of Declaration of Unconstitutionality


ii. New Civil Code, Article 7
iii. Serrano de Agbayani vs PNB, 38 SCRA 429 , G.R. No. L-27132. April 29, 1971

f. Partial Unconstitutionality